Alex Macario MD MBA

Anesthesiologist

Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine and, by courtesy, of Health Research and Policy at the Stanford University Medical Center
Alex Macario spent the first decade of his life in Europe as his parents are scientists and held different positions in Sweden, Italy, and France. He finished high school in Albany NY and attended the University of Rochester on a Joseph C. Wilson Merit Scholarship.

Dr. Macario completed his undergraduate, medical school and business school education at the University of Rochester. He then trained in the anesthesiology residency at Stanford University, went on to serve as Chief Resident, and completed a postgraduate fellowship in health services research.

Dr. Macario is Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine and, by courtesy, also in the Department of Health Research and Policy at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Dr. Macario is Vice-Chair for Education and Program Director for the Anesthesia Residency which has more than 80 housestaff. He has led the creation of several new and innovative education initiatives including: 1) the Stanford Fellowship in Anesthesia Research and Medicine Program (http://med.stanford.edu/anesthesia/education/residentresearch.html) which is a research intensive track within the main residency, and 2) the Stanford Anesthesia Teaching Scholars Program (http://med.stanford.edu/anesthesia/education/teaching_scholars.html) to improve pedagogical training of faculty.

Dr. Macario's research career has been dedicated to the economics of health care, in particular the tradeoffs between costs and outcomes for patients having surgery and anesthesia. Dr. Macario has completed internationally recognized studies on the management of the operating room suite, as well as pioneering work on the cost-effectiveness of drugs and devices.

He is founder (in 1996) and director of the Management Fellowship, a postgraduate program which trains several physicians each year in areas such as leadership, informatics, entrepreneurship, quality, and management science with special attention to the delivery of surgical and anesthesia care.

Dr. Macario has also authored "A Sabbatical in Madrid: A Diary of Spain," an award winning travel memoir. Dr. Macario has two children in college and lives with his wife in their home on the Stanford Campus. In his free time Dr. Macario enjoys rooting for Stanford sports, biking up the local hills, and playing tennis.

Professional Education

Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (1995)

Fellowship: Stanford University Medical Center (1995) CA

Chief Resident, Stanford University, Anesthesiology (1994)

Residency: Stanford University School of Medicine (1994) CA

Internship: Graduate Hospital (1991) PA

Medical Education: University of Rochester (1990) NY

MBA, University of Rochester, Health Economics (1988)

BA, University of Rochester, Sociology (1986)

Honors & Awards

Faculty Mentor Award, American Society of Anesthesiology, Committee on Professional Diversity (2012-2013)

First place, “best article”, Journal of Medical Internet Research: 4th World Congress on Social Media & Web 2.0 Health & Medicine (2012)

Education Advisory Board, Association of University Anesthesiologists (2012)

Charter member, Education Academy, Foundation for Anesthesia Education & Research (2012)

Ellis N. Cohen Achievement Award (Department of Anesthesiology highest honor), Stanford University (2009)

Keynote speaker, American Association of Clinical Directors Annual Meeting (2007)

1st place, Literature Prize, American Society of Anesthesiology Annual Meeting (2004)

Research Incentive Award, Testing a secure Web based, decision support system for anesthesia, Stanford University Office of Technology Licensing (2001-2002)

Principal Investigator for grant on patient preferences for postoperative outcomes, Foundation for Anesthesia Education Research (1998)

Annual Resident Research Prize, 3rd Place, American Society of Anesthesiologists (1995)

Valdes - Dapena Research Prize, The Graduate Hospital, University of Pennsylvania (1991)

Phi Beta Kappa, University of Rochester (1986)

Graduation Speaker, College of Arts & Sciences, University of Rochester (1986)

Rigby - Wile Prize in Biology, University of Rochester (1985)

Joseph C. Wilson Scholar, University of Rochester (1982)

Administrative Appointments

Program Director, Combined Internal Medicine-Anesthesiology residency (2013 - Present)

Director, CME Grand Rounds Program, Department of Anesthesiology (2010 - Present)

Associate Program Director, Combined Pediatrics and Anesthesiology Residency (2010 - Present)

Director, Faculty Teaching Scholars Program, Department of Anesthesiology (2007 - Present)

Vice-Chairman for Education, Department of Anesthesiology (2006 - Present)

Program Director, Anesthesiology Residency (2006 - Present)

Program Director, Management of Perioperative Services Fellowship (1996 - Present)

Executive Committee, Faculty Senate, Stanford University School of Medicine (2007 - 2012)

Program Director, California Society of Anesthesia CME Seminar (2006 - 2006)

Finance Committee, Dept of Anesthesiology (2003 - Present)

Editor, Stanford Anesthesia News (Alumni Publication) (2001 - 2006)

Visiting Professor, TAISS, Madrid, Spain (2001 - 2002)

Governance Committee, Dept. of Anesthesiology (1997 - Present)

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Health Care patient, you have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.

Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future.

Data, data, on the server: challenges in applying data analysis to operating room management.
Sanford, J. A., & Macario, A. (2014). Data, data, on the server: challenges in applying data analysis to operating room management. Anesthesiology, 121(1), 6-8.

Scheduling of procedures and staff in an ambulatory surgery center.
Pash, J., Kadry, B., Bugrara, S., & Macario, A. (2014). Scheduling of procedures and staff in an ambulatory surgery center. Anesthesiology clinics, 32(2), 517-527.

Economic Burden of Back and Neck Pain: Effect of a Neuropathic Component.
Kleinman, N., Patel, A. A., Benson, C., Macario, A., Kim, M., & Biondi, D. M. (2014). Economic Burden of Back and Neck Pain: Effect of a Neuropathic Component. Population health management.

Positive end-expiratory pressure to increase internal jugular vein size is poorly tolerated in obese anesthetized adults.
Downey, L. A., Blaine, K. P., Sliwa, J., Macario, A., & Brock-Utne, J. (2014). Positive end-expiratory pressure to increase internal jugular vein size is poorly tolerated in obese anesthetized adults. Anesthesia and analgesia, 119(3), 619-21.

Simulation-based mastery learning with deliberate practice improves clinical performance in spinal anesthesia.
Udani, A. D., Macario, A., Nandagopal, K., Tanaka, M. A., & Tanaka, P. P. (2014). Simulation-based mastery learning with deliberate practice improves clinical performance in spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology research and practice, 2014, 659160.

