Brendan Carvalho

Dr. Carvalho is the Chief of Obstetric Anesthesia and Associate MCL Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology, Stanford University Medical Center, California. He received his medical degree from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; obtained his FRCA from the Royal College of Anaesthetists, United Kingdom; and completed an Obstetric Anesthesia fellowship at Stanford University, California. Dr. Carvalho has published extensively in the field of Obstetric Anesthesia with over 100 peer-reviewed articles, editorials, reviews, book chapters, and commentaries. He has received several NIH, pharmaceutical and institutional grants, and won a number of research awards including Best Research Paper at the Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP), the Obstetric Anaesthetists’ Association (OAA) and the Canadian Anesthesiologists Society (CSA) annual scientific meetings. Dr. Carvalho serves on a number of committees in SOAP, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and Stanford Medical Center and Stanford University Medical School. He serves on several journal editorial boards including International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, and is an ad-hoc reviewer for over 10 medical journals. Dr. Carvalho has won the Teacher of the Year award at SOAP and at Stanford University’s Departments of Anesthesia. He has presented at over 90 regional, national, and international meetings as well as being invited to several visiting professorships. His current scholarly activities are focused on clinical and translational research in the field of cesarean and labor analgesia and perinatal pharmacology.

Professional Education

Residency: St Thomas Hospital (1999) England

Internship: Groote Schuur Hospital (1995) South Africa

Fellowship, Stanford University, Obstetric Anesthesia (2002)

Residency: Southwest School of Anesthesia (2001) England

Medical Education: University of Witwatersrand (1994) South Africa

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Hospital & Clinics patient, you have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.

Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future.

Pharmacokinetics of prophylactic cefazolin in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery.
Elkomy, M. H., Sultan, P., Drover, D. R., Epshtein, E., Galinkin, J. L., & Carvalho, B. (2014). Pharmacokinetics of prophylactic cefazolin in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 58(6), 3504-3513.

Preferred spoken language mediates differences in neuraxial labor analgesia utilization among racial and ethnic groups.
Caballero, J. A., Butwick, A. J., Carvalho, B., & Riley, E. T. (2014). Preferred spoken language mediates differences in neuraxial labor analgesia utilization among racial and ethnic groups. International journal of obstetric anesthesia, 23(2), 161-167.

The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology Consensus Statement on the Management of Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy
Lipman, S., Cohen, S., Einav, S., Jeejeebhoy, F., Mhyre, J. M., & Carvalho, B. (2014). The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology Consensus Statement on the Management of Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 118(5), 1003-1016.

In response.
Macario, A., Carvalho, B., Tan, J. M., Sultan, P., & El-Sayed, Y. Y. (2014). In response. Anesthesia and analgesia, 118(4), 884-885.

Incidence of failure of continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia in upper extremity surgery.
Ahsan, Z. S., Carvalho, B., & Yao, J. (2014). Incidence of failure of continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia in upper extremity surgery. journal of hand surgery, 39(2), 324-329.

Analgesia following cesarean delivery: "Sometimes it takes a painful experience to make us change our ways" (proverbs 20:30).
Weiniger, C. F., & Carvalho, B. (2014). Analgesia following cesarean delivery: "Sometimes it takes a painful experience to make us change our ways" (proverbs 20:30). The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ, 16(3), 171-2.

Drug labeling in the practice of obstetric anesthesia.
Carvalho, B., & Wong, C. A. (2014). Drug labeling in the practice of obstetric anesthesia. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology.

Application of echogenic technology for catheters used in ultrasound-guided continuous peripheral nerve blocks.
Mariano, E. R., Yun, R. D., Kim, T. E., & Carvalho, B. (2014). Application of echogenic technology for catheters used in ultrasound-guided continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, 33(5), 905-11.

Temporal stability of conditioned pain modulation in healthy women over four menstrual cycles at the follicular and luteal phases
Wilson, H., Carvalho, B., Granot, M., & Landau, R. (2013). Temporal stability of conditioned pain modulation in healthy women over four menstrual cycles at the follicular and luteal phases. PAIN, 154(12), 2633-2638.

The effect of low concentrations versus high concentrations of local anesthetics for labour analgesia on obstetric and anesthetic outcomes: a meta-analysis
Sultan, P., Murphy, C., Halpern, S., & Carvalho, B. (2013). The effect of low concentrations versus high concentrations of local anesthetics for labour analgesia on obstetric and anesthetic outcomes: a meta-analysis. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 60(9), 840-854.

