Frederick Mihm, M.D.

Anesthesiologist

Professional Education

Fellowship: Stanford University Medical Center (1979) CA

Residency: UCI Medical Center (1976) CA

Medical Education: St Louis University School of Medicine (1974) MO

Fellowship: Massachusetts General Hospital (1979) MA

Board Certification: Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Anesthesiology (1987)

Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (1981)

Residency: Stanford University Medical Center (1978) CA

Internship: USC/LAC Medical Center (1975) CA

Administrative Appointments

Anesthesia CCM fellowship Program Director, Stanford University Medical Center, 2005

Co-Director, Intensive Care Units, Stanford University Medical Center, 2005

Asscoiate Medical Director, Intensive Care Units, Stanford University Medical Center, 1979

Malignant Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Incapacitating Bony Pain
Tan, M., Camargo, C. A., Mojtahed, A., & Mihm, F. (2012). Malignant Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Incapacitating Bony Pain. PAIN PRACTICE, 12(4), 286-289.

The Effects of Respiratory Failure on Delivery in Pregnant Patients With H1N1 2009 Influenza
Jafari, A., Langen, E. S., Aziz, N., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Mihm, F., & Druzin, M. L. (2010). The Effects of Respiratory Failure on Delivery in Pregnant Patients With H1N1 2009 Influenza. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, 115(5), 1033-1035.

Catecholamine-Secreting Paragangliomas: Recent Progress in Diagnosis and Perioperative Management
Colen, T. Y., Mihm, F. G., Mason, T. P., & Roberson, J. B. (2009). Catecholamine-Secreting Paragangliomas: Recent Progress in Diagnosis and Perioperative Management. SKULL BASE-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH, 19(6), 377-385.

Unexpected findings during the anesthetic management of a patient with a cardiac paraganglioma
Soran, P. D., Akram, S., Mihm, F., Fleischmann, D., Reitz, B., & van der Starre, P. (2008). Unexpected findings during the anesthetic management of a patient with a cardiac paraganglioma. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 22(4), 570-572.

Blood pressure control with fenoldopam during excision of a pheochromocytoma
Cooper, Z. A., & Mihm, F. G. (1999). Blood pressure control with fenoldopam during excision of a pheochromocytoma. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(2), 558-560.

Pheochromocytoma: decreased perioperative mortality
Mihm, Fg. (1998). Pheochromocytoma: decreased perioperative mortality. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America, 16(3).

SHORT-ACTING BETA-ADRENERGIC-BLOCKADE AS INITIAL-DRUG THERAPY IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA
Mihm, F. G., Sandhu, J. S., Brown, M. D., & Rosenthal, M. H. (1990). SHORT-ACTING BETA-ADRENERGIC-BLOCKADE AS INITIAL-DRUG THERAPY IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 18(6), 673-674.

Questioning Diuretic Use in Acute Negative-pressure Pulmonary Edema
Maxwell, B. G., & Mihm, F. G. (2011). Questioning Diuretic Use in Acute Negative-pressure Pulmonary Edema. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 114(2), 461-461.

Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation
Maslove, D., & Mihm, F. (2010). Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 363(8), 796-796.

Combined endovascular and open operative approach for mycotic carotid aneurysm
Tsai, T. C., Barot, N., Dalman, R., & Mihm, F. (2010). Combined endovascular and open operative approach for mycotic carotid aneurysm. JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY, 51(6), 1514-1516.

A Hemodynamic Profile for Consciousness During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Tobin, J. M., & Mihm, F. G. (2009). A Hemodynamic Profile for Consciousness During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 109(5), 1598-1599.

Determination of the site of tracheal tube impingement during nasotracheal fibreoptic intubation
Marfin, A. G., Iqbal, R., Mihm, F., Popat, M. T., Scott, S. H., & Pandit, J. J. (2006). Determination of the site of tracheal tube impingement during nasotracheal fibreoptic intubation. ANAESTHESIA, 61(7), 646-650.

