Carlos O. Esquivel

Transplant surgeon, Liver transplant surgeon, Kidney transplant surgeon, Hepatobiliary surgeon, Pancreatic surgeon, Pancreas transplant surgeon

Arnold and Barbara Silverman Professor in Pediatric Transplantation in the School of Medicine

Intestinal Rehabilitation and Transplant Program

  • 300 Pasteur Drive
  • Stanford, CA 94305
  • Phone: 650-498-7878
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Liver Transplant Program at Boswell Building

  • 300 Pasteur Drive
  • Stanford, CA 94305
  • Phone: 650-498-7878
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Liver Transplant Program

  • 300 Pasteur Drive
  • Stanford, CA 94305
  • Phone: 650-498-7878
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Professional Education

Residency: UC Davis Medical Center (1984) CA

Fellowship: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (1985) PA

Board Certification: General Surgery, American Board of Surgery (1985)

Fellowship: University of Lund (1983) Sweden

Internship: UC Davis Medical Center (1978) CA

Medical Education: University of Costa Rica School of Medicine (1975) Costa Rica

Fellowship, University of Pittsburgh, Transplantation (1985)

Residency, University of California, Davis, Surgery (1984)

Internship, University of California, Davis, Surgery (1978)

Ph.D., University of Lund, Sweden, Medicine (1983)

MD, University of Costa Rica, Medicine (1975)

Honors & Awards

President, San Francisco Surgical Society (2010 - 2011)

Honoree 'Salute to Excellence', American Liver Foundation, Northern California Chapter (2003)

1st Recipient "The Arnold and Barbara Chair in Pediatric Transplantation", Stanford University (1999)

Member, American Surgical Association (1997)

Premio a la Superacion (Honor al Merito) by Rafael A. Calderon F. Presidente de la Republica, Costa Rica (1991)

Fellow, American College of Surgeons (1990)

National Research Service Award, NIH (1980)

Administrative Appointments

Director, Pediatric Liver Transplant Program, Stanford University (1995 - Present)

Vice Chairman, Department of Surgery, Stanford University (1995 - 1997)

Director, Abdominal Transplant Fellowship, Stanford University (1998 - Present)

Associate Director, Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Stanford University (2004 - Present)

Chief, Division of Abdominal Transplantation, Stanford University (1998 - Present)

Associate Director, Stanford Institute of Immunity, Tranplantation and Infection, Stanford University School of Medicine (2004 - Present)

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Health Care patient, you have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.

Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future.

PI3K Inhibition Augments the Efficacy of Rapamycin in Suppressing Proliferation of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) plus B Cell Lymphomas
Furukawa, S., Wei, L., Krams, S. M., Esquivel, C. O., & Martinez, O. M. (2013). PI3K Inhibition Augments the Efficacy of Rapamycin in Suppressing Proliferation of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) plus B Cell Lymphomas. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, 13(8), 2035-2043.

Syk-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Activation in EpsteinBarr Virus Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder
Hatton, O., Lambert, S. L., Phillips, L. K., Vaysberg, M., Natkunam, Y., & Martinez, O. M. (2013). Syk-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Activation in EpsteinBarr Virus Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, 13(4), 883-890.

Current options for management of biliary atresia
Gallo, A., & Esquivel, C. O. (2013). Current options for management of biliary atresia. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 17(2), 95-98.

Liver transplantation for urea cycle disorders in pediatric patients: A single-center experience
Kim, I. K., Niemi, A.-K., Krueger, C., Bonham, C. A., Concepcion, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (2013). Liver transplantation for urea cycle disorders in pediatric patients: A single-center experience. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 17(2), 158-167.

Geographical Rural Status and Health Outcomes in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: An Analysis of 6 Years of National United Network of Organ Sharing Data
Park, K. T., Bensen, R., Lu, B., Nanda, P., Esquivel, C., & Cox, K. (2013). Geographical Rural Status and Health Outcomes in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: An Analysis of 6 Years of National United Network of Organ Sharing Data. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, 162(2), 313-?.

The impact of hepatic portoenterostomy on liver transplantation for the treatment of biliary atresia: Early failure adversely affects outcome
Alexopoulos, S. P., Merrill, M., Kin, C., Matsuoka, L., Dorey, F., & Bonham, A. (2012). The impact of hepatic portoenterostomy on liver transplantation for the treatment of biliary atresia: Early failure adversely affects outcome. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 16(4), 373-378.

