Clete A. Kushida, MD, PhD

Sleep specialist

Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Stanford University Medical Center

Sleep Medicine Center

  • 450 Broadway Street
  • Redwood City, CA 94063
  • Phone: 650-723-6601
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Professional Education

Internship: University of Hawaii-J A Burns School of Medicine (1991) HI

Fellowship: Stanford University School of Medicine (1996) CA

Board Certification: Sleep Medicine, American Board of Sleep Medicine (1996)

Residency: UCSD Medical Center (1994) CA

Medical Education: University of Chicago Hospitals (1990) IL

M.D., Univ of Chicago, Medicine (1990)

Ph.D., Univ of Chicago, Neurosciences/Biopsychology (1986)

M.S., Stanford University, Biological Sciences (1982)

B.A.S., Stanford University, Biological Sciences/Psychology (1981)

Administrative Appointments

President, World Sleep Federation (2011 - Present)

Medical Director, Stanford Sleep Medicine Center (2010 - Present)

President, American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2009 - 2010)

Founding/Inaugural President, California Sleep Society (2008 - 2010)

Board Of Directors, American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2005 - 2011)

Board Of Directors, American Board of Sleep Medicine (2000 - 2006)

Director, Stanford University Center for Human Sleep Research (1996 - Present)

Board Of Directors, Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation (2003 - 2006)

Chair, Standards of Practice Committee, American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2003 - 2006)

Associate Editor, Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (2011 - Present)

Editorial Board, Journal SLEEP (2003 - Present)

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Health Care patient, you have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.

Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future.

Improved Sleep MRI at 3 Tesla in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Shin, L. K., Holbrook, A. B., Capasso, R., Kushida, C. A., Powell, N. B., & Pauly, K. B. (2013). Improved Sleep MRI at 3 Tesla in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea. JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, 38(5), 1261-1266.

Habitual shortened sleep and insulin resistance: An independent relationship in obese individuals
Liu, A., Kushida, C. A., & Reaven, G. M. (2013). Habitual shortened sleep and insulin resistance: An independent relationship in obese individuals. METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, 62(11), 1553-1556.

Risk for obstructive sleep apnea in obese, nondiabetic adults varies with insulin resistance status
Liu, A., Kushida, C. A., & Reaven, G. M. (2013). Risk for obstructive sleep apnea in obese, nondiabetic adults varies with insulin resistance status. SLEEP AND BREATHING, 17(1), 333-338.

Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Neurocognitive Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES)
Kushida, C. A., Nichols, D. A., Holmes, T. H., Quan, S. F., Walsh, J. K., & Dement, W. C. (2012). Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Neurocognitive Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES). SLEEP, 35(12), 1593-U40.

Strategies for De-identification and Anonymization of Electronic Health Record Data for Use in Multicenter Research Studies
Kushida, C. A., Nichols, D. A., Jadrnicek, R., Miller, R., Walsh, J. K., & Griffin, K. (2012). Strategies for De-identification and Anonymization of Electronic Health Record Data for Use in Multicenter Research Studies. MEDICAL CARE, 50(7), S82-S101.

A method for estimating normative distributions for study-specific populations of clinical trials
Holmes, T. H., Nichols, D. A., Thomander, D., & Kushida, C. A. (2012). A method for estimating normative distributions for study-specific populations of clinical trials. CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS, 33(2), 445-449.

Positive Airway Pressure Initiation: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Impact of Therapy Mode and Titration Process on Efficacy, Adherence, and Outcomes
Kushida, C. A., Berry, R. B., Blau, A., Crabtree, T., Fietze, I., & Penzel, T. (2011). Positive Airway Pressure Initiation: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Impact of Therapy Mode and Titration Process on Efficacy, Adherence, and Outcomes. SLEEP, 34(8), 1083-1092.

Reliability and validity of two self-administered questionnaires for screening restless legs syndrome in population-based studies
Popat, R. A., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Tanner, C. M., Kushida, C. A., Rama, A. N., & Nelson, L. M. (2010). Reliability and validity of two self-administered questionnaires for screening restless legs syndrome in population-based studies. SLEEP MEDICINE, 11(2), 154-160.

Gabapentin Enacarbil in Restless Legs Syndrome: A Phase 2b, 2-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Walters, A. S., Ondo, W. G., Kushida, C. A., Becker, P. M., Ellenbogen, A. L., & Barrett, R. W. (2009). Gabapentin Enacarbil in Restless Legs Syndrome: A Phase 2b, 2-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. CLINICAL NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, 32(6), 311-320.

Primary Hypersomnias of Central Origin
Frenette, E., & Kushida, C. A. (2009). Primary Hypersomnias of Central Origin. SEMINARS IN NEUROLOGY, 29(4), 354-367.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of XP13512/GSK1838262 in patients with RLS
Kushida, C. A., Becker, P. M., Ellenbogen, A. L., Canafax, D. M., & Barrett, R. W. (2009). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of XP13512/GSK1838262 in patients with RLS. NEUROLOGY, 72(5), 439-446.