Measurement of cardiac output by transpulmonary arterial thermodilution using a long radial artery catheter. A comparison with intermittent pulmonary artery thermodilution
Orme, R. Ml., Pigott, D. W., & Mihm, F. G. (2004). Measurement of cardiac output by transpulmonary arterial thermodilution using a long radial artery catheter. A comparison with intermittent pulmonary artery thermodilution. ANAESTHESIA, 59(6), 590-594.

Laparoscopic management of bladder pheochromocytoma.
Kozlowski, P. M., Mihm, F., & Winfield, H. N. (2001). Laparoscopic management of bladder pheochromocytoma. Urology, 57(2), 365-?.

Continuous cardiac output catheters - Delay in in vitro response time after controlled flow changes
ARANDA, M., Mihm, F. G., Garrett, S., Mihm, M. N., & Pearl, R. G. (1998). Continuous cardiac output catheters - Delay in in vitro response time after controlled flow changes. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 89(6), 1592-1595.

A multicenter evaluation of a new continuous cardiac output pulmonary artery catheter system
Mihm, F. G., Gettinger, A., Hanson, C. W., Gilbert, H. C., Stover, E. P., & Haddow, G. (1998). A multicenter evaluation of a new continuous cardiac output pulmonary artery catheter system. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 26(8), 1346-1350.

Failure of steroid supplementation to prevent operative hypotension in a patient receiving chronic steroid therapy
Ratner, E. F., Allen, R., Mihm, F. G., & BROCKUTNE, J. G. (1996). Failure of steroid supplementation to prevent operative hypotension in a patient receiving chronic steroid therapy. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 82(6), 1294-1296.

RECOVERY OF CARDIOPULMONARY REFLEXES IN MONKEYS UNDERGOING HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
Mihm, F. G., POPOVIC, B. K., Noe, C., Hilberman, M., & Reitz, B. A. (1989). RECOVERY OF CARDIOPULMONARY REFLEXES IN MONKEYS UNDERGOING HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION. JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY, 98(4), 510-516.

EXTRA-ADRENAL PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA - AN UNUSUAL LOCATION
Hartman, G. E., Hintz, R., Northway, W., & Mihm, F. G. (1988). EXTRA-ADRENAL PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA - AN UNUSUAL LOCATION. JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY, 23(11), 1045-1047.

EFFECT OF HEPARINIZATION OF CATHETERS ON PULMONARY-ARTERY OXIMETRY
STRITTER, G. M., Pearl, R. G., & Mihm, F. G. (1988). EFFECT OF HEPARINIZATION OF CATHETERS ON PULMONARY-ARTERY OXIMETRY. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MONITORING, 4(3), 204-209.

Endotoxemia in rats--influence of lipoxygenase blocker versus leukotriene receptor antagonist (BW755C vs LY171883).
Bahrami, S., Paul, E., Redl, H., Schlag, G., & Mihm, F. (1988). Endotoxemia in rats--influence of lipoxygenase blocker versus leukotriene receptor antagonist (BW755C vs LY171883). Progress in clinical and biological research, 272, 283-292.

PULMONARY EFFECTS OF CRYSTALLOID AND COLLOID RESUSCITATION FROM HEMORRHAGIC-SHOCK IN THE PRESENCE OF OLEIC ACID-INDUCED PULMONARY CAPILLARY INJURY IN THE DOG
Pearl, R. G., Halperin, B. D., Mihm, F. G., & Rosenthal, M. H. (1988). PULMONARY EFFECTS OF CRYSTALLOID AND COLLOID RESUSCITATION FROM HEMORRHAGIC-SHOCK IN THE PRESENCE OF OLEIC ACID-INDUCED PULMONARY CAPILLARY INJURY IN THE DOG. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 68(1), 12-20.

RAPID ASSESSMENT OF VENTILATION BY MEASUREMENT OF CARBON-DIOXIDE ELIMINATION DURING HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION OF KITTENS
Smith, D. W., Frankel, L. R., Walker, J. G., Cheng, E. Y., MEREDITH, K. S., & Ariagno, R. L. (1987). RAPID ASSESSMENT OF VENTILATION BY MEASUREMENT OF CARBON-DIOXIDE ELIMINATION DURING HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION OF KITTENS. PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, 3(6), 406-412.