Grafts too big or too small: Business as usual in pediatric liver transplantation
Reding, R., Dhawan, A., & Esquivel, C. O. (2012). Grafts too big or too small: Business as usual in pediatric liver transplantation. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 16(3), 212-213.

Emerging therapeutic strategies for Epstein-Barr virus+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
Hatton, O., Martinez, O. M., & Esquivel, C. O. (2012). Emerging therapeutic strategies for Epstein-Barr virus+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 16(3), 220-229.

A Common Peripheral Blood Gene Set for Diagnosis of Operational Tolerance in Pediatric and Adult Liver Transplantation
Li, L., Wozniak, L. J., RODDER, S., Heish, S., Talisetti, A., & Sarwal, M. M. (2012). A Common Peripheral Blood Gene Set for Diagnosis of Operational Tolerance in Pediatric and Adult Liver Transplantation. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, 12(5), 1218-1228.

Changes in natural killer cell subsets in pediatric liver transplant recipients
Pham, B., Piard-Ruster, K., Silva, R., Gallo, A., Esquivel, C. O., & Krams, S. M. (2012). Changes in natural killer cell subsets in pediatric liver transplant recipients. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 16(2), 176-182.

Liver Transplantation With Donation After Cardiac Death A Treacherous Field!
Esquivel, C. O. (2011). Liver Transplantation With Donation After Cardiac Death A Treacherous Field!. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 146(9), 1023-1023.

Effects of rural status on health outcomes in pediatric liver transplantation: A single center analysis of 388 patients
Park, K. T., Nanda, P., Bensen, R., Strichartz, D., Esquivel, C., & Cox, K. (2011). Effects of rural status on health outcomes in pediatric liver transplantation: A single center analysis of 388 patients. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 15(3), 300-305.

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Contributes to Small Intestine Allograft Rejection
Krams, S. M., Wang, M., Castillo, R. O., Ito, T., Phillips, L., & Martinez, O. M. (2010). Toll-Like Receptor 4 Contributes to Small Intestine Allograft Rejection. TRANSPLANTATION, 90(12), 1272-1277.

Analysis of clinical variables associated with tolerance in pediatric liver transplant recipients
Talisetti, A., Hurwitz, M., Sarwal, M., Berquist, W., Castillo, R., & Cox, K. (2010). Analysis of clinical variables associated with tolerance in pediatric liver transplant recipients. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 14(8), 976-979.

A review of abdominal organ transplantation in cystic fibrosis
Lu, B. R., & Esquivel, C. O. (2010). A review of abdominal organ transplantation in cystic fibrosis. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 14(8), 954-960.

Expression of Soluble HLA-G Identifies Favorable Outcomes in Liver Transplant Recipients
Zarkhin, V., Talisetti, A., Li, L., Wozniak, L. J., McDiarmid, S. V., & Sarwal, M. M. (2010). Expression of Soluble HLA-G Identifies Favorable Outcomes in Liver Transplant Recipients. TRANSPLANTATION, 90(9), 1000-1005.

Acute Rejection of Small Intestine Allografts Is Associated With Increased Expression of Toll-like Receptors
Castillo, R. O., Wang, M., Ito, T., Higgins, J., Esquivel, C. O., & Martinez, O. M. (2010). Acute Rejection of Small Intestine Allografts Is Associated With Increased Expression of Toll-like Receptors. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 42(7), 2676-2678.

Biliary Complications Following Liver Transplantation
Ayoub, W. S., Esquivel, C. O., & Martin, P. (2010). Biliary Complications Following Liver Transplantation. DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES, 55(6), 1540-1546.

Liver Transplantation: Where We Are and Where We Are Heading
Esquivel, C. O. (2010). Liver Transplantation: Where We Are and Where We Are Heading. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 42(2), 610-612.

Long-term outcome following pediatric liver transplantation for metabolic disorders
Stevenson, T., Millan, M. T., Wayman, K., Berquist, W. E., Sarwal, M., & Enns, G. M. (2010). Long-term outcome following pediatric liver transplantation for metabolic disorders. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 14(2), 268-275.