A Cost Analysis of Neuraxial Anesthesia to Facilitate External Cephalic Version for Breech Fetal Presentation
Carvalho, B., Tan, J. M., Macario, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., & Sultan, P. (2013). A Cost Analysis of Neuraxial Anesthesia to Facilitate External Cephalic Version for Breech Fetal Presentation. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 117(1), 155-159.

Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance.
Lipman, S. S., Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Druzin, M. L., & Daniels, K. (2013). Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance. Journal of perinatology , 33(4), 259-263.

Evaluation of experimental pain tests to predict labour pain and epidural analgesic consumption
Carvalho, B., Zheng, M., & Aiono-Le Tagaloa, L. (2013). Evaluation of experimental pain tests to predict labour pain and epidural analgesic consumption. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 110(4), 600-606.

Transversus abdominis plane blocks for rescue analgesia following Cesarean delivery: a case series
Mirza, F., & Carvalho, B. (2013). Transversus abdominis plane blocks for rescue analgesia following Cesarean delivery: a case series. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 60(3), 299-303.

The Effect of OPRM1 and COMT Genotypes on the Analgesic Response to Intravenous Fentanyl Labor Analgesia
Landau, R., Liu, S.-K., Blouin, J.-L., & Carvalho, B. (2013). The Effect of OPRM1 and COMT Genotypes on the Analgesic Response to Intravenous Fentanyl Labor Analgesia. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 116(2), 386-391.

Postoperative subcutaneous instillation of low-dose ketorolac but not hydromorphone reduces wound exudate concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 and improves analgesia following cesarean delivery.
Carvalho, B., Lemmens, H. J., Ting, V., & Angst, M. S. (2013). Postoperative subcutaneous instillation of low-dose ketorolac but not hydromorphone reduces wound exudate concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 and improves analgesia following cesarean delivery. journal of pain , 14(1), 48-56.

Transport Decreases the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During Simulated Maternal Cardiac Arrest
Lipman, S. S., Wong, J. Y., Arafeh, J., Cohen, S. E., & Carvalho, B. (2013). Transport Decreases the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During Simulated Maternal Cardiac Arrest. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 116(1), 162-167.

Measuring the labor pain experience: delivery still far off
Carvalho, B., & Cohen, S. E. (2013). Measuring the labor pain experience: delivery still far off. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 22(1), 6-9.

Peripartum outcomes and anaesthetic management of parturients with moderate to complex congenital heart disease or pulmonary hypertension
Maxwell, B. G., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Riley, E. T., & Carvalho, B. (2013). Peripartum outcomes and anaesthetic management of parturients with moderate to complex congenital heart disease or pulmonary hypertension. ANAESTHESIA, 68(1), 52-59.

Intrathecal morphine 100 and 200 mu g for post-cesarean delivery analgesia: a trade-off between analgesic efficacy and side effects
Wong, J. Y., Carvalho, B., & Riley, E. T. (2013). Intrathecal morphine 100 and 200 mu g for post-cesarean delivery analgesia: a trade-off between analgesic efficacy and side effects. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 22(1), 36-41.

Failed epidural top-up for cesarean delivery for failure to progress in labor: the case against single-shot spinal anesthesia
Carvalho, B. (2012). Failed epidural top-up for cesarean delivery for failure to progress in labor: the case against single-shot spinal anesthesia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 21(4), 357-359.

Does intrathecal analgesia reduce the subsequent minimum local analgesic concentration of epidural bupivacaine?
Carvalho, B., & Landau, R. (2012). Does intrathecal analgesia reduce the subsequent minimum local analgesic concentration of epidural bupivacaine?. ANAESTHESIA, 67(9), 1054-1055.

Continuous spinal anesthesia for Cesarean hysterectomy and massive hemorrhage in a parturient with placenta increta
Sultan, P., Hilton, G., Butwick, A., & Carvalho, B. (2012). Continuous spinal anesthesia for Cesarean hysterectomy and massive hemorrhage in a parturient with placenta increta. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 59(5), 473-477.

The quality of CPR deteriorates during transport in simulated maternal arrests
Wong, J., Lipman, S., Cohen, S., Arafeh, J., & Carvalho, B. (2012). The quality of CPR deteriorates during transport in simulated maternal arrests. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 108, 201-202.

Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery in a parturient with babesiosis and Lyme disease
Sultan, P., Green, C., Riley, E., & Carvalho, B. (2012). Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery in a parturient with babesiosis and Lyme disease. ANAESTHESIA, 67(2), 180-183.

Non-invasive haemoglobin measurement in patients undergoing elective Caesarean section
Butwick, A., Hilton, G., & Carvalho, B. (2012). Non-invasive haemoglobin measurement in patients undergoing elective Caesarean section. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 108(2), 271-277.

Ultrasound-guided popliteal nerve block in a patient with malignant degeneration of neurofibromatosis 1.
Desai, A., Carvalho, B., Hansen, J., & Hill, J. (2012). Ultrasound-guided popliteal nerve block in a patient with malignant degeneration of neurofibromatosis 1. Case reports in anesthesiology, 2012, 753769-?.

Collecting and measuring wound exudate biochemical mediators in surgical wounds.
Carvalho, B., Clark, D. J., Yeomans, D., & Angst, M. S. (2012). Collecting and measuring wound exudate biochemical mediators in surgical wounds. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, (68).

Intrathecal fentanyl added to bupivacaine and morphine for cesarean delivery may induce a subtle acute opioid tolerance
Carvalho, B., Drover, D. R., Ginosar, Y., Cohen, S. E., & Riley, E. T. (2012). Intrathecal fentanyl added to bupivacaine and morphine for cesarean delivery may induce a subtle acute opioid tolerance. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 21(1), 29-34.

Labor Room Setting Compared With the Operating Room for Simulated Perimortem Cesarean Delivery A Randomized Controlled Trial
Lipman, S., Daniels, K., Cohen, S. E., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Labor Room Setting Compared With the Operating Room for Simulated Perimortem Cesarean Delivery A Randomized Controlled Trial. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 118(5), 1090-1094.

Epidural Catheter Removal in Patients on Warfarin Thromboprophylaxis A More Cautious Interpretation of Results Required?
Carvalho, B., Mariano, E. R., & Butwick, A. J. (2011). Epidural Catheter Removal in Patients on Warfarin Thromboprophylaxis A More Cautious Interpretation of Results Required?. REGIONAL ANESTHESIA AND PAIN MEDICINE, 36(6), 632-632.

Endotracheal tube cuff pressure monitoring: a review of the evidence.
Sultan, P., Carvalho, B., Rose, B. O., & Cregg, R. (2011). Endotracheal tube cuff pressure monitoring: a review of the evidence. Journal of perioperative practice, 21(11), 379-386.

Neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version: a systematic review
Sultan, P., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version: a systematic review. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 20(4), 299-306.

Prior Epidural Lidocaine Alters the Pharmacokinetics and Drug Effects of Extended-Release Epidural Morphine (DepoDur (R)) After Cesarean Delivery
Ralls, L. A., Drover, D. R., Clavijo, C. F., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Prior Epidural Lidocaine Alters the Pharmacokinetics and Drug Effects of Extended-Release Epidural Morphine (DepoDur (R)) After Cesarean Delivery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 113(2), 251-258.

Challenges in Interpreting Joined Allelic Combinations of OPRM1 and COMT Genes
Landau, R., Ortner, C., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Challenges in Interpreting Joined Allelic Combinations of OPRM1 and COMT Genes. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 113(2), 432-432.

The Proseal laryngeal mask airway and elective caesarean section
Dyer, R. A., James, M. F., Butwick, A. J., & Carvalho, B. (2011). The Proseal laryngeal mask airway and elective caesarean section. ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE, 39(4), 760-761.

Non-invasive measurement of hemoglobin during cesarean hysterectomy: a case series
Butwick, A. J., Hilton, G., Riley, E. T., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Non-invasive measurement of hemoglobin during cesarean hysterectomy: a case series. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 20(3), 240-245.

Oxytocin for labour and caesarean delivery: implications for the anaesthesiologist
Dyer, R. A., Butwick, A. J., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Oxytocin for labour and caesarean delivery: implications for the anaesthesiologist. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 24(3), 255-261.

A sensitive assay for the quantification of morphine and its active metabolites in human plasma and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Clavijo, C. F., Hoffman, K. L., Thomas, J. J., Carvalho, B., Chu, L. F., & Galinkin, J. L. (2011). A sensitive assay for the quantification of morphine and its active metabolites in human plasma and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 400(3), 715-728.