NASAL CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE IN ATELECTASIS
Duncan, S. R., Negrin, R. S., Mihm, F. G., Guilleminault, C., & Raffin, T. A. (1987). NASAL CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE IN ATELECTASIS. CHEST, 92(4), 621-624.

CARE OF THE ADULT PATIENT DURING TRANSPORT
Pearl, R. G., Mihm, F. G., & Rosenthal, M. H. (1987). CARE OF THE ADULT PATIENT DURING TRANSPORT. INTERNATIONAL ANESTHESIOLOGY CLINICS, 25(2), 43-75.

LEUKOTRIENE-D4 INCREASES EXTRAVASCULAR LUNG WATER IN THE DOG
Shapiro, J. M., Mihm, F. G., Trudell, J. R., Stevens, J. H., & Feeley, T. W. (1987). LEUKOTRIENE-D4 INCREASES EXTRAVASCULAR LUNG WATER IN THE DOG. CIRCULATORY SHOCK, 21(2), 121-128.

Effect of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent BW755C in rat and sheep endotoxemia.
Bahrami, S., Mihm, F., Thurnher, M., Vogl, C., Schiesser, A., & Schlag, G. (1987). Effect of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent BW755C in rat and sheep endotoxemia. Progress in clinical and biological research, 236A, 347-359.

THERMAL DYE DOUBLE INDICATOR DILUTION MEASUREMENT OF LUNG WATER IN MAN - COMPARISON WITH GRAVIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS
Mihm, F. G., Feeley, T. W., & Jamieson, S. W. (1987). THERMAL DYE DOUBLE INDICATOR DILUTION MEASUREMENT OF LUNG WATER IN MAN - COMPARISON WITH GRAVIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS. THORAX, 42(1), 72-76.

ANESTHESIA FOR HEART-TRANSPLANTATION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AND REVIEW
DEMAS, K., Wyner, J., Mihm, F. G., & Samuels, S. (1986). ANESTHESIA FOR HEART-TRANSPLANTATION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AND REVIEW. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 58(12), 1357-1364.

THE EFFECTS OF PROSTAGLANDIN-E1 ON THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES
BROCKMANN, D. C., Stevens, J. H., OHANLEY, P., Shapiro, J., Walker, C., & Raffin, T. A. (1986). THE EFFECTS OF PROSTAGLANDIN-E1 ON THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES. AMERICAN REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE, 134(5), 885-890.

THE THERMAL-DYE METHOD OF LUNG WATER MEASUREMENT IS RELIABLE AT A LOW CARDIAC-OUTPUT
Calcagni, D. E., Mihm, F. G., Feeley, T. W., Halperin, B. D., & Rosenthal, M. H. (1986). THE THERMAL-DYE METHOD OF LUNG WATER MEASUREMENT IS RELIABLE AT A LOW CARDIAC-OUTPUT. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 41(3), 286-292.

EFFECTS OF ANTI-C5A ANTIBODIES ON THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES
Stevens, J. H., OHANLEY, P., Shapiro, J. M., Mihm, F. G., Satoh, P. S., & Raffin, T. A. (1986). EFFECTS OF ANTI-C5A ANTIBODIES ON THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 77(6), 1812-1816.

HYPOTHERMIC PRESERVATION OF THE HEART AND LUNGS WITH COLLINS SOLUTION - EFFECT ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION FOLLOWING HEART-LUNG ALLOTRANSPLANTATION IN DOGS
Feeley, T. W., Mihm, F. G., DOWNING, T. P., Sadeghi, A. M., Baumgartner, W. A., & Shumway, N. E. (1986). HYPOTHERMIC PRESERVATION OF THE HEART AND LUNGS WITH COLLINS SOLUTION - EFFECT ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION FOLLOWING HEART-LUNG ALLOTRANSPLANTATION IN DOGS. ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY, 41(3), 301-306.

OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA AND CARDIAC INDEX
Guilleminault, C., Motta, J., Mihm, F., & Melvin, K. (1986). OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA AND CARDIAC INDEX. CHEST, 89(3), 331-334.