Induced Tolerance to Rat Liver Allografts Involves the Apoptosis of Intragraft T Cells and the Generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T Regulatory Cells
Fujiki, M., Esquivel, C. O., Martinez, O. M., Strober, S., Uemoto, S., & Krams, S. M. (2010). Induced Tolerance to Rat Liver Allografts Involves the Apoptosis of Intragraft T Cells and the Generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T Regulatory Cells. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, 16(2), 147-154.

Acute Liver Failure at 26 Weeks' Gestation in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease
Greenberg, M., Daugherty, T. J., Elihu, A., Sharaf, R., Concepcion, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (2009). Acute Liver Failure at 26 Weeks' Gestation in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, 15(10), 1236-1241.

Clinical models of tolerance induction in pediatric transplantation
Esquivel, C. O., & Benden, C. (2009). Clinical models of tolerance induction in pediatric transplantation. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 13(4), 397-399.

Transarterial Chemoinfusion for Hepatocellular Carcinoma as Downstaging Therapy and a Bridge toward Liver Transplantation
De Luna, W., Sze, D. Y., Ahmed, A., Ha, B. Y., Ayoub, W., & Nguyen, M. H. (2009). Transarterial Chemoinfusion for Hepatocellular Carcinoma as Downstaging Therapy and a Bridge toward Liver Transplantation. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, 9(5), 1158-1168.

Decreases in circulating CD4(+)CD25(hi)FOXP3(+) cells and increases in intragraft FOXP3(+) cells accompany allograft rejection in pediatric liver allograft recipients
Stenard, F., Nguyen, C., Cox, K., Kambham, N., Umetsu, D. T., & Martinez, O. M. (2009). Decreases in circulating CD4(+)CD25(hi)FOXP3(+) cells and increases in intragraft FOXP3(+) cells accompany allograft rejection in pediatric liver allograft recipients. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 13(1), 70-80.

SIR 2008 annual meeting film panel case: Alagille syndrome
Sze, D. Y., & Esquivel, C. O. (2008). SIR 2008 annual meeting film panel case: Alagille syndrome. JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY, 19(9), 1278-1280.

Factors affecting survival to intestinal transplantation in the very young pediatric patient
Mian, S. I., Dutta, S., Le, B., Esquivel, C. O., Davis, K., & Castillo, R. O. (2008). Factors affecting survival to intestinal transplantation in the very young pediatric patient. TRANSPLANTATION, 85(9), 1287-1289.

Non-adherence to post-transplant care: Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes in adolescent liver transplant recipients
Berquist, R. K., Berquist, W. E., Esquivel, C. O., Cox, K. L., Wayman, K. I., & Litt, I. F. (2008). Non-adherence to post-transplant care: Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes in adolescent liver transplant recipients. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 12(2), 194-200.

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens affects clinical outcomes in liver transplant patients
Boyd, S. D., Stenard, F., Lee, D. Kk., Goodnough, L. T., Esquivel, C. O., & Fontaine, M. J. (2007). Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens affects clinical outcomes in liver transplant patients. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, 13(12), 1654-1661.

Mutations to bid cleavage sites protect hepatocytes from apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion injury
Riddle-Taylor, E., Nagasaki, K., Lopez, J., Esquivel, C. O., Martinez, O. M., & Krams, S. M. (2007). Mutations to bid cleavage sites protect hepatocytes from apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion injury. TRANSPLANTATION, 84(6), 778-785.

Liver allografts are toleragenic in rats conditioned with posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation
Nagasaki, K., Obara, H., Xiong, A., Kambham, N., Strober, S., & Millan, M. T. (2007). Liver allografts are toleragenic in rats conditioned with posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation. TRANSPLANTATION, 84(5), 619-628.

Outcomes of transplantation in children with primary hepatic malignancy
Beaunoyer, M., Vanatta, J. M., Oyihara, M., Strichartz, D., Dahl, G., & Esquivel, C. O. (2007). Outcomes of transplantation in children with primary hepatic malignancy. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 11(6), 655-660.

EBV can protect latently infected B cell lymphomas from death receptor-induced apoptosis
Snow, A. L., Lambert, S. L., Natkunam, Y., Esquivel, C. O., Krams, S. M., & Martinez, O. M. (2006). EBV can protect latently infected B cell lymphomas from death receptor-induced apoptosis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 177(5), 3283-3293.