Implementing operating room management science: From the bench to the scheduling office.
Macario, A. (2014). Implementing operating room management science: From the bench to the scheduling office. European journal of anaesthesiology, 31(7), 355-60.

Can physician performance be assessed via simulation?
Macario, A. (2014). Can physician performance be assessed via simulation?. Anesthesiology, 120(1), 18-21.

Opiates for Chronic Pain Management and Surgical Considerations
Esaki, R., & Macario, A. (2014). Opiates for Chronic Pain Management and Surgical Considerations. Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine, and Critical Care. Springer.

A Cost Analysis of Neuraxial Anesthesia to Facilitate External Cephalic Version for Breech Fetal Presentation
Carvalho, B., Tan, J. M., Macario, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., & Sultan, P. (2013). A Cost Analysis of Neuraxial Anesthesia to Facilitate External Cephalic Version for Breech Fetal Presentation. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 117(1), 155-159.

The stanford anesthesia faculty teaching scholars program: summary of faculty development, projects, and outcomes.
Macario, A., Tanaka, P. P., Landy, J. S., Clark, S. M., & Pearl, R. G. (2013). The stanford anesthesia faculty teaching scholars program: summary of faculty development, projects, and outcomes. Journal of graduate medical education, 5(2), 294-298.

The Use of Facebook Among Seventy-Seven Departments of Anesthesia in United States Medical Schools
Landy, J., & Macario, A. (2013). The Use of Facebook Among Seventy-Seven Departments of Anesthesia in United States Medical Schools. Cureus.

Use of Tablet (iPad (R)) as a Tool for Teaching Anesthesiology in an Orthopedic Rotation
Tanaka, P. P., Hawrylyshyn, K. A., & Macario, A. (2012). Use of Tablet (iPad (R)) as a Tool for Teaching Anesthesiology in an Orthopedic Rotation. REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE ANESTESIOLOGIA, 62(2), 214-222.

Vaporizers
Esaki, R., & Macario, A. (2012). Vaporizers. The Anesthesia Technician and Technologist's Manual: All You Need to Know for Study and Reference (247-254). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Anesthesia Information Management Systems: Past, Present, and Future of Anesthesia Records
Kadry, B., Feaster, W. W., Macario, A., & Ehrenfeld, J. M. (2012). Anesthesia Information Management Systems: Past, Present, and Future of Anesthesia Records. MOUNT SINAI JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 79(1), 154-165.

Cost identification analysis of anesthesia fiberscope use for tracheal intubation
Liu, S., Brodsky, J., & Macario, A. (2012). Cost identification analysis of anesthesia fiberscope use for tracheal intubation. Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research , 3(5).

Book Review: ANESTHESIOLOGY CLINICS - Quality of Anesthesia Care
Santiago, J., & Macario, A. (2012). Book Review: ANESTHESIOLOGY CLINICS - Quality of Anesthesia Care. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 114(6).

Leadership Principles
Egger Halbeis, Cb., & Macario, A. (2012). Leadership Principles. Operating Room Leadership and Management (1-15). Cambridge University Press.

The timing of staffing decisions in hospital operating room: incorporating workload heterogeneity into the newsvendor problem
He, B., Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Zenios, S. (2012). The timing of staffing decisions in hospital operating room: incorporating workload heterogeneity into the newsvendor problem. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 14.

Technology and Anesthesia Education
Tanaka, P., & Macario, A. (2012). Technology and Anesthesia Education. Technology and Anesthesia Education. , (2).

Smart Device Use Among Resident Physicians at Stanford Hospital
Ositelu, O., Landy, J., Kadry, B., & Macario, A. (2012). Smart Device Use Among Resident Physicians at Stanford Hospital. Cureus, 4(12).

Analysis of 4999 Online Physician Ratings Indicates That Most Patients Give Physicians a Favorable Rating
Kadry, B., Chu, L. F., Kadry, B., Gammas, D., & Macario, A. (2011). Analysis of 4999 Online Physician Ratings Indicates That Most Patients Give Physicians a Favorable Rating. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, 13(4).

TITRATION OF SEVOFLURANE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS: BLINDED, RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL, IN NON-CARDIAC SURGERY AFTER BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKADE
Drover, D. R., Schmiesing, C., Buchin, A. F., Ortega, H. R., Tanner, J. W., & Macario, A. (2011). TITRATION OF SEVOFLURANE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS: BLINDED, RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL, IN NON-CARDIAC SURGERY AFTER BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKADE. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MONITORING AND COMPUTING, 25(3), 175-181.

A Literature Review of Randomized Clinical Trials of Intravenous Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) for Acute Postoperative Pain
Macario, A., & Royal, M. A. (2011). A Literature Review of Randomized Clinical Trials of Intravenous Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) for Acute Postoperative Pain. PAIN PRACTICE, 11(3), 290-296.

Self-Reported Information Needs of Anesthesia Residency Applicants and Analysis of Applicant-Related Web Sites Resources at 131 United States Training Programs
Chu, L. F., Young, C. A., Zamora, A. K., Lowe, D., Hoang, D. B., & Macario, A. (2011). Self-Reported Information Needs of Anesthesia Residency Applicants and Analysis of Applicant-Related Web Sites Resources at 131 United States Training Programs. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 112(2), 430-439.

Management of staffing and case scheduling for anesthesia outside the operatng room
Macario, A. (2011). Management of staffing and case scheduling for anesthesia outside the operatng room. Anesthesia Outside of the Operating Room (42-48). Oxford University Press.

Processed EEG and Awareness Monitoring
Desai, A., & Macario, A. (2011). Processed EEG and Awareness Monitoring. Manual of Clinical Anesthesiology (96-100). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pharmacoeconomics
Macario, A. (2011). Pharmacoeconomics. Anesthetic Pharmacology: Basic Principles and Clinical Practice (166-176). Cambridge University Press.

Can an Acute Pain Service Be Cost-Effective?
Sun, E., Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (2010). Can an Acute Pain Service Be Cost-Effective?. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111(4), 841-844.

Restoration of disk height through non- surgical spinal decompression is associated with decreased discogenic low back pain: a retrospective cohort study
Apfel, C. C., Cakmakkaya, O. S., Martin, W., Richmond, C., Macario, A., & Pergolizzi, J. V. (2010). Restoration of disk height through non- surgical spinal decompression is associated with decreased discogenic low back pain: a retrospective cohort study. BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, 11.

