Gregory Hammer

Anesthesiologist

Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics at the Stanford University Medical Center

Professional Education

Internship: Children's Hospital of Oakland (1983) CA

Board Certification: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (1990)

Residency: Children's Hospital of Oakland (1985) CA

Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (1989)

Fellowship: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (1988) PA

Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1987)

Residency: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (1987) PA

Medical Education: University of Illinois College of Medicine (1982) IL

MD, U. of Illinois, Medicine (1982)

BS, U. of Wisconsin, Biochemistry (1977)

Honors & Awards

Best Doctors in America, Best Doctors in America (1996-Present)

Graduation with Honors, U. of Illinois College of Medicine (1982)

Graduation with Honors, U. of Wisconsin (1977)

Graduation with Honors, Phillips Academy (1973)

Administrative Appointments

Director, Pediatric Anesthesia Research (2005 - 2015)

Associate Director, Pediatric ICU (1995 - 2010)

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Health Care patient, you have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.

Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future.

The effects of ketamine on dexmedetomidine-induced electrophysiologic changes in children
Char, D., Drover, D. R., Motonaga, K. S., Gupta, S., Miyake, C. Y., & Hammer, G. B. (2013). The effects of ketamine on dexmedetomidine-induced electrophysiologic changes in children. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 23(10), 898-905.

Comparison of a New Cobinamide-Based Method to a Standard Laboratory Method for Measuring Cyanide in Human Blood
Swezey, R., Shinn, W., Green, C., Drover, D. R., Hammer, G. B., & Boss, G. R. (2013). Comparison of a New Cobinamide-Based Method to a Standard Laboratory Method for Measuring Cyanide in Human Blood. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY, 37(6), 382-385.

Sodium nitroprusside is not associated with metabolic acidosis during intraoperative infusion in children
Hammer, G. B., Connolly, S. G., Schulman, S. R., Lewandowski, A., Cohane, C., & Drover, D. R. (2013). Sodium nitroprusside is not associated with metabolic acidosis during intraoperative infusion in children. BMC ANESTHESIOLOGY, 13.

Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Relevance to the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery
Wise-Faberowski, L. (2013). Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Relevance to the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. Brain Sci, 4(2).

The Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac After Single Postoperative Intranasal Administration in Adolescent Patients
Drover, D. R., Hammer, G. B., & Anderson, B. J. (2012). The Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac After Single Postoperative Intranasal Administration in Adolescent Patients. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 114(6), 1270-1276.

Thrombotic Endotracheal Tube Occlusion After Administration of Recombinant Factor VIIa.
Benkwitz, C., & Hammer, G. B. (2012). Thrombotic Endotracheal Tube Occlusion After Administration of Recombinant Factor VIIa. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia.

Cardiomyopathy in childhood
Williams, G. D., & Hammer, G. B. (2011). Cardiomyopathy in childhood. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 24(3), 289-300.

A sensitive assay for the quantification of morphine and its active metabolites in human plasma and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Clavijo, C. F., Hoffman, K. L., Thomas, J. J., Carvalho, B., Chu, L. F., & Galinkin, J. L. (2011). A sensitive assay for the quantification of morphine and its active metabolites in human plasma and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 400(3), 715-728.

Cardiomyopathy and heart failure in children: anesthetic implications
Rosenthal, D. N., & Hammer, G. B. (2011). Cardiomyopathy and heart failure in children: anesthetic implications. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 21(5), 577-584.

A sensitive assay for the quantification of morphine and its active metabolites in human plasma and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Clavijo CF, Hoffman KL, Thomas JJ, Carvalho B, Chu LF, & Galinkin JL. (2011). A sensitive assay for the quantification of morphine and its active metabolites in human plasma and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem., 400.

Dexmedetomidine: pediatric pharmacology, clinical uses and safety
Su, F., & Hammer, G. B. (2011). Dexmedetomidine: pediatric pharmacology, clinical uses and safety. EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG SAFETY, 10(1), 55-66.

Safety and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Intravenous Acetaminophen in Neonates, Infants, Children and Adolescents with Pain or Fever.
Zuppa AF, Hammer GB, Barrett JS, Kenney BF, Kassir N, & Royal MA. (2011). Safety and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Intravenous Acetaminophen in Neonates, Infants, Children and Adolescents with Pain or Fever. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther., 16(4).

Airway responses to desflurane during maintenance of anesthesia and recovery in children with laryngeal mask airways
Lerman, J., Hammer, G. B., Verghese, S., Ehlers, M., Khalil, S. N., & Deutsch, J. (2010). Airway responses to desflurane during maintenance of anesthesia and recovery in children with laryngeal mask airways. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 20(6), 495-505.