Pediatric intestinal transplantation at Packard children's hospital/Stanford University medical center: Report of a four-year experience
Castillo, R. O., Zarge, R., Cox, K., Strichartz, D., Berquist, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (2006). Pediatric intestinal transplantation at Packard children's hospital/Stanford University medical center: Report of a four-year experience. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 38(6), 1716-1717.

Adolescent non-adherence: Prevalence and consequences in liver transplant recipients
Berquist, R. K., Berquist, W. E., Esquivel, C. O., Cox, K. L., Wayman, K. I., & Litt, I. F. (2006). Adolescent non-adherence: Prevalence and consequences in liver transplant recipients. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 10(3), 304-310.

Improved pain management in pediatric postoperative liver transplant patients using parental education and non-pharmacologic interventions
Sharek, P. J., Wayman, K., Lin, E., Strichartz, D., Sentivany-Collins, S., & Cox, K. (2006). Improved pain management in pediatric postoperative liver transplant patients using parental education and non-pharmacologic interventions. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 10(2), 172-177.

Keratins as susceptibility genes for end-stage liver disease
Ku, N. O., Lim, J. K., Krams, S. M., Esquivel, C. O., Keeffe, E. B., & Omary, M. B. (2005). Keratins as susceptibility genes for end-stage liver disease. GASTROENTEROLOGY, 129(3), 885-893.

IFN-gamma, produced by NK cells that infiltrate liver allografts early after transplantation, links the innate and adaptive immune responses
Obara, H., Nagasaki, K., Hsieh, C. L., Ogura, Y., Esquivel, C. O., & Krams, S. M. (2005). IFN-gamma, produced by NK cells that infiltrate liver allografts early after transplantation, links the innate and adaptive immune responses. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, 5(9), 2094-2103.

Complete immunosuppressive withdrawal as a uniform approach to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric liver transplantation
Hurwitz, M., Desai, D. M., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W. E., Esquivel, C. O., & Millan, M. T. (2004). Complete immunosuppressive withdrawal as a uniform approach to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric liver transplantation. PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, 8(3), 267-272.

One hundred percent patient and kidney allograft survival with simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation in infants with primary hyperoxaluria: A single-center experience
Millan, M. T., Berquist, W. E., So, S. K., Sarwal, M. M., Wayman, K. I., & Esquivel, C. O. (2003). One hundred percent patient and kidney allograft survival with simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation in infants with primary hyperoxaluria: A single-center experience. TRANSPLANTATION, 76(10), 1458-1463.

Identification of Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the circulation of pediatric transplant recipients
Falco, D. A., Nepomuceno, R. R., Krams, S. M., Lee, P. P., DAVIS, M. M., & Martinez, O. M. (2002). Identification of Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the circulation of pediatric transplant recipients. TRANSPLANTATION, 74(4), 501-510.

Thirteen years' experience in pediatric liver transplantation: Differences between tacrolimus and cyclosporine
Zajicek, A., Esquivel, C., MILLAN, M., Cox, K., Berquist, R., & Berquist, W. (2002). Thirteen years' experience in pediatric liver transplantation: Differences between tacrolimus and cyclosporine. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 34(5), 1976-1978.

Liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis at Stanford University
Lu, A., Monge, H., Drazan, K., MILLAN, M., & Esquivel, C. O. (2002). Liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis at Stanford University. JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 37, 82-87.

Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with endothelial bcl-2 expression in transplant liver allografts
Millan, M. T., Natkunam, Y., Clarke-Katzenberg, R., Desai, D., Prapong, W., & Martinez, O. M. (2002). Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with endothelial bcl-2 expression in transplant liver allografts. TRANSPLANTATION, 73(3), 465-469.

Resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in EBV-infected B cell lymphomas is due to defects in the proximal Fas signaling pathway
Snow, A. L., Chen, L. J., Nepomuceno, R. R., Krams, S. M., Esquivel, C. O., & Martinez, O. M. (2001). Resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in EBV-infected B cell lymphomas is due to defects in the proximal Fas signaling pathway. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 167(9), 5404-5411.