Patient and physician perceptions of treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain with oral opioids
Duensing, L., Eksterowicz, N., Macario, A., Brown, M., Stern, L., & Ogbonnaya, A. (2010). Patient and physician perceptions of treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain with oral opioids. CURRENT MEDICAL RESEARCH AND OPINION, 26(7), 1579-1585.

Learning management systems and lecture capture in the medical academic environment.
Chu, L. F., Young, C. A., Ngai, L. K., Cun, T., Pearl, R. G., & Macario, A. (2010). Learning management systems and lecture capture in the medical academic environment. International anesthesiology clinics, 48(3), 27-51.

The role of social networking applications in the medical academic environment.
Chu, L. F., Zamora, A. K., Young, C. A., Kurup, V., & Macario, A. (2010). The role of social networking applications in the medical academic environment. International anesthesiology clinics, 48(3), 61-82.

The limitations of using operating room utilisation to allocate surgeons more or less surgical block time in the USA
Macario, A. (2010). The limitations of using operating room utilisation to allocate surgeons more or less surgical block time in the USA. ANAESTHESIA, 65(6), 548-552.

What does one minute of operating room time cost?
Macario, A. (2010). What does one minute of operating room time cost?. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 22(4), 233-236.

Preoperative evaluation clinics
Yen, C., Tsai, M., & Macario, A. (2010). Preoperative evaluation clinics. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 23(2), 167-172.

Challenges that limit meaningful use of health information technology
Kadry, B., Sanderson, I. C., & Macario, A. (2010). Challenges that limit meaningful use of health information technology. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 23(2), 184-192.

Anesthesia 2.0: Internet-based information resources and Web 2.0 applications in anesthesia education
Chu, L. F., Young, C., Zamora, A., Kurup, V., & Macario, A. (2010). Anesthesia 2.0: Internet-based information resources and Web 2.0 applications in anesthesia education. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 23(2), 218-227.

Prevalence of anaesthesia information management systems in university-affiliated hospitals in Europe
Balust, J., Halbeis, C. Be., & Macario, A. (2010). Prevalence of anaesthesia information management systems in university-affiliated hospitals in Europe. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIOLOGY, 27(2), 202-208.

Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation
Tan, J. M., Macario, A., Carvalho, B., Druzin, M. L., & El-Sayed, Y. Y. (2010). Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation. BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH, 10.

Anesthesia group management and strategies
Hass, W., Macario, A., & Garner, R. (2010). Anesthesia group management and strategies. Handbook of Healthcare Delivery Systems . CRC Press.

Improving safety in the operating room: a systematic literature review of retained surgical sponges
Wan, W., Le, T., Riskin, L., & Macario, A. (2009). Improving safety in the operating room: a systematic literature review of retained surgical sponges. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 22(2), 207-214.

Managing quality in an anesthesia department
McIntosh, C. A., & Macario, A. (2009). Managing quality in an anesthesia department. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 22(2), 223-231.

Can anesthesia information management systems improve quality in the surgical suite?
Balust, J., & Macario, A. (2009). Can anesthesia information management systems improve quality in the surgical suite?. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 22(2), 215-222.

Should I get a Master of Business Administration? The anesthesiologist with education training: training options and professional opportunities
Desai, A. M., Trillo, R. A., & Macario, A. (2009). Should I get a Master of Business Administration? The anesthesiologist with education training: training options and professional opportunities. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 22(2), 191-198.

Truth in Scheduling: Is It Possible to Accurately Predict How Long a Surgical Case Will Last?
Macario, A. (2009). Truth in Scheduling: Is It Possible to Accurately Predict How Long a Surgical Case Will Last?. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 108(3), 681-685.

How to evaluate whether a new technology in the operating room is cost-effective from society's viewpoint.
Tan, J. M., & Macario, A. (2008). How to evaluate whether a new technology in the operating room is cost-effective from society's viewpoint. Anesthesiology clinics, 26(4), 745-?.

Anesthesiology clinics. Value-based anesthesia. Preface.
Macario, A. (2008). Anesthesiology clinics. Value-based anesthesia. Preface. Anesthesiology clinics, 26(4), xiii-xiv.

Operative Time and Other Outcomes of the Electrothermal Bipolar Vessel Sealing System (LigaSure (TM)) Versus Other Methods for Surgical Hemostasis: A Meta-Analysis
Macario, A., Dexter, F., Sypal, J., Cosgriff, N., & Heniford, B. T. (2008). Operative Time and Other Outcomes of the Electrothermal Bipolar Vessel Sealing System (LigaSure (TM)) Versus Other Methods for Surgical Hemostasis: A Meta-Analysis. SURGICAL INNOVATION, 15(4), 284-291.

Adoption of anesthesia information management systems by academic departments in the United States
Halbeis, C. Be., Epstein, R. H., Macario, A., Pearl, R. G., & Grunwald, Z. (2008). Adoption of anesthesia information management systems by academic departments in the United States. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 107(4), 1323-1329.

Vaginal twin delivery: a survey and review of location, anesthesia coverage and interventions
Carvalho, B., Saxena, A., Butwick, A., & Macario, A. (2008). Vaginal twin delivery: a survey and review of location, anesthesia coverage and interventions. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA, 17(3), 212-216.

Training attendings to be expert teachers: the Stanford Anesthesia Teaching Scholars Program
Macario, A., Edler, A., & Pearl, R. (2008). Training attendings to be expert teachers: the Stanford Anesthesia Teaching Scholars Program. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 20(3), 241-242.

The reuse of anesthesia breathing systems: another difference of opinion and practice between the United States and Europe
Halbeis, C. Be., Macario, A., & Brock-Ume, J. G. (2008). The reuse of anesthesia breathing systems: another difference of opinion and practice between the United States and Europe. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 20(2), 81-83.

Geriatric Anesthesiology
Macario, A. (2008). Geriatric Anesthesiology . JAMA, 299(15).

Treatment of 94 outpatients with chronic discogenic low back pain with the DRX9000: a retrospective chart review.
Macario, A., Richmond, C., Auster, M., & Pergolizzi, J. V. (2008). Treatment of 94 outpatients with chronic discogenic low back pain with the DRX9000: a retrospective chart review. Pain practice , 8(1), 11-17.