Crossing the pond: applying to train in the USA.
Qadan, M., Kastenberg, Z., Carvalho, B., & Sultan, P. (2011). Crossing the pond: applying to train in the USA. British journal of hospital medicine , 72(4), M50-2.

ED50 and ED95 of Intrathecal Bupivacaine in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Cesarean Delivery
Carvalho, B., Collins, J., Drover, D. R., Ralls, L. A., & Riley, E. T. (2011). ED50 and ED95 of Intrathecal Bupivacaine in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Cesarean Delivery. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 114(3), 529-535.

Anticoagulant and antithrombotic drugs in pregnancy: what are the anesthetic implications for labor and cesarean delivery?
Butwick, A. J., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Anticoagulant and antithrombotic drugs in pregnancy: what are the anesthetic implications for labor and cesarean delivery?. JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY, 31(2), 73-84.

Neuraxial Morphine and Respiratory Depression Finding the Right Balance
Sultan, P., Gutierrez, M. C., & Carvalho, B. (2011). Neuraxial Morphine and Respiratory Depression Finding the Right Balance. DRUGS, 71(14), 1807-1819.

The Role of Interleukin-1 in Wound Biology. Part I: Murine In Silico and In Vitro Experimental Analysis
Hu, Y., Liang, D., Li, X., Liu, H.-H., Zhang, X., & Peltz, G. (2010). The Role of Interleukin-1 in Wound Biology. Part I: Murine In Silico and In Vitro Experimental Analysis. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111(6), 1525-1533.

Continuous Subcutaneous Instillation of Bupivacaine Compared to Saline Reduces Interleukin 10 and Increases Substance P in Surgical Wounds After Cesarean Delivery
Carvalho, B., Clark, D. J., Yeomans, D. C., & Angst, M. S. (2010). Continuous Subcutaneous Instillation of Bupivacaine Compared to Saline Reduces Interleukin 10 and Increases Substance P in Surgical Wounds After Cesarean Delivery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111(6), 1452-1459.

The Role of Interleukin-1 in Wound Biology. Part II: In Vivo and Human Translational Studies
Hu, Y., Liang, D., Li, X., Liu, H.-H., Zhang, X., & Peltz, G. (2010). The Role of Interleukin-1 in Wound Biology. Part II: In Vivo and Human Translational Studies. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111(6), 1534-1542.

Effect of a Preemptive Femoral Nerve Block on Cytokine Release and Hyperalgesia in Experimentally Inflamed Skin of Human Volunteers
Carvalho, B., Aleshi, P., Horstman, D. J., & Angst, M. S. (2010). Effect of a Preemptive Femoral Nerve Block on Cytokine Release and Hyperalgesia in Experimentally Inflamed Skin of Human Volunteers. REGIONAL ANESTHESIA AND PAIN MEDICINE, 35(6), 514-519.

Retrospective analysis of anesthetic interventions for obese patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery
Butwick, A., Carvalho, B., Danial, C., & Riley, E. (2010). Retrospective analysis of anesthetic interventions for obese patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 22(7), 519-526.

A practical guide to undertaking out of programme experience in the United States of America.
Sultan, P., Qadan, M., Pushpanathan, E., & Carvalho, B. (2010). A practical guide to undertaking out of programme experience in the United States of America. British journal of hospital medicine , 71(10), M158-9.

Deficits in the provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during simulated obstetric crises
Lipman, S. S., Daniels, K. I., Carvalho, B., Arafeh, J., Harney, K., & Druzin, M. (2010). Deficits in the provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during simulated obstetric crises. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 203(2).

Minimum effective bolus dose of oxytocin during elective Caesarean delivery
Woo, C., & McGlennan, A. (2010). Minimum effective bolus dose of oxytocin during elective Caesarean delivery. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 105(1), 91-92.

Minimum effective bolus dose of oxytocin during elective Caesarean delivery
Breeze, E. (2010). Minimum effective bolus dose of oxytocin during elective Caesarean delivery. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 104(6), 783-783.

Neuraxial anesthesia in obstetric patients receiving anticoagulant and antithrombotic drugs
Butwick, A. J., & Carvalho, B. (2010). Neuraxial anesthesia in obstetric patients receiving anticoagulant and antithrombotic drugs. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 19(2), 193-201.