Perioperative complications in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing general anesthesia with ketamine
Williams, G. D., Maan, H., Ramamoorthy, C., Kamra, K., Bratton, S. L., & Feinstein, J. A. (2010). Perioperative complications in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing general anesthesia with ketamine. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 20(1), 28-37.

Airway responses to desflurane during maintenance of anesthesia and recovery in children with laryngeal mask airways.
Lerman J, Hammer GB, Verghese ST, & Deutsch J. (2010). Airway responses to desflurane during maintenance of anesthesia and recovery in children with laryngeal mask airways. Pediatr Anesth.

Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the hypotensive effect of remifentanil in infants undergoing cranioplasty.
Standing JF, Hammer GB, Sam WJ, & Drover DR. (2010). Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the hypotensive effect of remifentanil in infants undergoing cranioplasty. Pediatr Anesth.

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the hypotensive effect of remifentanil in infants undergoing cranioplasty
Standing, J. F., Hammer, G. B., Sam, W. J., & Drover, D. R. (2010). Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the hypotensive effect of remifentanil in infants undergoing cranioplasty. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 20(1), 7-18.

Sedation and analgesia in the pediatric intensive care unit following laryngotracheal reconstruction
Hammer, G. B. (2009). Sedation and analgesia in the pediatric intensive care unit following laryngotracheal reconstruction. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 19, 166-179.

Appropriate Endotracheal Tube Placement in Children: Don't Throw Away Your Stethoscopes Yet!
Mariano, E. R., Ramamoorthy, C., & Hammer, G. B. (2009). Appropriate Endotracheal Tube Placement in Children: Don't Throw Away Your Stethoscopes Yet!. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 110(2), 433-434.

Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and dexmedetomidine during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children
Hammer, G. B., Sam, W. J., Chen, M. I., Golianu, B., & Drover, D. R. (2009). Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and dexmedetomidine during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 19(2), 138-144.

Population pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery.
Sam, W. J., Hammer, G. B., & Drover, D. R. (2009). Population pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. BMC anesthesiology, 9, 5-?.

Sedation and Analgesia in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Following Laryngotracheal Reconstruction
Hammer, G. B. (2008). Sedation and Analgesia in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Following Laryngotracheal Reconstruction. OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 41(5), 1023-?.

Dexmedetomidine should not be used for infants and children during cardiac surgery
Hammer, G. B. (2008). Dexmedetomidine should not be used for infants and children during cardiac surgery. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 22(1), 152-154.

Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Fenoldopam Mesylate For Blood Pressure Control In Pediatric Patients.
Hammer, G. B., Verghese, S. T., Drover, D. R., Yaster, M., & Tobin, J. R. (2008). Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Fenoldopam Mesylate For Blood Pressure Control In Pediatric Patients. BMC anesthesiology, 8, 6-?.

The effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiac electrophysiology in children
Hammer, G. B., Drover, D. R., Cao, H., Jackson, E., Williams, G. D., & Dubin, A. M. (2008). The effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiac electrophysiology in children. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 106(1), 79-83.

Ketamine does not increase pulmonary vascular resistance in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation
Williams, G. D., Philip, B. M., Chu, L. F., Boltz, M. G., Kamra, K., & Ramamoorthy, C. (2007). Ketamine does not increase pulmonary vascular resistance in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 105(6), 1578-1584.

Use of recombinant activated factor VII in children
Hammer, G. B., & Williams, G. D. (2007). Use of recombinant activated factor VII in children. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 17(12), 1123-1125.

The use of dexmedetomidine during laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and tracheal extubation following tracheal reconstruction
Seybold, J. L., Ramamurthi, R. J., & Hammer, G. B. (2007). The use of dexmedetomidine during laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and tracheal extubation following tracheal reconstruction. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 17(12), 1212-1214.

Opioid analgesia in neonates following cardiac surgery.
Hammer, G. B., & Golianu, B. (2007). Opioid analgesia in neonates following cardiac surgery. Seminars in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 11(1), 47-58.

Sevoflurane and emergence delirium
Hammer GB. (2007). Sevoflurane and emergence delirium. Clin Ped Anesth, 13.

Total intravenous anesthesia in infants and children.
Hammer GB. (2007). Total intravenous anesthesia in infants and children. Clin Ped Anesth, 13.

Modified and conventional ultrafiltration during pediatric cardiac surgery: Clinical outcomes compared
Williams, G. D., Ramamoorthy, C., Chu, L., Hammer, G. B., Kamra, K., & Reddy, V. M. (2006). Modified and conventional ultrafiltration during pediatric cardiac surgery: Clinical outcomes compared. JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY, 132(6), 1291-1298.