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of XP13512/GSK1838262 in the Treatment of Patients With Primary Restless Legs Syndrome
Kushida, C. A., Walters, A. S., Becker, P., Thein, S. G., Perkins, T., & Barrett, R. W. (2009). A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of XP13512/GSK1838262 in the Treatment of Patients With Primary Restless Legs Syndrome. SLEEP, 32(2), 159-168.

Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test
Sullivan, S. S., & Kushida, C. A. (2008). Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test. CHEST, 134(4), 854-861.

Patient- and Physician-Rated Measures Demonstrate the Effectiveness of Ropinirole in the Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome
Kushida, C. A., Geyer, J., Tolson, J. M., & Asgharian, A. (2008). Patient- and Physician-Rated Measures Demonstrate the Effectiveness of Ropinirole in the Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome. CLINICAL NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, 31(5), 281-286.

Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and quality of life issues in restless legs syndrome
Kushida, C. A. (2007). Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and quality of life issues in restless legs syndrome. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 120(1), S4-S12.

Ropinirole for the treatment of restless legs syndrome.
Kushida, C. A. (2006). Ropinirole for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 2(4), 407-419.

Efficacy and safety of pramipexole in restless legs syndrome
Winkelman, J. W., Sethi, K. D., Kushida, C. A., Becker, P. M., Koester, J., & Reess, J. (2006). Efficacy and safety of pramipexole in restless legs syndrome. NEUROLOGY, 67(6), 1034-1039.

Countermeasures for sleep loss and deprivation.
Kushida, C. A. (2006). Countermeasures for sleep loss and deprivation. Current treatment options in neurology, 8(5), 361-366.

The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES): rationale, design, methods, and procedures.
Kushida, C. A., Nichols, D. A., Quan, S. F., Goodwin, J. L., White, D. P., & Dement, W. C. (2006). The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES): rationale, design, methods, and procedures. Journal of clinical sleep medicine , 2(3), 288-300.

Botulinum toxin A: new hope for RLS?
Kushida, C. A. (2006). Botulinum toxin A: new hope for RLS?. Journal of clinical sleep medicine , 2(3), 279-280.

Practice parameters for the use of continuous and bilevel positive airway pressure devices to treat adult patients with sleep-related breathing disorders
Kushida, C. A., Littner, M. R., Hirshkowitz, M., Morgenthaler, T. I., Alessi, C. A., & Wise, M. S. (2006). Practice parameters for the use of continuous and bilevel positive airway pressure devices to treat adult patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. SLEEP, 29(3), 375-380.

Pramipexole for the treatment of restless legs syndrome
Kushida, C. A. (2006). Pramipexole for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. EXPERT OPINION ON PHARMACOTHERAPY, 7(4), 441-451.

Practice parameters for the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances: An update for 2005
Kushida, C. A., Morgenthaler, T. I., Littner, M. R., Alessi, C. A., Bailey, D., & Pancer, J. P. (2006). Practice parameters for the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances: An update for 2005. SLEEP, 29(2), 240-243.

Practice parameters for the indications for polysomnography and related procedures: An update for 2005
Kushida, C. A., Littner, M. R., Morgenthaler, T., Alessi, C. A., Bailey, D., & Wise, M. (2005). Practice parameters for the indications for polysomnography and related procedures: An update for 2005. SLEEP, 28(4), 499-521.

Practice Parameters for clinical use of the multiple sleep latency test and the maintenance of wakefulness test - An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Report - Standards of practice committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Littner, M. R., Kushida, C., Wise, M., Davila, D. G., Morgenthaler, T., & Kramer, M. (2005). Practice Parameters for clinical use of the multiple sleep latency test and the maintenance of wakefulness test - An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Report - Standards of practice committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. SLEEP, 28(1), 113-121.

Ropinirole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome.
Kakar, R. S., & Kushida, C. A. (2005). Ropinirole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 5(1), 35-42.

Modeling the causal relationships between symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome and the patient-reported impact of RLS
Kushida, C. A., Allen, R. P., & Atkinson, M. J. (2004). Modeling the causal relationships between symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome and the patient-reported impact of RLS. SLEEP MEDICINE, 5(5), 485-488.

Ropinirole decreases periodic leg movements and improves sleep parameters in patients with restless legs syndrome
Allen, R., Becker, P. M., Bogan, R., Schmidt, M., Kushida, C. A., & Winslow, D. (2004). Ropinirole decreases periodic leg movements and improves sleep parameters in patients with restless legs syndrome. SLEEP, 27(5), 907-914.

Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder
Rama, A. N., & Kushida, C. A. (2004). Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. MEDICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 88(3), 653-?.

Practice parameters for the dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder
Littner, M. R., Kushida, C., Anderson, W. M., Bailey, D., Berry, R. B., & Wise, M. (2004). Practice parameters for the dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. SLEEP, 27(3), 557-559.

The use of esophageal manometry in the diagnosis of sleep-related breathing disorders.
Kushida, C. A. (2004). The use of esophageal manometry in the diagnosis of sleep-related breathing disorders. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, 5, 3860-3863.

Non-Rapid Eye Movement Parasomnias.
Farid, M., & Kushida, C. A. (2004). Non-Rapid Eye Movement Parasomnias. Current treatment options in neurology, 6(4), 331-337.

Report of a case of immunosuppression with prednisone in an 8-year-old boy with an acute onset of hypocretin-deficiency narcolepsy
Hecht, M., Lin, L., Kushida, C. A., Umetsu, D. T., Taheri, S., & Mignot, E. (2003). Report of a case of immunosuppression with prednisone in an 8-year-old boy with an acute onset of hypocretin-deficiency narcolepsy. SLEEP, 26(7), 809-810.

Restless legs syndrome symptoms in primary care - A prevalence study
Nichols, D. A., Allen, R. P., Grauke, J. H., Brown, J. B., Rice, M. L., & Kushida, C. A. (2003). Restless legs syndrome symptoms in primary care - A prevalence study. ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 163(19), 2323-2329.

Anterior cervical spine fusion and sleep disordered breathing
Guilleminault, C., Li, K. K., Philip, P., & Kushida, C. A. (2003). Anterior cervical spine fusion and sleep disordered breathing. NEUROLOGY, 61(1), 97-99.

Nasal obstruction in sleep-disordered breathing
Chen, W., & Kushida, C. A. (2003). Nasal obstruction in sleep-disordered breathing. OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 36(3), 437-?.

Practice parameters for the role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms: An update for 2002 - An American academy of sleep medicine report
Littner, M., Kushida, C. A., Anderson, M., Bailey, D., Berry, R. B., & Johnson, S. F. (2003). Practice parameters for the role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms: An update for 2002 - An American academy of sleep medicine report. SLEEP, 26(3), 337-341.

Factor analysis of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group's scale for restless legs severity
Allen, R. P., Kushida, C. A., & Atkinson, M. J. (2003). Factor analysis of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group's scale for restless legs severity. SLEEP MEDICINE, 4(2), 133-135.

Behavioral parasomnias.
Brooks, S., & Kushida, C. A. (2002). Behavioral parasomnias. Current psychiatry reports, 4(5), 363-368.

Sites of obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea
Rama, A. N., Tekwani, S. H., & Kushida, C. A. (2002). Sites of obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea. CHEST, 122(4), 1139-1147.

Practice parameters for the use of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Littner, M., Hirshkowitz, M., Davila, D., Anderson, W. M., Kushida, C. A., & Wise, M. S. (2002). Practice parameters for the use of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP, 25(2), 143-147.

Technical protocol for the use of esophageal manometry in the diagnosis of sleep-related breathing disorders
Kushida, C. A., Giacomini, A., Lee, M. K., Guilleminault, C., & Dement, W. C. (2002). Technical protocol for the use of esophageal manometry in the diagnosis of sleep-related breathing disorders. SLEEP MEDICINE, 3(2), 163-173.

Sleep deprivation in the rat: X. Integration and discussion of the findings. 1989.
Rechtschaffen, A., Bergmann, B. M., Everson, C. A., Kushida, C. A., & Gilliland, M. A. (2002). Sleep deprivation in the rat: X. Integration and discussion of the findings. 1989. Sleep, 25(1), 68-87.

Comparison of actigraphic, polysomnographic, and subjective assessment of sleep parameters in sleep-disordered patients
Kushida, C. A., Chang, A., Gadkary, C., Guilleminault, C., Carrillo, O., & Dement, W. C. (2001). Comparison of actigraphic, polysomnographic, and subjective assessment of sleep parameters in sleep-disordered patients. SLEEP MEDICINE, 2(5), 389-396.

Practice parameters for the use of laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty: An update for 2000
Littner, M., Kushida, C. A., Hartse, K., Anderson, W. M., Davila, D., & Woodson, B. T. (2001). Practice parameters for the use of laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty: An update for 2000. SLEEP, 24(5), 603-619.

Practice parameters for the treatment of narcolepsy: An update for 2000
Littner, M., Johnson, S. F., McCall, W. V., Anderson, W. D., Davila, D., & Woodson, B. T. (2001). Practice parameters for the treatment of narcolepsy: An update for 2000. SLEEP, 24(4), 451-466.

