Low-dose (550 cGy), single-exposure total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide: Consistent, durable engraftment of related-donor peripheral blood stem cells with low treatment-related mortality and fatal organ toxicity BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Blum, W., Brown, R., Lin, H. S., Zehnbauer, B., Khoury, H., GOODNOUGH, L. T., Westervelt, P., Vij, R., DiPersio, J., Adkins, D. 2002; 8 (11): 608-618

Abstract

On the basis of observations of dog models and from earlier studies with humans, we hypothesized that a low-dose (550 cGy) TBI-based conditioning regimen would result in sustained engraftment of HLA-matched sibling peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) with low treatment-related mortality (TRM) and low serious organ toxicity if the TBI was given as a single dose and at a high dose rate. The regimen included 550 cGy TBI administered as a single dose at 30 cGy/min and cyclophosphamide. Cyclosporine was given as GVHD prophylaxis. Twenty-seven good-risk (acute leukemia in first remission and chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia) and 53 poor-risk (other) patients were accrued. Complete donor engraftment occurred in 93% to 100% of evaluable patients at each scheduled assessment and was durable through 4 years. Mixed chimerism (50% to 98% donor) was observed in 9 patients (11%). Without further intervention, all patients had complete donor engraftment on subsequent assessments. Graft failure did not occur. TRM through at least 2 years was 7% in the good-risk and 19% in the poor-risk diagnostic groups. Grade 4 (fatal) organ toxicity occurred in only 2 patients (2.5%). Other causes of TRM included infection and GVHD. Median follow-up for the surviving patients was 1234 days (range, 780-1632 days). Current status includes 39 patients (49%) alive and in complete remission, 2 alive in relapse, and 39 dead. Relapse occurred in 15% of the good-risk group and 45% of the poor-risk group. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of 3-year disease-free and overall survival of the good-risk group were 77% and 85%, respectively, and of the poor-risk group were 34% and 36%, respectively. Low-dose (550 cGy), single-exposure TBI given at a high dose rate with cyclophosphamide resulted in consistent durable engraftment of HLA-matched sibling PBSC with a low risk of fatal organ toxicity and TRM.

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View details for PubMedID 12463480