Minimum effective bolus dose of oxytocin during elective Caesarean delivery
Butwick, A. J., Coleman, L., Cohen, S. E., Riley, E. T., & Carvalho, B. (2010). Minimum effective bolus dose of oxytocin during elective Caesarean delivery. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 104(3), 338-343.

Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation
Tan, J. M., Macario, A., Carvalho, B., Druzin, M. L., & El-Sayed, Y. Y. (2010). Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation. BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH, 10.

Survey of the Factors Associated with a Woman's Choice to Have an Epidural for Labor Analgesia.
Harkins, J., Carvalho, B., Evers, A., Mehta, S., & Riley, E. T. (2010). Survey of the Factors Associated with a Woman's Choice to Have an Epidural for Labor Analgesia. Anesthesiology research and practice.

An experimental paradigm for the prediction of Post-Operative Pain (PPOP).
Landau, R., Kraft, J. C., Flint, L. Y., Carvalho, B., Richebé, P., & Cahana, A. (2010). An experimental paradigm for the prediction of Post-Operative Pain (PPOP). Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, (35).

Analgesic requirements and postoperative recovery after scheduled compared to unplanned cesarean delivery: a retrospective chart review
Carvalho, B., Coleman, L., Saxena, A., Fuller, A. J., & Riley, E. T. (2010). Analgesic requirements and postoperative recovery after scheduled compared to unplanned cesarean delivery: a retrospective chart review. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 19(1), 10-15.

Elevation of Uterine Basal Tone and Fetal Heart Rate Abnormalities After Labor Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Landau, R., Carvalho, B., Wong, C., Smiley, R., Tsen, L., & Van de Velde, M. (2009). Elevation of Uterine Basal Tone and Fetal Heart Rate Abnormalities After Labor Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 113(6), 1374-1374.

Hetastarch co-loading is as effective as pre-loading for the prevention of hypotension following spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery
Carvalho, B., Mercier, F. J., Riley, E. T., Brummel, C., & Cohen, S. E. (2009). Hetastarch co-loading is as effective as pre-loading for the prevention of hypotension following spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 18(2), 150-155.

Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia for Labor
Halpern, S. H., & Carvalho, B. (2009). Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia for Labor. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 108(3), 921-928.

Determining heat and mechanical pain threshold in inflamed skin of human subjects.
Angst, M. S., Tingle, M., Phillips, N. G., & Carvalho, B. (2009). Determining heat and mechanical pain threshold in inflamed skin of human subjects. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, (23).

A survey of perioperative and postoperative anesthetic practices for cesarean delivery.
Aiono-Le Tagaloa, L., Butwick, A. J., & Carvalho, B. (2009). A survey of perioperative and postoperative anesthetic practices for cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology research and practice, 2009, 510642-?.

Accidental intrathecal sufentanil overdose during combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor
Coleman, L., Carvalho, B., Lipman, S., Schmiesing, C., & Riley, E. (2009). Accidental intrathecal sufentanil overdose during combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 18(1), 78-80.

A Randomized Trial of Maximum Cephalad Sensory Blockade with Single-Shot Spinal Compared with Combined Spinal-Epidural Techniques for Cesarean Delivery
Horstman, D. J., Riley, E. T., & Carvalho, B. (2009). A Randomized Trial of Maximum Cephalad Sensory Blockade with Single-Shot Spinal Compared with Combined Spinal-Epidural Techniques for Cesarean Delivery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 108(1), 240-245.

Epidural labor analgesia in a patient receiving fondaparinux
Tagaloa, L. A.-L., & Carvalho, B. (2009). Epidural labor analgesia in a patient receiving fondaparinux. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 18(1), 94-95.

Cytokine profile in human skin in response to experimental inflammation, noxious stimulation, and administration of a COX-inhibitor: A microdialysis study
Angst, M. S., Clark, J. D., Carvalho, B., Tingle, M., Schmelz, M., & Yeomans, D. C. (2008). Cytokine profile in human skin in response to experimental inflammation, noxious stimulation, and administration of a COX-inhibitor: A microdialysis study. PAIN, 139(1), 15-27.

Respiratory depression after neuraxial opioids in the obstetric setting
Carvalho, B. (2008). Respiratory depression after neuraxial opioids in the obstetric setting. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 107(3), 956-961.