Apoptosis and allograft rejection in the absence of CD8(+) T cells
Ogura, Y., Martinez, O. M., Villanueva, J. C., Tait, J. F., Strauss, H. W., & Krams, S. M. (2001). Apoptosis and allograft rejection in the absence of CD8(+) T cells. TRANSPLANTATION, 71(12), 1827-1834.

Mortality rate correlated with the number of pediatric liver transplants performed at a center
Cox, K., Rodriguez-Baez, N., Nasr, A., & Esquivel, C. (2001). Mortality rate correlated with the number of pediatric liver transplants performed at a center. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 33(1-2), 1512-1513.

Center experience in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis
Lai, K. M., MILLAN, M., Razavi, M., Keeffe, E. B., Prapong, W., & So, S. Ks. (2001). Center experience in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 33(1-2), 1490-1491.

Orthotopic liver transplantation for carcinoid tumour metastatic to the liver: anesthetic management
Claure, R. E., Drover, D. D., Haddow, G. R., Esquivel, C. O., & Angst, M. S. (2000). Orthotopic liver transplantation for carcinoid tumour metastatic to the liver: anesthetic management. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 47(4), 334-337.

Radiolabeled annexin V imaging: Diagnosis of allograft rejection in an experimental rodent model of liver transplantation
Ogura, Y., Krams, S. M., Martinez, O. M., Kopiwoda, S., Higgins, J. Pt., & Blankenberg, F. G. (2000). Radiolabeled annexin V imaging: Diagnosis of allograft rejection in an experimental rodent model of liver transplantation. RADIOLOGY, 214(3), 795-800.

Significance of detecting Epstein-Barr-Specific sequences in the peripheral blood of asymptomatic pediatric liver transplant recipients
Krieger, N. R., Martinez, O. M., Krams, S. M., Cox, K., So, S., & Esquivel, C. O. (2000). Significance of detecting Epstein-Barr-Specific sequences in the peripheral blood of asymptomatic pediatric liver transplant recipients. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, 6(1), 62-66.

Major hepatic resection without blood transfusion: Experience with total vascular exclusion
So, S. K., Monge, H., & Esquivel, C. O. (1999). Major hepatic resection without blood transfusion: Experience with total vascular exclusion. JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 14, S28-S31.

Does Asian race affect hepatitis B virus recurrence or survival following liver transplantation for hepatitis B cirrhosis?
So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O., Imperial, J. C., Garcia, G., Monge, H., & Keeffe, E. B. (1999). Does Asian race affect hepatitis B virus recurrence or survival following liver transplantation for hepatitis B cirrhosis?. JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 14, S48-S52.

Resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma
Esquivel, C. O., Keeffe, E. B., Garcia, G., Imperial, J. C., Millan, M. T., & So, S. K. (1999). Resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 14, S37-S41.

Effect of intraoperative blood transfusion on patient outcome in hepatic transplantation
Cacciarelli, T. V., Keeffe, E. B., Moore, D. H., BURNS, W., Busque, S., & Esquivel, C. O. (1999). Effect of intraoperative blood transfusion on patient outcome in hepatic transplantation. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 134(1), 25-29.

Increased dosage requirement and rejection after neoral conversion in pediatric liver transplant patients
Cao, S., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W., So, S., Concepcion, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (1998). Increased dosage requirement and rejection after neoral conversion in pediatric liver transplant patients. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 30(8), 4322-4324.

CD30 expression identifies a functional alloreactive human T-lymphocyte subset
Martinez, O. M., Villanueva, J., Abtahi, S., Beatty, P. R., Esquivel, C. O., & Krams, S. M. (1998). CD30 expression identifies a functional alloreactive human T-lymphocyte subset. TRANSPLANTATION, 65(9), 1240-1247.

Effect of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on the growth of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines
Beatty, P. R., Krams, S. M., Esquivel, C. O., & Martinez, O. M. (1998). Effect of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on the growth of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines. TRANSPLANTATION, 65(9), 1248-1255.

Allograft rejection after liver transplantation for autoimmune liver diseases
Hayashi, M., Keeffe, E. B., Krams, S. M., Martinez, O. M., Ojogho, O. N., & Esquivel, C. O. (1998). Allograft rejection after liver transplantation for autoimmune liver diseases. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND SURGERY, 4(3), 208-214.