Complications in Anesthesiology (book review)
Macario, A. (2008). Complications in Anesthesiology (book review). JAMA , 299(21).

Management of the Difficult and Failed Airway
Maxwell, B., & Macario, A. (2008). Management of the Difficult and Failed Airway. JAMA, 300(7).

Tratado de anestesia y reanimacion
Montejo, L., & Macario, A. (2008). Tratado de anestesia y reanimacion. Cost control and quality improvement in anesthesia. S.A. Aran Ediciones.

Ambulatory surgery center profitability, efficiency and cost containment
Archer, T., Mannis, S., & Macario, A. (2008). Ambulatory surgery center profitability, efficiency and cost containment. Handbook of Ambulatory Anesthesia (396-419). Springer.

Are your operating rooms 'efficient'?
Macario, A. (2007). Are your operating rooms 'efficient'?. OR manager, 23(12), 16-18.

Identification of systematic underestimation (bias) of case durations during case scheduling would not markedly reduce overutilized operating room time
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Ledolter, J. (2007). Identification of systematic underestimation (bias) of case durations during case scheduling would not markedly reduce overutilized operating room time. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 19(3), 198-203.

Complications of Regional Anesthesia Peripheral Nerve Blocks on DVD: Upper Limbs and Lower Limbs (book and media reviews)
Macario, A. (2007). Complications of Regional Anesthesia Peripheral Nerve Blocks on DVD: Upper Limbs and Lower Limbs (book and media reviews). JAMA, 298(21).

Hospitalization costs of total knee arthroplasty with a continuous femoral nerve block provided only in the hospital versus on an ambulatory basis: A retrospective, case-control, cost-minimization analysis
Ilfeld, B. M., Mariano, E. R., Williams, B. A., Woodard, J. N., & Macario, A. (2007). Hospitalization costs of total knee arthroplasty with a continuous femoral nerve block provided only in the hospital versus on an ambulatory basis: A retrospective, case-control, cost-minimization analysis. REGIONAL ANESTHESIA AND PAIN MEDICINE, 32(1), 46-54.

Economic analysis of perioperative optimization.
Archer, T., Mannis, S., & Macario, A. (2007). Economic analysis of perioperative optimization.. Perioperative Medicine: Managing for Outcome (673-687). Saunders.

Scheduling elective pediatric procedures that require anesthesia: The perspective of parents
Mariano, E. R., Chu, L. F., Ramamoorthy, C., & Macario, A. (2006). Scheduling elective pediatric procedures that require anesthesia: The perspective of parents. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 103(6), 1426-1431.

Systematic literature review of spinal decompression via motorized traction for chronic discogenic low back pain.
Macario, A., & Pergolizzi, J. V. (2006). Systematic literature review of spinal decompression via motorized traction for chronic discogenic low back pain. Pain practice , 6(3), 171-178.

Staffing and case scheduling for anesthesia in geographically dispersed locations outside of operating rooms.
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Cowen, D. S. (2006). Staffing and case scheduling for anesthesia in geographically dispersed locations outside of operating rooms. Current opinion in anaesthesiology, 19(4), 453-458.

Are your hospital operating rooms "efficient"? A scoring system with eight performance indicators
Macario, A. (2006). Are your hospital operating rooms "efficient"? A scoring system with eight performance indicators. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 105(2), 237-240.

Initial clinical evaluation of a handheld device for detecting retained surgical gauze sponges using radiofrequency identification technology
Macario, A., Morris, D., & Morris, S. (2006). Initial clinical evaluation of a handheld device for detecting retained surgical gauze sponges using radiofrequency identification technology. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 141(7), 659-662.

Is there value in obtaining a patient's willingness to pay for a particular anesthetic intervention?
Macario, A., & Fleisher, L. A. (2006). Is there value in obtaining a patient's willingness to pay for a particular anesthetic intervention?. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 104(5), 906-909.

Factors affecting supply and demand of anesthesiologists in Western Europe.
Egger Halbeis, C. B., & Macario, A. (2006). Factors affecting supply and demand of anesthesiologists in Western Europe. Current opinion in anaesthesiology, 19(2), 207-212.

The drive for operating room efficiency will increase quality of patient care.
Archer, T., & Macario, A. (2006). The drive for operating room efficiency will increase quality of patient care. Current opinion in anaesthesiology, 19(2), 171-176.

Anesthesiology (book review)
Macario, A. (2006). Anesthesiology (book review). JAMA, 295(9).

Anesthesiologists' practice patterns for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ambulatory Post Anesthesia Care Unit.
Macario, A., Claybon, L., & Pergolizzi, J. V. (2006). Anesthesiologists' practice patterns for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ambulatory Post Anesthesia Care Unit. BMC anesthesiology, 6, 6-?.

A Markov computer simulation model of the economics of neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Macario, A., Chow, J. L., & Dexter, F. (2006). A Markov computer simulation model of the economics of neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 6, 15-?.

Operating Room Management: an update
Macario, A. (2006). Operating Room Management: an update. Current Reviews in Clinical Anesthesia (CME) (27-34). Frank Moya Continuing Education Programs.

Validity and usefulness of a method to monitor surgical services' average bias in scheduled case durations
Dexter, F., Macario, A., Epstein, R. H., & Ledolter, J. (2005). Validity and usefulness of a method to monitor surgical services' average bias in scheduled case durations. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 52(9), 935-939.

Patient preferences for anesthesia outcomes associated with Cesarean delivery
Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Lipman, S. S., Fuller, A., Mathusamy, A. D., & Macario, A. (2005). Patient preferences for anesthesia outcomes associated with Cesarean delivery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 101(4), 1182-1187.

Quantifying effect of a hospital's caseload for a surgical specialty on that of another hospital using multi-attribute market segments.
Dexter, F., Wachtel, R. E., Sohn, M.-W., Ledolter, J., Dexter, E. U., & Macario, A. (2005). Quantifying effect of a hospital's caseload for a surgical specialty on that of another hospital using multi-attribute market segments. Health care management science, 8(2), 121-131.

Improving the quality of anesthesia care
Macario, A. (2005). Improving the quality of anesthesia care. Current Reviews in Clinical Anesthesia (CME) , 25(25).

