Relapse remains the leading cause of death in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Relatively few new chemotherapy agents have been proven to be effective in this population. We report on a Phase 2 clinical trial using the novel combination of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CDA) (8 mg/m² per d x 5 d) plus idarubicin (Ida) (10 mg/m² per d x 3 d). The study involved 109 paediatric patients with AML at first relapse, of whom 104 were available for analysis. The overall response rate was 51% (complete response [CR] + partial response) with a CR rate of 46%. 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 20% and 26%. The only significant variable in determining response, EFS and OS was duration of initial remission, with patients who had an initial remission >1 year having much worse outcomes overall (response rate 74% vs. 25%, EFS 8% vs. 37% and OS of 16% vs. 39%, P < 0.01 for all). There was an acceptable toxicity profile with one neurological event and no cardiac events observed. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities observed were neutropenia (59%) and thrombocytopenia (68%). This study demonstrated that the novel combination of 2-CDA/Ida was effective and should be considered for incorporation in front line therapy for children with AML.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2011.08976.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000300971800010
View details for PubMedID 22512017