Cervical positioning for reduction of sleep-disordered breathing in mild-to-moderate OSAS.
Kushida, C. A., Sherrill, C. M., Hong, S. C., Palombini, L., Hyde, P., & Dement, W. C. (2001). Cervical positioning for reduction of sleep-disordered breathing in mild-to-moderate OSAS. Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung, 5(2), 71-78.

Symptom-Based Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in an Adult Primary Care Population.
Kushida, C. A., Nichols, D. A., Simon, R. D., Young, T., Grauke, J. H., & Dement, W. C. (2000). Symptom-Based Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in an Adult Primary Care Population. Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung, 4(1), 9-14.

Cervical positional effects on snoring and apneas.
Kushida, C. A., Rao, S., Guilleminault, C., Giraudo, S., Hsieh, J., & Dement, W. C. (1999). Cervical positional effects on snoring and apneas. Sleep research online : SRO, 2(1), 7-10.

A predictive morphometric model for the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Kushida, C. A., Efron, B., & Guilleminault, C. (1997). A predictive morphometric model for the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 127(8), 581-?.

Nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea: A review
Kushida, C. A., Guilleminault, C., Clerk, A. A., & Dement, W. C. (1997). Nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea: A review. ALLERGY AND ASTHMA PROCEEDINGS, 18(2), 69-71.

PROLONGED CONFUSION WITH NOCTURNAL WANDERING ARISING FROM NREM AND REM-SLEEP - A CASE-REPORT
Kushida, C. A., Clerk, A. A., Kirsch, C. M., Hotson, J. R., & Guilleminault, C. (1995). PROLONGED CONFUSION WITH NOCTURNAL WANDERING ARISING FROM NREM AND REM-SLEEP - A CASE-REPORT. SLEEP, 18(9), 757-764.

THE EXPRESSION OF M1-M3 MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR MESSENGER-RNAS IN RAT-BRAIN FOLLOWING REM-SLEEP DEPRIVATION
Kushida, C. A., Zoltoski, R. K., & Gillin, J. C. (1995). THE EXPRESSION OF M1-M3 MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR MESSENGER-RNAS IN RAT-BRAIN FOLLOWING REM-SLEEP DEPRIVATION. NEUROREPORT, 6(12), 1705-1708.

CORTICAL ASYMMETRY OF REM-SLEEP EEG FOLLOWING UNILATERAL PONTINE HEMORRHAGE
Kushida, C. A., Rye, D. B., NUMMY, D., Milton, J. G., Spire, J. P., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1991). CORTICAL ASYMMETRY OF REM-SLEEP EEG FOLLOWING UNILATERAL PONTINE HEMORRHAGE. NEUROLOGY, 41(4), 598-601.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .5. ENERGY USE AND MEDIATION
Bergmann, B. M., Everson, C. A., Kushida, C. A., Fang, V. S., Leitch, C. A., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .5. ENERGY USE AND MEDIATION. SLEEP, 12(1), 31-41.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .10. INTEGRATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
Rechtschaffen, A., Bergmann, B. M., Everson, C. A., Kushida, C. A., & Gilliland, M. A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .10. INTEGRATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS. SLEEP, 12(1), 68-87.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .9. RECOVERY
Everson, C. A., Gilliland, M. A., Kushida, C. A., Pilcher, J. J., Fang, V. S., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .9. RECOVERY. SLEEP, 12(1), 60-67.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .7. IMMUNE FUNCTION
Benca, R. M., Kushida, C. A., Everson, C. A., KALSKI, R., Bergmann, B. M., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .7. IMMUNE FUNCTION. SLEEP, 12(1), 47-52.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .1. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES
Rechtschaffen, A., Bergmann, B. M., Everson, C. A., Kushida, C. A., & Gilliland, M. A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .1. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES. SLEEP, 12(1), 1-4.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .2. METHODOLOGY
Bergmann, B. M., Kushida, C. A., Everson, C. A., Gilliland, M. A., Obermeyer, W., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .2. METHODOLOGY. SLEEP, 12(1), 5-12.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .4. PARADOXICAL SLEEP-DEPRIVATION
Kushida, C. A., Bergmann, B. M., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .4. PARADOXICAL SLEEP-DEPRIVATION. SLEEP, 12(1), 22-30.

SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .6. SKIN CHANGES
Kushida, C. A., Everson, C. A., Suthipinittharm, P., Sloan, J., Soltani, K., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1989). SLEEP-DEPRIVATION IN THE RAT .6. SKIN CHANGES. SLEEP, 12(1), 42-46.

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF CATAPLECTIC ATTACKS IN NARCOLEPTIC CANINES
Kushida, C. A., Baker, T. L., & Dement, W. C. (1985). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF CATAPLECTIC ATTACKS IN NARCOLEPTIC CANINES. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AND CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 61(1), 61-70.