Meta-analysis of trial comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane
Macario, A., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trial comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY, 62(1), 63-68.

Urine drug testing in chronic pain patients taking opioids: a clinical practice update
Macario, A., & Pergolizzi, J. (2005). Urine drug testing in chronic pain patients taking opioids: a clinical practice update . Macario A, Pergolizzi J. Urine drug testing in chronic pain patients taking opioids: a clinical practice update. The International Journal of Pain Medicine and Palliative Care (Journal no longer published), 4(1).

The Post Anesthesia Care Unit
Feeley, T., & Macario, A. (2005). The Post Anesthesia Care Unit. Miller's Anesthesia. Churchill Livingstone.

Systematic literature review of economics of IV patient controlled analgesia.
Macario, A. (2005). Systematic literature review of economics of IV patient controlled analgesia. . Pharmacy and Therapeutics (ISSN 1052-1372), 30(7).

Cost-effectiveness of a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery depends on the a priori chance of success
Macario, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., & Druzin, M. L. (2004). Cost-effectiveness of a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery depends on the a priori chance of success. CLINICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 47(2), 378-385.

When to release allocated operating room time to increase operating room efficiency
Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (2004). When to release allocated operating room time to increase operating room efficiency. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 98(3), 758-762.

Profit maximization in an ambulatory surgery cente
Archer, T., Mannis, S., & Macario, A. (2004). Profit maximization in an ambulatory surgery cente. Ambulatory Anesthesia and Perioperative Analgesia. McGraw-Hill Professional.

Pain and nausea management after surgery
Macario, A., & Pergolizzi, J. (2004). Pain and nausea management after surgery . The International Journal of Pain Medicine and Palliative Care (journal no longer published), 3(3).

Pharmacoeconomics
Macario, A. (2004). Pharmacoeconomics. Anesthetic Pharmacology: Physiologic Principles and Clinical Practice (91-103). Churchill Livingstone.

Economics of one-stage versus two-stage bilateral total knee arthroplasties
Macario, A., Schilling, P., Rubio, R., & Goodman, S. (2003). Economics of one-stage versus two-stage bilateral total knee arthroplasties. CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH, (414), 149-156.

What questions do patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement surgery have?
Macario, A., Schilling, P., Rubio, R., Bhalla, A., & Goodman, S. (2003). What questions do patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement surgery have?. BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH.

Operating room utilization alone is not an accurate metric for the allocation of operating room block time to individual surgeons with low caseloads
Dexter, F., Macario, A., Traub, R. D., & Lubarsky, D. A. (2003). Operating room utilization alone is not an accurate metric for the allocation of operating room block time to individual surgeons with low caseloads. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 98(5), 1243-1249.

Physicians' perceptions of minimum time that should be saved to move a surgical case from one operating room to another: Internet-based survey of the membership of the association of anesthesia clinical directors (AACD)
Dexter, F., Smith, T. C., & Tatman, D. J. (2003). Physicians' perceptions of minimum time that should be saved to move a surgical case from one operating room to another: Internet-based survey of the membership of the association of anesthesia clinical directors (AACD). JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 15(3), 206-210.

The pharmacy cost of delivering postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing joint replacement surgery
Macario, A., & McCoy, M. (2003). The pharmacy cost of delivering postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing joint replacement surgery. JOURNAL OF PAIN, 4(1), 22-28.

How to release allocated operating room time to increase efficiency: Predicting which surgical service will have the most underutilized operating room time
Dexter, F., Traub, R. D., & Macario, A. (2003). How to release allocated operating room time to increase efficiency: Predicting which surgical service will have the most underutilized operating room time. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 96(2), 507-512.

A Sabbatical in Madrid
Alex Macario. (2003). A Sabbatical in Madrid. travel memoir book.

Technology and computing in the surgical suite: Key features of an OR management information system and opportunities for the future
Macario, A., & Vasanawala, M. (2002). Technology and computing in the surgical suite: Key features of an OR management information system and opportunities for the future. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 95(4), 1120-1121.

Development of an appropriate list of surgical procedures of a specified maximum anesthetic complexity to be performed at a new ambulatory surgery facility
Dexter, F., Macario, A., Penning, D. H., & Chung, P. (2002). Development of an appropriate list of surgical procedures of a specified maximum anesthetic complexity to be performed at a new ambulatory surgery facility. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 95(1), 78-82.

Economic evaluation of noncontact normothermic wound therapy for treatment of pressure ulcers.
Macario, A. (2002). Economic evaluation of noncontact normothermic wound therapy for treatment of pressure ulcers. Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research, 2(3), 211-217.

Changing allocations of operating room time from a system based on historical utilization to one where the aim is to schedule as many surgical cases as possible
Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (2002). Changing allocations of operating room time from a system based on historical utilization to one where the aim is to schedule as many surgical cases as possible. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 94(5), 1272-1279.

What is quality improvement in the preoperative period?
Archer, T., Schmiesing, C., & Macario, A. (2002). What is quality improvement in the preoperative period?. International anesthesiology clinics, 40(2), 1-16.

Economic considerations related to providing adequate pain relief for women in labour - Comparison of epidural and intravenous analgesia
Huang, C., & Macario, A. (2002). Economic considerations related to providing adequate pain relief for women in labour - Comparison of epidural and intravenous analgesia. PHARMACOECONOMICS, 20(5), 305-318.

What are the most important risk factors for a patient's developing intraoperative hypothermia?
Macario, A., & Dexter, F. (2002). What are the most important risk factors for a patient's developing intraoperative hypothermia?. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 94(1), 215-220.

Is non-contact thermal wound therapy cost-effective for the treatment of stage 3 and 4 pressure ulcers?
Macario, A., & Dexter, F. (2002). Is non-contact thermal wound therapy cost-effective for the treatment of stage 3 and 4 pressure ulcers? . Wounds (ISSN 1044-7946), 14(3).

Ketorolac in the era of cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A systematic review of efficacy, side effects, and regulatory issues
Macario, A., & Lipman, A. G. (2001). Ketorolac in the era of cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A systematic review of efficacy, side effects, and regulatory issues. PAIN MEDICINE, 2(4), 336-351.

Hospital profitability per hour of operating room time can vary among surgeons
Macario, A., Dexter, F., & Traub, R. D. (2001). Hospital profitability per hour of operating room time can vary among surgeons. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 93(3), 669-675.