Vaginal twin delivery: a survey and review of location, anesthesia coverage and interventions
Carvalho, B., Saxena, A., Butwick, A., & Macario, A. (2008). Vaginal twin delivery: a survey and review of location, anesthesia coverage and interventions. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 17(3), 212-216.

Local and systemic release of cytokines, nerve growth factor, prostaglandin E2, and substance P in incisional wounds and serum following cesarean delivery
Carvalho, B., Clark, D. J., & Angst, M. S. (2008). Local and systemic release of cytokines, nerve growth factor, prostaglandin E2, and substance P in incisional wounds and serum following cesarean delivery. JOURNAL OF PAIN, 9(7), 650-657.

Labor and cesarean delivery patterns
Carvalho, B. (2008). Labor and cesarean delivery patterns. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 109(1), 161-162.

Strategies to comply with the five-minute rule after maternal arrest
Mhyre, J. M. (2008). Strategies to comply with the five-minute rule after maternal arrest. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 17(3), 284-285.

Assessment of knowledge regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation of pregnant women
Cohen, S. E., Andes, L. C., & Carvalho, B. (2008). Assessment of knowledge regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation of pregnant women. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 17(1), 20-25.

Human in-vivo bioassay for the tissue-specific measurement of nociceptive and inflammatory mediators.
Angst, M. S., Tingle, M., Schmelz, M., Carvalho, B., & Yeomans, D. C. (2008). Human in-vivo bioassay for the tissue-specific measurement of nociceptive and inflammatory mediators. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, (22).

Collecting and measuring nociceptive and inflammatory mediators in surgical wounds.
Carvalho, B., Clark, D. J., Yeomans, D., & Angst, M. S. (2008). Collecting and measuring nociceptive and inflammatory mediators in surgical wounds. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Extended release epidural morphine, far from ideal for postcesarean delivery pain control
Roboubi, B. (2007). Extended release epidural morphine, far from ideal for postcesarean delivery pain control. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 105(6), 1864-1864.

Intraoperative forced air-warming during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia does not prevent maternal hypothermia
Butwick, A. J., Lipman, S. S., & Carvalho, B. (2007). Intraoperative forced air-warming during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia does not prevent maternal hypothermia. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 105(5), 1413-1419.

Plasma and wound exudate cytokine, prostaglandin E2, substance P and nerve growth factor release following Cesarean delivery
Carvalho, B., Clark, D., & Angst, M. (2007). Plasma and wound exudate cytokine, prostaglandin E2, substance P and nerve growth factor release following Cesarean delivery. JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, 16(8), 1103-1103.

The Episure (TM) syringe: A novel loss of resistance syringe for locating the epidural space
Riley, E. T., & Carvalho, B. (2007). The Episure (TM) syringe: A novel loss of resistance syringe for locating the epidural space. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 105(4), 1164-1166.

Can we improve maternal outcome for high-risk obstetric patients?
Carvalho, B. (2007). Can we improve maternal outcome for high-risk obstetric patients?. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 16(4), 311-313.

Fetal oxygen saturation after combined spinal-epidural Labor analgesia: a case series
Carvalho, B., Fuller, A. I., Brummel, C., Durbin, M., & Riley, E. T. (2007). Fetal oxygen saturation after combined spinal-epidural Labor analgesia: a case series. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 19(6), 476-478.

Single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine (DepoDur (TM)) compared to conventional epidural morphine for post-cesarean pain
Carvalho, B., Roland, L. M., Chu, L. F., Campitelli, V. A., & Riley, E. T. (2007). Single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine (DepoDur (TM)) compared to conventional epidural morphine for post-cesarean pain. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 105(1), 176-183.

Plasma and wound exudate prostaglandin E2 and substance P release following cesarean section
Carvalho, B., Angst, M., & Clark, D. (2007). Plasma and wound exudate prostaglandin E2 and substance P release following cesarean section. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 106(5), B19-B19.

Neuraxial anesthesia for cesarean delivery in a parturient with type 1 von Willebrand disease and scoliosis
Butwick, A. J., & Carvalho, B. (2007). Neuraxial anesthesia for cesarean delivery in a parturient with type 1 von Willebrand disease and scoliosis. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 19(3), 230-233.

A cost-analysis of neuraxial analgesia to facilitate external cephalic version
Tan, J. M., Macario, A., El-Sayed, Y., & Carvalho, B. (2007). A cost-analysis of neuraxial analgesia to facilitate external cephalic version. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 106(5), B53-B53.