LEUKOTRIENES IN PULMONARY-EDEMA FLUID AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS
SWERDLOW, B. N., Mihm, F. G., Goetzl, E. J., & Matthay, M. A. (1986). LEUKOTRIENES IN PULMONARY-EDEMA FLUID AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 65(3), 306-308.

AN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT-BASED OPTICAL SENSOR FOR INVIVO MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD OXYGENATION
SCHMITT, J. M., Meindl, J. D., & Mihm, F. G. (1986). AN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT-BASED OPTICAL SENSOR FOR INVIVO MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD OXYGENATION. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 33(2), 98-107.

NEW METHODS FOR WHOLE-BLOOD OXIMETRY
SCHMITT, J. M., Mihm, F. G., & Meindl, J. D. (1986). NEW METHODS FOR WHOLE-BLOOD OXIMETRY. ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 14(1), 35-52.

EFFECTS OF ANTI-C5A ANTIBODIES ON THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES
Stevens, J. H., OHANLEY, P., Shapiro, J., Mihm, F. G., Satoh, P. S., & Raffin, T. A. (1985). EFFECTS OF ANTI-C5A ANTIBODIES ON THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES. CLINICAL RESEARCH, 33(2), A473-A473.

FAILURE OF THE COLLOID ONCOTIC-PULMONARY ARTERY WEDGE PRESSURE-GRADIENT TO PREDICT CHANGES IN EXTRAVASCULAR LUNG WATER
Feeley, T. W., Mihm, F. G., Halperin, B. D., & Rosenthal, M. H. (1985). FAILURE OF THE COLLOID ONCOTIC-PULMONARY ARTERY WEDGE PRESSURE-GRADIENT TO PREDICT CHANGES IN EXTRAVASCULAR LUNG WATER. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 13(12), 1025-1028.

THE EFFECT OF HYPOTHERMIC PRESERVATION OF THE HEART AND LUNGS ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION FOLLOWING CANINE HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
Feeley, T. W., Mihm, F. G., DOWNING, T. P., Sadeghi, A. M., Baumgartner, W. A., & Shumway, N. E. (1985). THE EFFECT OF HYPOTHERMIC PRESERVATION OF THE HEART AND LUNGS ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION FOLLOWING CANINE HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION. ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY, 39(6), 558-562.

THERMODILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT MEASUREMENT - EFFECTS OF THE RESPIRATORY CYCLE ON ITS REPRODUCIBILITY
Stevens, J. H., Raffin, T. A., Mihm, F. G., Rosenthal, M. H., & STETZ, C. W. (1985). THERMODILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT MEASUREMENT - EFFECTS OF THE RESPIRATORY CYCLE ON ITS REPRODUCIBILITY. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 253(15), 2240-2242.

EVALUATION OF THE PORTABLE CHEST ROENTGENOGRAM FOR QUANTITATING EXTRAVASCULAR LUNG WATER IN CRITICALLY ILL ADULTS
Halperin, B. D., Feeley, T. W., Mihm, F. G., Chiles, C., GUTHANER, D. F., & BLANK, N. E. (1985). EVALUATION OF THE PORTABLE CHEST ROENTGENOGRAM FOR QUANTITATING EXTRAVASCULAR LUNG WATER IN CRITICALLY ILL ADULTS. CHEST, 88(5), 649-652.

NONINVASIVE DETECTION OF PROFOUND ARTERIAL DESATURATIONS USING A PULSE OXIMETRY DEVICE
Mihm, F. G., & Halperin, B. D. (1985). NONINVASIVE DETECTION OF PROFOUND ARTERIAL DESATURATIONS USING A PULSE OXIMETRY DEVICE. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 62(1), 85-87.

PROSTAGLANDIN E-1 DOES NOT PREVENT THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES
BROCKMANN, D. C., Stevens, J. H., OHANLEY, P., Walker, C., Shapiro, J., & Raffin, T. A. (1985). PROSTAGLANDIN E-1 DOES NOT PREVENT THE ADULT RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SEPTIC PRIMATES. CHEST, 88, S19-S19.