Lung isolation in a child with unilateral necrotizing Clostridium perfringens pneumonia
Brady, K. M., Harris, Z. L., Hammer, G. B., Berkowitz, I. D., & Easley, R. B. (2005). Lung isolation in a child with unilateral necrotizing Clostridium perfringens pneumonia. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 33(11), 2676-2680.

A comparison of three methods for estimating appropriate tracheal tube depth in children
Mariano, E. R., Ramamoorthy, C., Chu, L. F., Chen, M., & Hammer, G. B. (2005). A comparison of three methods for estimating appropriate tracheal tube depth in children. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 15(10), 846-851.

Prolonged infusion of dexmedetomidine for sedation following tracheal resection
Hammer, G. B., Philip, B. M., Schroeder, A. R., Rosen, F. S., & Koltai, P. J. (2005). Prolonged infusion of dexmedetomidine for sedation following tracheal resection. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 15(7), 616-620.

Postoperative analgesia after spinal blockade in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery
Hammer, G. B., Ramamoorthy, C., Cao, H., Williams, G. D., Boltz, M. G., & Drover, D. R. (2005). Postoperative analgesia after spinal blockade in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 100(5), 1283-1288.

Pediatric thoracic anesthesia.
Golianu, B., & Hammer, G. B. (2005). Pediatric thoracic anesthesia. Current opinion in anaesthesiology, 18(1), 5-11.

Pain management for pediatric thoracic surgery.
Golianu, B., & Hammer, G. B. (2005). Pain management for pediatric thoracic surgery. Current opinion in anaesthesiology, 18(1), 13-21.

Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and remifentanil during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children
Drover, D. R., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Shafer, S. L., & Hammer, G. B. (2004). Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and remifentanil during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 100(6), 1382-1386.

Anaesthetic management for the child with a mediastinal mass
Hammer, G. B. (2004). Anaesthetic management for the child with a mediastinal mass. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 14(1), 95-97.

Single-lung ventilation in infants and children
Hammer, G. B. (2004). Single-lung ventilation in infants and children. PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 14(1), 98-102.

Transesophageal echocardiography-guided transventricular balloon dilation of congenital critical aortic stenosis in the neonate and young infant
Hussain, A., al Faraidi, Y., Abdulhamed, J., Bacha, E. A., Hammer, G. B., & Feinstein, J. B. (2002). Transesophageal echocardiography-guided transventricular balloon dilation of congenital critical aortic stenosis in the neonate and young infant. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 16(6), 766-772.

Pro: Regional anesthesia is an important component of the anesthetic technique for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures
Rosen, D. A., Rosen, K. R., & Hammer, G. B. (2002). Pro: Regional anesthesia is an important component of the anesthetic technique for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 16(3), 374-378.

Pediatric thoracic anesthesia.
Hammer, G. B. (2002). Pediatric thoracic anesthesia. Anesthesiology clinics of North America, 20(1), 153-180.

Single lung ventilation in children using a new paediatric bronchial blocker
Hammer, G. B., Harrison, T. K., Vricella, L. A., Black, M. D., & Krane, E. J. (2002). Single lung ventilation in children using a new paediatric bronchial blocker. PAEDIATRIC ANAESTHESIA, 12(1), 69-72.

Paradoxical vocal cord motion in a child presenting with cyanosis and respiratory failure.
Falco, D. A., Hammer, G. B., Conrad, C., & Messner, A. H. (2002). Paradoxical vocal cord motion in a child presenting with cyanosis and respiratory failure. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies, 3(2), 185-186.

Anesthesia for outpatient repair of patent ductus arteriosus
Uezono, S., Hammer, G. B., Wellis, V., Boltz, M. G., Pike, N. A., & Black, M. D. (2001). Anesthesia for outpatient repair of patent ductus arteriosus. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 15(6), 750-752.

A technique for maintenance of airway access in infants with a difficult airway following tracheal extubation
Hammer, G. B., Funck, N., Rosenthal, D. N., & Feinstein, J. A. (2001). A technique for maintenance of airway access in infants with a difficult airway following tracheal extubation. PAEDIATRIC ANAESTHESIA, 11(5), 622-625.

Determination of the median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol during oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children
Hammer, G. B., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., & Drover, D. R. (2001). Determination of the median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol during oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. PAEDIATRIC ANAESTHESIA, 11(5), 549-553.

Pediatric thoracic anesthesia
Hammer, G. B. (2001). Pediatric thoracic anesthesia. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 92(6), 1449-1464.

