Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an inherited disease characterized by defective repair of DNA damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation or agents that produce bulky DNA adducts. Human cells contain a factor that is deficient in a subset of patients from XP complementation group E and binds to DNA damaged by UV, cisplatin, or denaturation. This factor, XPE binding factor (XPE-BF), was purified to near homogeneity. The denatured protein migrated as a 125-kDa polypeptide on SDS-PAGE, and the native protein migrated primarily as a monomer on gel filtration and glycerol gradient sedimentation. Sedimentation revealed major peak in binding activity at 6.8 S, corresponding to the monomeric form, and a minor peak at 14.5 S, suggesting a homodimeric form. Binding activity was dependent on unmodified cysteine residues, stimulated by magnesium, and inhibited by zinc. Binding to UV-damaged nucleotides was 500,000-fold greater than for intact nucleotides, explaining how a molecule with an abundance of only 1-2 molecules per megabase can survey the genome for damaged DNA. Binding required a minimal DNA substrate of between 16 and 26 bp, as determined by a novel "shoe size" assay. Consistent with its previously noted versatility, XPE-BF bound to some cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and at least one other UV-induced lesion. However, it may not bind to a subset of cyclobutane dimers, likely including the thymine dimer. These findings may explain the relatively mild phenotype of XP group E and suggest the existence of at least one other binding protein involved in the XP repair pathway.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KM70300033
View details for PubMedID 8431446