CD8(+) cells are not necessary for allograft rejection or the induction of apoptosis in an experimental model of small intestinal transplantation
Krams, S. M., Hayashi, M., Fox, C. K., Villanueva, J. C., Whitmer, K. J., & Martinez, O. M. (1998). CD8(+) cells are not necessary for allograft rejection or the induction of apoptosis in an experimental model of small intestinal transplantation. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 160(8), 3673-3680.

Human hepatocytes produce an isoform of Fas that inhibits apoptosis
Krams, S. M., Fox, C. K., Beatty, P. R., Cao, S., Villanueva, J. C., & Martinez, O. M. (1998). Human hepatocytes produce an isoform of Fas that inhibits apoptosis. TRANSPLANTATION, 65(5), 713-721.

Current status of living-related liver transplantation.
Hayashi, M., Cao, S., Concepcion, W., Monge, H., Ojogho, O., & Esquivel, C. O. (1998). Current status of living-related liver transplantation. Pediatric transplantation, 2(1), 16-25.

Experience with the piggyback technique without caval occlusion in adult orthotopic liver transplantation
Busque, S., Esquivel, C. O., Concepcion, W., & So, S. Ks. (1998). Experience with the piggyback technique without caval occlusion in adult orthotopic liver transplantation. TRANSPLANTATION, 65(1), 77-82.

New approaches to supporting the failing liver
Cao, S., Esquivel, C. O., & Keeffe, E. B. (1998). New approaches to supporting the failing liver. ANNUAL REVIEW OF MEDICINE, 49, 85-94.

Liver transplantation at Stanford University Medical Center.
Millan, M. T., Keeffe, E. B., Berquist, W. E., Castillo, R. O., Cox, K. L., & Esquivel, C. O. (1998). Liver transplantation at Stanford University Medical Center. Clinical transplants, 287-296.

Cholic acid synthesis is reduced in pediatric liver recipients during graft dysfunction due to ischemic injury and allograft rejection
Lang, T., Sendl, A. F., Esquivel, C. O., Berquist, W. E., & Cox, K. L. (1997). Cholic acid synthesis is reduced in pediatric liver recipients during graft dysfunction due to ischemic injury and allograft rejection. TRANSPLANTATION, 64(11), 1585-1590.

Neurodevelopmental outcome of young children with extrahepatic biliary atresia 1 year after liver transplantation
Wayman, K. I., Cox, K. L., & Esquivel, C. O. (1997). Neurodevelopmental outcome of young children with extrahepatic biliary atresia 1 year after liver transplantation. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, 131(6), 894-898.

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement in a child complicated by perforated Roux-en-Y portoenterostomy
Wang, J., Cox, K. L., Dake, M., Esquivel, C. O., & So, S. Ks. (1997). Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement in a child complicated by perforated Roux-en-Y portoenterostomy. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION, 25(4), 421-425.

Current status and outcome of pediatric liver transplantation.
Esquivel, C. O. (1997). Current status and outcome of pediatric liver transplantation. Clinics in liver disease, 1(2), 397-?.

Factors affecting survival after orthotopic liver transplantation in infants
Cacciarelli, T. V., Esquivel, C. O., Moore, D. H., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W. E., & So, S. Ks. (1997). Factors affecting survival after orthotopic liver transplantation in infants. TRANSPLANTATION, 64(2), 242-248.

Emergency transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in an infant: A case report
Cao, S., Monge, H., Semba, C., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (1997). Emergency transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in an infant: A case report. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY, 32(1), 125-127.

Liver transplantation from non-heart beating donors in rats: influence of viscosity and temperature of initial flushing solutions on graft function.
Tojimbara, T., Wicomb, W. N., Garcia-Kennedy, R., BURNS, W., Hayashi, M., & Esquivel, C. O. (1997). Liver transplantation from non-heart beating donors in rats: influence of viscosity and temperature of initial flushing solutions on graft function. Liver transplantation and surgery , 3(1), 39-45.

Liver transplantation in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B
HO, B. M., So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O., & Keeffe, E. B. (1997). Liver transplantation in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. HEPATOLOGY, 25(1), 223-225.