Is external cephalic version cost-effective?
Tan, J. M., Macario, A., Carvalho, B., & El-Sayed, Y. (2007). Is external cephalic version cost-effective?. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 106(5), B16-B16.

Incisional wound and systemic cytokines release following cesarean section
Carvalho, B., Clark, D., & Angst, M. (2007). Incisional wound and systemic cytokines release following cesarean section. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 106(5), B43-B43.

Local infiltration of epinephrine-containing lidocaine with bicarbonate reduces superficial bleeding and pain during labor epidural catheter insertion: a randomized trial
Carvalho, B., Fuller, A., Brummel, C., & Cohen, S. E. (2007). Local infiltration of epinephrine-containing lidocaine with bicarbonate reduces superficial bleeding and pain during labor epidural catheter insertion: a randomized trial. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 16(2), 116-121.

The effect of colloid and crystalloid preloading on thromboelastography prior to Cesarean delivery
Butwick, A., & Carvalho, B. (2007). The effect of colloid and crystalloid preloading on thromboelastography prior to Cesarean delivery. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 54(3), 190-195.

Experimental heat pain for detecting pregnancy-induced analgesia in humans
Carvalho, B., Angst, M. S., Fuller, A. J., Lin, E., Mathusamy, A. D., & Riley, E. T. (2006). Experimental heat pain for detecting pregnancy-induced analgesia in humans. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 103(5), 1283-1287.

Anesthesia for interventional radiology in parturients at risk of major hemorrhage at cesarean section delivery
Harnett, M. Jp., Carabuena, J. M., Tsen, L. C., & Kodali, B. S. (2006). Anesthesia for interventional radiology in parturients at risk of major hemorrhage at cesarean section delivery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 103(5), 1329-1330.

Valdecoxib for postoperative pain management after cesarean delivery: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Carvalho, B., Chu, L., Fuller, A., Cohen, S. E., & Riley, E. T. (2006). Valdecoxib for postoperative pain management after cesarean delivery: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 103(3), 664-670.

A survey of labor patient-controlled epidural anesthesia practice in California hospitals
Carvalho, B., Wang, P., & Cohen, S. E. (2006). A survey of labor patient-controlled epidural anesthesia practice in California hospitals. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 15(3), 217-222.

Solutions for patient-controlled epidural analgesia
Paech, M. (2006). Solutions for patient-controlled epidural analgesia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 15(3), 262-262.

Epidural labor analgesia in a patient with pemphigoid gestationis
Roland, L., Collins, J., & Carvalho, B. (2006). Epidural labor analgesia in a patient with pemphigoid gestationis. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 104(4), B53-B53.

Epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery with intraoperative arterial occlusion balloon catheter placement
Fuller, A. J., Carvalho, B., Brummel, C., & Riley, E. T. (2006). Epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery with intraoperative arterial occlusion balloon catheter placement. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 102(2), 585-587.

Remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia in labor
Butwick, A., & Carvalho, B. (2006). Remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia in labor. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 102(1), 333-333.

Patient preferences for anesthesia outcomes associated with Cesarean delivery
Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Lipman, S. S., Fuller, A., Mathusamy, A. D., & Macario, A. (2005). Patient preferences for anesthesia outcomes associated with Cesarean delivery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 101(4), 1182-1187.

The ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine with opioids for cesarean delivery
Carvalho, B., Durbin, M., Drover, D. R., Cohen, S. E., Ginosar, Y., & Riley, E. T. (2005). The ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine with opioids for cesarean delivery. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 103(3), 606-612.

"Ultra-light" patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: effects of varying regimens on analgesia and physician workload
Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Giarrusso, K., Durbin, M., Riley, E. T., & Lipman, S. (2005). "Ultra-light" patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: effects of varying regimens on analgesia and physician workload. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 14(3), 223-229.

Valdecoxib for postoperative pain management after cesarean section: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study
Fuller, A. J., Brummel, C., Saxena, A., Chu, L., Riley, E. T., & Carvalho, B. (2005). Valdecoxib for postoperative pain management after cesarean section: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 102(5), A15-A15.

Single-dose, sustained-release epidural morphine in the management of postoperative pain after elective Cesarean delivery: Results of a multicenter randomized controlled study
Carvalho, B., Riley, E., Cohen, S. E., Gambling, D., PALMER, C., & Manvelian, G. (2005). Single-dose, sustained-release epidural morphine in the management of postoperative pain after elective Cesarean delivery: Results of a multicenter randomized controlled study. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 100(4), 1150-1158.