Anaesthesia for liver transplantation in children
Hammer, G. B., & Krane, E. J. (2001). Anaesthesia for liver transplantation in children. PAEDIATRIC ANAESTHESIA, 11(1), 3-18.

A retrospective examination of regional plus general anesthesia in children undergoing open heart surgery
Hammer, G. B., Ngo, K., & Macario, A. (2000). A retrospective examination of regional plus general anesthesia in children undergoing open heart surgery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 90(5), 1020-1024.

Methods for single-lung ventilation in pediatric patients
Hammer, G. B., Fitzmaurice, B. G., & Brodsky, J. B. (1999). Methods for single-lung ventilation in pediatric patients. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 89(6), 1426-1429.

Determination of the median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children
Hammer, G. B., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Drover, D., & Garcia, M. (1999). Determination of the median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(3A), U493-U493.

Determination of the EC50 of propofol combined with remifentanil during EGD in children
Hammer, G. B., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Drover, D., & Garcia, M. (1999). Determination of the EC50 of propofol combined with remifentanil during EGD in children. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(3A), U492-U492.

Tracheal intubation in a child with trismus pseudocamptodactyly (Hecht) syndrome
Seavello, J., & Hammer, G. B. (1999). Tracheal intubation in a child with trismus pseudocamptodactyly (Hecht) syndrome. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 11(3), 254-256.

Regional anesthesia for pediatric cardiac surgery
Hammer, G. B. (1999). Regional anesthesia for pediatric cardiac surgery. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 13(2), 210-213.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease may present with severe airway obstruction
Hammer, G. B., Cao, S., Boltz, M. G., & Messner, A. (1998). Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease may present with severe airway obstruction. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 89(1), 263-265.

The Univent tube for single-lung ventilation in paediatric patients
Hammer, G. B., Brodsky, J. B., Redpath, J. H., & Cannon, W. B. (1998). The Univent tube for single-lung ventilation in paediatric patients. PAEDIATRIC ANAESTHESIA, 8(1), 55-57.

Bladder augmentation can be problematic with renal failure and transplantation
Alfrey, E. J., Salvatierra, O., Tanney, D. C., Mak, R., Scandling, J. D., & Conley, S. B. (1997). Bladder augmentation can be problematic with renal failure and transplantation. PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, 11(6), 672-675.

Superior outcomes in pediatric renal transplantation
Salvatierra, O., Alfrey, E., Tanney, D. C., Mak, R., Hammer, G. B., & Conley, S. B. (1997). Superior outcomes in pediatric renal transplantation. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 132(8), 842-847.

Factors affecting survival after orthotopic liver transplantation in infants
Cacciarelli, T. V., Esquivel, C. O., Moore, D. H., Cox, K. L., Berquist, W. E., & So, S. Ks. (1997). Factors affecting survival after orthotopic liver transplantation in infants. TRANSPLANTATION, 64(2), 242-248.

Use of an augmented urinary bladder can be catastrophic in renal transplantation
Alfrey, E. J., Conley, S. B., Tanney, D. C., Mak, R., Scandling, J. D., & Salvatierra, O. (1997). Use of an augmented urinary bladder can be catastrophic in renal transplantation. TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS, 29(1-2), 154-155.

Mechanical ventilation for pediatric patients
Hammer, G. B., & Frankel, L. R. (1997). Mechanical ventilation for pediatric patients. INTERNATIONAL ANESTHESIOLOGY CLINICS, 35(1), 139-167.

Perioperative care of the neurosurgical pediatric patient
Hammer, G. B., & Krane, E. J. (1996). Perioperative care of the neurosurgical pediatric patient. INTERNATIONAL ANESTHESIOLOGY CLINICS, 34(4), 55-71.

Continuous venovenous hemofiltration with dialysis in combination with total hepatectomy and portocaval shunting - Bridge to liver transplantation
Hammer, G. B., So, S. Ks., ALUZRI, A., Conley, S. B., Concepcion, W., & Esquivel, C. O. (1996). Continuous venovenous hemofiltration with dialysis in combination with total hepatectomy and portocaval shunting - Bridge to liver transplantation. TRANSPLANTATION, 62(1), 130-132.

Single-lung ventilation in pediatric patients
Hammer, G. B., MANOS, S. J., Smith, B. M., Skarsgard, E. D., & Brodsky, J. B. (1996). Single-lung ventilation in pediatric patients. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 84(6), 1503-1506.

Ultra-high dose trimethaphan in an infant with severe hypertension
Hammer, G. B. (1996). Ultra-high dose trimethaphan in an infant with severe hypertension. JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY-CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY, 34(2), 227-229.