Variation in practice patterns of anesthesiologists in California for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting
Macario, A., Chung, A., & Weinger, M. B. (2001). Variation in practice patterns of anesthesiologists in California for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 13(5), 353-360.

Cost-effectiveness of a trial of labor after previous cesarean
Chung, A., Macario, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Riley, E. T., Duncan, B., & Druzin, M. L. (2001). Cost-effectiveness of a trial of labor after previous cesarean. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 97(6), 932-941.

The surgical suite meets the new health economy
Canales, M. G., Macario, A., & Krummel, T. (2001). The surgical suite meets the new health economy. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, 192(6), 768-776.

The impact on revenue of increasing patient volume at surgical suites with relatively high operating room utilization
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Lubarsky, D. A. (2001). The impact on revenue of increasing patient volume at surgical suites with relatively high operating room utilization. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 92(5), 1215-1221.

Optimal number of beds and occupancy to minimize staffing costs in an obstetrical unit?
Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (2001). Optimal number of beds and occupancy to minimize staffing costs in an obstetrical unit?. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 48(3), 295-301.

Can peri-operative quality be maintained in the drive for operating room efficiency? An American perspective.
Canales, M., & Macario, A. (2001). Can peri-operative quality be maintained in the drive for operating room efficiency? An American perspective. . Best Practice and Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, 15(4).

Improving quality of anesthesia care: opportunities for the new decade
Macario, A., & Vasanawala, A. (2001). Improving quality of anesthesia care: opportunities for the new decade. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 48(1), 6-11.

Enterprise-wide patient scheduling information systems to coordinate surgical clinic and operating room scheduling can impair operating room efficiency
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Traub, R. D. (2000). Enterprise-wide patient scheduling information systems to coordinate surgical clinic and operating room scheduling can impair operating room efficiency. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 91(3), 617-626.

Quantitative description of the workload associated with airway management procedures
Weinger, M. B., Vredenburgh, A. G., Schumann, C. M., Macario, A., Williams, K. J., & Kim, A. (2000). Quantitative description of the workload associated with airway management procedures. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 12(4), 273-282.

What is the relative frequency of uncommon ambulatory surgery procedures performed in the United States with an anesthesia provider?
Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (2000). What is the relative frequency of uncommon ambulatory surgery procedures performed in the United States with an anesthesia provider?. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 90(6), 1343-1347.

A retrospective examination of regional plus general anesthesia in children undergoing open heart surgery
Hammer, G. B., Ngo, K., & Macario, A. (2000). A retrospective examination of regional plus general anesthesia in children undergoing open heart surgery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 90(5), 1020-1024.

Scheduling surgical cases into overflow block time - Computer simulation of the effects of scheduling strategies on operating room labor costs
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & O'Neill, L. (2000). Scheduling surgical cases into overflow block time - Computer simulation of the effects of scheduling strategies on operating room labor costs. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 90(4), 980-988.

Effect of compensation and patient scheduling on OR labor costs.
Macario, A., & Dexter, F. (2000). Effect of compensation and patient scheduling on OR labor costs. AORN journal, 71(4), 860-?.

Analgesia for labor pain: A cost model
Macario, A., Scibetta, W. C., Navarro, J., & Riley, E. (2000). Analgesia for labor pain: A cost model. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 92(3), 841-850.

Statistical method using operating room information system data to determine anesthetist weekend call requirements.
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Traub, R. D. (2000). Statistical method using operating room information system data to determine anesthetist weekend call requirements. AANA journal, 68(1), 21-26.

Calculating the cost of anesthesia care
Chung, A., & Macario, A. (2000). Calculating the cost of anesthesia care . Current Anesthesiology Reports (ISSN: 1523-3855), 2(5).

Common problems in the postanesthetic care unit
Vasanawala, M., Macario, A., & Canales, M. (2000). Common problems in the postanesthetic care unit. Contemporary Surgery (ISSN: 0045-8341), 56(11).

Estimating the duration of a case when the surgeon has not recently scheduled the procedure at the surgical suite
Macario, A., & Dexter, F. (1999). Estimating the duration of a case when the surgeon has not recently scheduled the procedure at the surgical suite. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 89(5), 1241-1245.

Forecasting surgical groups' total hours of elective cases for allocation of block time - Application of time series analysis to operating room management
Dexter, F., Macario, A., Qian, F., & Traub, R. D. (1999). Forecasting surgical groups' total hours of elective cases for allocation of block time - Application of time series analysis to operating room management. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(5), 1501-1508.

Relying solely on historical surgical times to estimate accurately future surgical times is unlikely to reduce the average length of time cases finish late
Zhou, J. S., Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Lubarsky, D. A. (1999). Relying solely on historical surgical times to estimate accurately future surgical times is unlikely to reduce the average length of time cases finish late. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 11(7), 601-605.

Which algorithm for scheduling add-on elective cases maximizes operating room utilization? Use of bin packing algorithms and fuzzy constraints in operating room management
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Traub, R. D. (1999). Which algorithm for scheduling add-on elective cases maximizes operating room utilization? Use of bin packing algorithms and fuzzy constraints in operating room management. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(5), 1491-1500.

A strategy for deciding operating room assignments for second-shift anesthetists
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & O'Neill, L. (1999). A strategy for deciding operating room assignments for second-shift anesthetists. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 89(4), 920-924.

What can the postanesthesia care unit manager do to decrease costs in the postanesthesia care unit?
Macario, A., Glenn, D., & Dexter, F. (1999). What can the postanesthesia care unit manager do to decrease costs in the postanesthesia care unit?. Journal of perianesthesia nursing , 14(5), 284-293.

Which clinical anesthesia outcomes are important to avoid? the perspective of patients
Macario, A., Weinger, M., Carney, S., & Kim, A. (1999). Which clinical anesthesia outcomes are important to avoid? the perspective of patients. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 89(3), 652-658.

Statistical method to evaluate management strategies to decrease variability in operating room utilization: Application of linear statistical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to operating room management
Dexter, F., Macario, A., Lubarsky, D. A., & Burns, D. D. (1999). Statistical method to evaluate management strategies to decrease variability in operating room utilization: Application of linear statistical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to operating room management. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(1), 262-274.