Nitroglycerin to facilitate insertion of a labor epidural
Carvalho, B. (2005). Nitroglycerin to facilitate insertion of a labor epidural. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 102(4), 872-872.

The demise of general anesthesia in obstetrics revisited: prescription for a cure
Lipman, S., Carvalho, B., & Brock-Utne, J. (2005). The demise of general anesthesia in obstetrics revisited: prescription for a cure. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 14(1), 2-4.

Patient preferences regarding cesarean section anesthesia outcomes
Carvalho, B., Macario, A., Lipman, S., Muthusamy, A. D., Fuller, A., & Cohen, S. E. (2004). Patient preferences regarding cesarean section anesthesia outcomes. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 100(5), B37-B37.

Pain tolerance in pregnancy
Fuller, A. J., Lin, E., Mathusamy, A., Carvalho, B., Angst, M., & Riley, E. T. (2004). Pain tolerance in pregnancy. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 100(5), B9-B9.

Obstetric anaesthesia workload and time of day
Carvalho, B., & Coghill, J. (2004). Obstetric anaesthesia workload and time of day. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 13(2), 126-128.

Neonatal chest wall rigidity following the use of remifentanil for cesarean delivery in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis and thrombocytopenia
Carvalho, B., Mirikitani, E. J., Lyell, D., Evans, D. A., Druzin, A., & Riley, E. T. (2004). Neonatal chest wall rigidity following the use of remifentanil for cesarean delivery in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis and thrombocytopenia. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 13(1), 53-56.

Myocardial ischaemia precipitated by acute normovolaemic haemodilution
Carvalho, B., Ridler, B. Mf., Thompson, J. F., & Telford, R. J. (2003). Myocardial ischaemia precipitated by acute normovolaemic haemodilution. TRANSFUSION MEDICINE, 13(3), 165-168.

"Ultra-light" PCEA techniques in labor: Minimizing physician workload while optimizing outcome
Carvalho, B., Giarrusso, K., Durbin, M., Lipman, S., Rohlf, S., & Cohen, S. E. (2003). "Ultra-light" PCEA techniques in labor: Minimizing physician workload while optimizing outcome. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 98, 2-2.

Vaginal examination: a requirement before calling the anaesthetist?
Carvalho, B., & Coghill, J. (2003). Vaginal examination: a requirement before calling the anaesthetist?. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 90(3), 402-402.

The output of two sevoflurane vaporizers in the presence of helium
Carvalho, B., & Sanders, D. (2002). The output of two sevoflurane vaporizers in the presence of helium. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 88(5), 711-713.

Single-session hypnotherapy for smoking cessation A cost-effective alternative?
Feldman M, James U, Carvalho B, & Underwood MR. (2002). Single-session hypnotherapy for smoking cessation A cost-effective alternative?. European Journal of General Practice, 8(2).

Longterm functional recovery following day-case laparoscopic sterilisation: inhalational versus TIVA maintenance
Carvalho B, Benton JI, Vickery PJ, Sneyd JR, Davies PRF, & Langton JA. (2002). Longterm functional recovery following day-case laparoscopic sterilisation: inhalational versus TIVA maintenance. Ambulatory Surgery, 10(1).

Viagra (R): are anaesthetists rising to the challenge?
Carvalho, B., & Smith, M. (2001). Viagra (R): are anaesthetists rising to the challenge?. ANAESTHESIA, 56(1), 91-93.

Hidden hazards of scavenging
Hwang, N. C. (2000). Hidden hazards of scavenging. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 84(6), 827-827.

Hyperkalaemia associated with transfusion of plasma reduced blood
Horsey, P. J. (2000). Hyperkalaemia associated with transfusion of plasma reduced blood. ANAESTHESIA, 55(3), 294-294.

'Near-miss' hyperkalaemic cardiac arrest associated with rapid blood transfusion
Carvalho, B., & Quiney, N. F. (1999). 'Near-miss' hyperkalaemic cardiac arrest associated with rapid blood transfusion. ANAESTHESIA, 54(11), 1094-1096.

Hidden hazards of scavenging
Carvalho, B. (1999). Hidden hazards of scavenging. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 83(3), 532-533.