Relapse is a major obstacle in the cure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Pediatric Oncology Group AML Study 9421 tested 2 different strategies to improve event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients were randomized to receive standard-dose DAT (daunorubicin, cytarabine, and thioguanine) or high-dose DAT during induction. To interfere with P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-dependent drug efflux, the second randomization tested the benefit of cyclosporine (CsA) added to consolidation chemotherapy. Of the 282 children randomly assigned to receive standard DAT induction, 248 (87.9%) achieved remission compared to 253 (91%) of the 278 receiving high-dose DAT (P = ns). Children with HLA-identical sibling donors who achieved a complete remission received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as consolidation. For the 83 patients receiving a matched related donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT), the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) is 67%. Of the 418 children who achieved remission and went on to consolidation with and without CsA, the DFS was 40.6% and 33.9%, respectively (P = .24). Overexpression of P-gp was infrequent (14%) in this pediatric population. In this study, intensifying induction with high-dose DAT and the addition of CsA to consolidation chemotherapy did not prolong the durations of remission or improve overall survival for children with AML.
View details for DOI 10.1128/blood-2004-08-3218
View details for Web of Science ID 000235296100018
View details for PubMedID 16254147