An operating room scheduling strategy to maximize the use of operating room block time: Computer simulation of patient scheduling and survey of patients' preferences for surgical waiting time
Dexter, F., Macario, A., Traub, R. D., Hopwood, M., & Lubarsky, D. A. (1999). An operating room scheduling strategy to maximize the use of operating room block time: Computer simulation of patient scheduling and survey of patients' preferences for surgical waiting time. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 89(1), 7-20.

Computer simulation to determine how rapid anesthetic recovery protocols to decrease the time for emergence or increase the phase I postanesthesia care unit bypass rate affect staffing of an ambulatory surgery center
Dexter, F., Macario, A., Manberg, P. J., & Lubarsky, D. A. (1999). Computer simulation to determine how rapid anesthetic recovery protocols to decrease the time for emergence or increase the phase I postanesthesia care unit bypass rate affect staffing of an ambulatory surgery center. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 88(5), 1053-1063.

Which clinical anesthesia outcomes are both common and important to avoid? The perspective of a panel of expert anesthesiologists
Macario, A., Weinger, M., Truong, P., & Lee, M. (1999). Which clinical anesthesia outcomes are both common and important to avoid? The perspective of a panel of expert anesthesiologists. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 88(5), 1085-1091.

Optimal sequencing of urgent surgical cases
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Traub, R. D. (1999). Optimal sequencing of urgent surgical cases. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MONITORING AND COMPUTING, 15(3-4), 153-162.

Another use of a bronchoscopic swivel adapter
Torralva, P. R., Macario, A., & Brock-Utne, J. G. (1999). Another use of a bronchoscopic swivel adapter. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 88(5), 1187-1188.

Selecting double-lumen tubes for small patients
Brodsky, J. B., Fitzmaurice, B. G., & Macario, A. (1999). Selecting double-lumen tubes for small patients. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 88(2), 466-466.

Decrease in case duration required to complete an additional case during regularly scheduled hours in an operating room suite: A computer simulation study
Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (1999). Decrease in case duration required to complete an additional case during regularly scheduled hours in an operating room suite: A computer simulation study. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 88(1), 72-76.

Management of the operating room. A new practice opportunity for anesthesiologists
Glenn, D., & Macario, A. (1999). Management of the operating room. A new practice opportunity for anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America , 17(2).

How do hospitals account for costs in the operating room?
Macario, A. (1999). How do hospitals account for costs in the operating room? . Current Reviews in Clinical Anesthesia (CME) (193-204). Frank Moya Continuing Education Programs.

Delivering value to the customers of anesthesia service
Macario, A. (1999). Delivering value to the customers of anesthesia service. Current Reviews in Clinical Anesthesia (CME) (253-264). Frank Moya Continuing Education Programs.

The economics of delivering surgical care in the OR suite
Macario, A. (1999). The economics of delivering surgical care in the OR suite. Progress in Anesthesiology (Dannemiller Memorial Educational Foundation) ISSN: 0891-5784, 8(17).

Do clinical pathways improve efficiency?
Glenn, D., & Macario, A. (1999). Do clinical pathways improve efficiency? . Seminars in Anesthesia, Perioperative Medicine and Pain (incorporated into Journal of Critical Care) , 18(4).

Defining quality in medicine to determine how to improve the value of anesthesia care.
Macario, A. (1999). Defining quality in medicine to determine how to improve the value of anesthesia care. . Progress in Anesthesiology (375-388). Dannemiller Memorial Educational Foundation.

Macario A. Defining quality in medicine to determine how to improve the value of anesthesia care.
Macario, A. (1999). Macario A. Defining quality in medicine to determine how to improve the value of anesthesia care. . Progress in Anesthesiology issn: 0891-5784, VIII(21).

Obstetric postanesthesia care unit stays - Reevaluation of discharge criteria after regional anesthesia
Cohen, S. E., Hamilton, C. L., Riley, E. T., Walker, D. S., Macario, A., & Halpern, J. W. (1998). Obstetric postanesthesia care unit stays - Reevaluation of discharge criteria after regional anesthesia. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 89(6), 1559-1565.

Computer simulation of changes in nursing productivity from early tracheal extubation of coronary artery bypass graft patients
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Dexter, E. U. (1998). Computer simulation of changes in nursing productivity from early tracheal extubation of coronary artery bypass graft patients. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 10(7), 593-598.

Hospital profitability for a surgeon's common procedures predicts the surgeon's overall profitability for the hospital
Dexter, F., Macario, A., & Cerone, S. M. (1998). Hospital profitability for a surgeon's common procedures predicts the surgeon's overall profitability for the hospital. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 10(6), 457-463.

Postoperative epidural injection of saline can shorten postanesthesia care unit time for knee arthroscopy patients
Brock-Utne, J. G., Macario, A., Dillingham, M. F., & Fanton, G. S. (1998). Postoperative epidural injection of saline can shorten postanesthesia care unit time for knee arthroscopy patients. REGIONAL ANESTHESIA AND PAIN MEDICINE, 23(3), 247-251.

The effect of a perioperative clinical pathway for knee replacement surgery on hospital costs
Macario, A., Horne, M., Goodman, S., Vitez, T., Dexter, F., & Brown, B. (1998). The effect of a perioperative clinical pathway for knee replacement surgery on hospital costs. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 86(5), 978-984.

The impact of managed care on anesthesia residency training and clinical practice.
Scibetta, W. C., & Macario, A. (1998). The impact of managed care on anesthesia residency training and clinical practice. Current opinion in anaesthesiology, 11(2), 221-224.

Setting performance standards for an anesthesia department
Vitez, T. S., & Macario, A. (1998). Setting performance standards for an anesthesia department. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 10(2), 166-175.

Evaluating operating room anesthesia staffing
Navarro, J., & Macario, A. (1998). Evaluating operating room anesthesia staffing. American Journal of Anesthesiology ISSN: 1078-4500 , 15(3).

Bilateral vocal cord paralysis after radical cystectomy in a patient with a history of bulbar polio
Macario, A., Mackey, S., & Terris, D. (1997). Bilateral vocal cord paralysis after radical cystectomy in a patient with a history of bulbar polio. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 85(5), 1171-1172.

Does early extubation (''fast-tracking'') of coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients truly decrease perioperative costs?: Appropriate analysis of direct variable costs
Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (1997). Does early extubation (''fast-tracking'') of coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients truly decrease perioperative costs?: Appropriate analysis of direct variable costs. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 87(1), 181-181.