Rapid development of hepatocellular siderosis after liver transplantation for neonatal hemochromatosis
Egawa, H., Berquist, W., GARCIAKENNEDY, R., Cox, K., Knisely, A. S., & Esquivel, C. O. (1996). Rapid development of hepatocellular siderosis after liver transplantation for neonatal hemochromatosis. TRANSPLANTATION, 62(10), 1511-1513.

Primary liver transplantation without transfusion of red blood cells
Cacciarelli, T. V., Keeffe, E. B., Moore, D. H., BURNS, W., Chuljian, P., & Esquivel, C. O. (1996). Primary liver transplantation without transfusion of red blood cells. SURGERY, 120(4), 698-704.

Orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - Factors affecting long-term patient survival
Ojogho, O. N., So, S. Ks., Keeffe, E. B., Berquist, W., Concepcion, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (1996). Orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - Factors affecting long-term patient survival. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 131(9), 935-939.

Continuous venovenous hemofiltration with dialysis in combination with total hepatectomy and portocaval shunting - Bridge to liver transplantation
Hammer, G. B., So, S. Ks., ALUZRI, A., Conley, S. B., Concepcion, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (1996). Continuous venovenous hemofiltration with dialysis in combination with total hepatectomy and portocaval shunting - Bridge to liver transplantation. TRANSPLANTATION, 62(1), 130-132.

Cyclosporine and tacrolimus both suppress activation of kupffer cells in vitro
Tojimbara, T., Bermudez, L. E., Egawa, H., Hayashi, M., So, S. K., & Esquivel, C. O. (1996). Cyclosporine and tacrolimus both suppress activation of kupffer cells in vitro. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 28(3), 1381-1382.

Oral tacrolimus (FK506) induction therapy in pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation
Cacciarelli, T. V., Esquivel, C. O., Cox, K. L., Hayashi, M., Berquist, W. E., & So, S. Ks. (1996). Oral tacrolimus (FK506) induction therapy in pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation. TRANSPLANTATION, 61(8), 1188-1192.

Expression of cytokines and immune mediators during chronic liver allograft rejection
Hayashi, M., Martinez, O. M., GARCIAKENNEDY, R., So, S., Esquivel, C. O., & Krams, S. M. (1995). Expression of cytokines and immune mediators during chronic liver allograft rejection. TRANSPLANTATION, 60(12), 1533-1538.

A REASSESSMENT OF ABO INCOMPATIBILITY IN PEDIATRIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION
Cacciarelli, T. V., So, S. Ks., Lim, J., Concepcion, W., Cox, K., & Esquivel, C. O. (1995). A REASSESSMENT OF ABO INCOMPATIBILITY IN PEDIATRIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION. TRANSPLANTATION, 60(7), 757-760.

EFFECTS OF PENTOXIFYLLINE PRETREATMENT ON KUPFFER CELLS IN RAT-LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
Kozaki, K., Egawa, H., Bermudez, L., Keefe, E. B., So, S. K., & Esquivel, C. O. (1995). EFFECTS OF PENTOXIFYLLINE PRETREATMENT ON KUPFFER CELLS IN RAT-LIVER TRANSPLANTATION. HEPATOLOGY, 21(4), 1079-1082.

AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS INFECTION AND LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDER IN YOUNG-CHILDREN ON FK506 AFTER LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION
Cox, K. L., LAWRENCEMIYASAKI, L. S., GARCIAKENNEDY, R., Lennette, E. T., Martinez, O. M., & Esquivel, C. O. (1995). AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS INFECTION AND LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDER IN YOUNG-CHILDREN ON FK506 AFTER LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION. TRANSPLANTATION, 59(4), 524-529.

ACUTE LIVER ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION IN THE RAT - AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
Egawa, H., Martinez, O. M., QUINN, M. B., Villanueva, J. C., So, S., & Krams, S. M. (1995). ACUTE LIVER ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION IN THE RAT - AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE. TRANSPLANTATION, 59(1), 97-102.

MODIFICATION OF REJECTION BY POLYETHYLENE-GLYCOL SMALL-BOWEL TRANSPLANTATION
Itasaka, H., BURNS, W., Wicomb, W. N., Egawa, H., Collins, G., & Esquivel, C. O. (1994). MODIFICATION OF REJECTION BY POLYETHYLENE-GLYCOL SMALL-BOWEL TRANSPLANTATION. TRANSPLANTATION, 57(5), 645-648.