Economics of anesthesia care - A call to arms!
Fisher, D. M., & Macario, A. (1997). Economics of anesthesia care - A call to arms!. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 86(5), 1018-1019.

Computers: a practical guide for anesthesiologists
Garman, J., & Macario, A. (1997). Computers: a practical guide for anesthesiologists. Advances in Anesthesia, 14.

Hospital costs and severity of illness in three types of elective surgery
Macario, A., Vitez, T. S., Dunn, B., McDonald, T., & Brown, B. (1997). Hospital costs and severity of illness in three types of elective surgery. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 86(1), 92-100.

Applications of information systems to operating room scheduling
Dexter, F., & Macario, A. (1996). Applications of information systems to operating room scheduling. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 85(6), 1232-1234.

Fuzzy logic: Theory and medical applications
Vitez, T. S., Wada, R., & Macario, A. (1996). Fuzzy logic: Theory and medical applications. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 10(6), 800-808.

Tracheal diameter predicts double-lumen tube size: A method for selecting left double-lumen tubes
Brodsky, J. B., Macario, A., & Mark, J. Bd. (1996). Tracheal diameter predicts double-lumen tube size: A method for selecting left double-lumen tubes. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 82(4), 861-864.

Modified BronchoCath double-lumen tube
Brodsky, J. B., & Macario, A. (1995). Modified BronchoCath double-lumen tube. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 9(6), 784-785.

WHERE ARE THE COSTS IN PERIOPERATIVE CARE - ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL COSTS AND CHARGES FOR INPATIENT SURGICAL CARE
Macario, A., Vitez, T. S., Dunn, B., & McDonald, T. (1995). WHERE ARE THE COSTS IN PERIOPERATIVE CARE - ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL COSTS AND CHARGES FOR INPATIENT SURGICAL CARE. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(6), 1138-1144.

Defining value in health care: Outcomes
Macario, A. (1995). Defining value in health care: Outcomes. INTERNATIONAL ANESTHESIOLOGY CLINICS, 33(4), 15-31.

BLIND PLACEMENT OF PLASTIC LEFT DOUBLE-LUMEN TUBES
Brodsky, J. B., Macario, A., Cannon, W. B., & Mark, J. Bd. (1995). BLIND PLACEMENT OF PLASTIC LEFT DOUBLE-LUMEN TUBES. ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE, 23(5), 583-586.

PAIN OUTCOMES AFTER THORACOTOMY - LUMBAR EPIDURAL HYDROMORPHONE VERSUS INTRAPLEURAL BUPIVACAINE
Gaeta, R. R., Macario, A., Brodsky, J. B., BROCKUTNE, J. G., & MARK, B. D. (1995). PAIN OUTCOMES AFTER THORACOTOMY - LUMBAR EPIDURAL HYDROMORPHONE VERSUS INTRAPLEURAL BUPIVACAINE. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 9(5), 534-537.

THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF INPATIENT PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA - IMPLICATIONS FOR CREDENTIALING POLICY
Macario, A., Hackel, A., Gregory, G. A., & FORSETH, D. (1995). THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF INPATIENT PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA - IMPLICATIONS FOR CREDENTIALING POLICY. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 7(6), 507-511.

A COST-ANALYSIS OF THE LARYNGEAL MASK AIRWAY FOR ELECTIVE SURGERY IN ADULT OUTPATIENTS
Macario, A., Chang, P. C., STEMPEL, D. B., & BROCKUTNE, J. G. (1995). A COST-ANALYSIS OF THE LARYNGEAL MASK AIRWAY FOR ELECTIVE SURGERY IN ADULT OUTPATIENTS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(2), 250-257.

SPINAL VERSUS EPIDURAL-ANESTHESIA FOR CESAREAN-SECTION - A COMPARISON OF TIME EFFICIENCY, COSTS, CHARGES, AND COMPLICATIONS
Riley, E. T., Cohen, S. E., Macario, A., Desai, J. B., & Ratner, E. F. (1995). SPINAL VERSUS EPIDURAL-ANESTHESIA FOR CESAREAN-SECTION - A COMPARISON OF TIME EFFICIENCY, COSTS, CHARGES, AND COMPLICATIONS. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 80(4), 709-712.

A HEALTH-POLICY PERSPECTIVE ON COSTS OF SHORT-TERM ANESTHESIA SERVICES
Macario, A. (1995). A HEALTH-POLICY PERSPECTIVE ON COSTS OF SHORT-TERM ANESTHESIA SERVICES. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 7(2), 175-175.

Comparison of estimated variable costs is a surrogate for actual cost experience (correspondence reply)
Macario, A., Chang, P., Stempel, D., & Brock-Utne, J. (1995). Comparison of estimated variable costs is a surrogate for actual cost experience (correspondence reply). Anesthesiology, (83).

ANESTHETISTS OVERESTIMATE BLOOD-LOSS
Macario, A., & BROCKUTNE, J. (1994). ANESTHETISTS OVERESTIMATE BLOOD-LOSS. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 41(10), 1017-1018.

ELIMINATION OF 12-FR AND 24-FR ESOPHAGEAL STETHOSCOPES FROM ANESTHETIC PRACTICE (AN ATTEMPT AT COST-CONTAINMENT)
Macario, A., & BROCKUTNE, J. G. (1994). ELIMINATION OF 12-FR AND 24-FR ESOPHAGEAL STETHOSCOPES FROM ANESTHETIC PRACTICE (AN ATTEMPT AT COST-CONTAINMENT). ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 79(2), 393-393.

COSTS OF INHALED ANESTHETICS .3.
Macario, A. (1994). COSTS OF INHALED ANESTHETICS .3. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 80(6), 1405-1405.

REASSESSMENT OF PREOPERATIVE LABORATORY TESTING HAS CHANGED THE TEST-ORDERING PATTERNS OF PHYSICIANS
Macario, A., Roizen, M. F., Thisted, R. A., Kim, S., Orkin, F. K., & Phelps, C. (1992). REASSESSMENT OF PREOPERATIVE LABORATORY TESTING HAS CHANGED THE TEST-ORDERING PATTERNS OF PHYSICIANS. SURGERY GYNECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS, 175(6), 539-547.