LUNG WATER FOLLOWING RESUSCITATION WITH COLLOID AND CRYSTALLOID SOLUTIONS
Halperin, B. D., Pearl, R. G., Rosenthal, M. H., ASHTON, J. Pa., Mihm, F. G., & Feeley, T. W. (1984). LUNG WATER FOLLOWING RESUSCITATION WITH COLLOID AND CRYSTALLOID SOLUTIONS. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 63(2), 226-226.

ACUTE PHYSIOLOGICAL-CHANGES FOLLOWING HEART-LUNG ALLOTRANSPLANTATION IN DOGS
DOWNING, T. P., Sadeghi, A. M., Baumgartner, W. A., Reitz, B. A., Brackup, A., & Shumway, N. E. (1984). ACUTE PHYSIOLOGICAL-CHANGES FOLLOWING HEART-LUNG ALLOTRANSPLANTATION IN DOGS. ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY, 37(6), 479-483.

MONITORING END-TIDAL CARBON-DIOXIDE TENSIONS WITH HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION IN DOGS WITH NORMAL LUNGS
Mihm, F. G., Feeley, T. W., & Rodarte, A. (1984). MONITORING END-TIDAL CARBON-DIOXIDE TENSIONS WITH HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION IN DOGS WITH NORMAL LUNGS. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 12(3), 180-182.

INHIBITION OF THROMBUS FORMATION ON INTRAVASCULAR SENSORS BY ELECTRICAL-POLARIZATION
SCHMITT, J. M., Baer, M., Meindl, J. D., Anderson, M. F., & Mihm, F. G. (1984). INHIBITION OF THROMBUS FORMATION ON INTRAVASCULAR SENSORS BY ELECTRICAL-POLARIZATION. JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH, 18(7), 797-807.

HYPERTENSION AFTER INTRAOPERATIVE AUTO-TRANSFUSION IN BILATERAL ADRENALECTOMY FOR PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA
Smith, D. F., Mihm, F. G., & MEFFORD, I. (1983). HYPERTENSION AFTER INTRAOPERATIVE AUTO-TRANSFUSION IN BILATERAL ADRENALECTOMY FOR PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 58(2), 182-184.

PULMONARY-ARTERY PRESSURE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA
Mihm, F. G. (1983). PULMONARY-ARTERY PRESSURE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 62(12), 1129-1133.

PULMONARY-ARTERY CATHETERS - THE SHAKE-FLICK TEST
Mihm, F. G., & ASHTON, J. Pa. (1983). PULMONARY-ARTERY CATHETERS - THE SHAKE-FLICK TEST. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 59(3), 262-263.

PROLONGED TOXICITY OF ORGANO-PHOSPHATE POISONING
Merrill, D. G., & Mihm, F. G. (1982). PROLONGED TOXICITY OF ORGANO-PHOSPHATE POISONING. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 10(8), 550-557.

EFFECT OF GRADED ADMINISTRATION OF PEEP ON LUNG WATER IN NON-CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY-EDEMA
SAUL, G. M., Feeley, T. W., & Mihm, F. G. (1982). EFFECT OF GRADED ADMINISTRATION OF PEEP ON LUNG WATER IN NON-CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY-EDEMA. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 10(10), 667-669.

MEASUREMENT OF EXTRA-VASCULAR LUNG WATER IN DOGS USING THE THERMAL-GREEN DYE INDICATOR DILUTION METHOD
Mihm, F. G., Feeley, T. W., Rosenthal, M. H., & Lewis, F. (1982). MEASUREMENT OF EXTRA-VASCULAR LUNG WATER IN DOGS USING THE THERMAL-GREEN DYE INDICATOR DILUTION METHOD. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 57(2), 116-122.

CHRONIC ALVEOLAR HYPOVENTILATION SECONDARY TO MACROGLOSSIA IN THE BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME
Smith, D. F., Mihm, F. G., & Flynn, M. (1982). CHRONIC ALVEOLAR HYPOVENTILATION SECONDARY TO MACROGLOSSIA IN THE BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME. PEDIATRICS, 70(5), 695-697.

PHARMACOKINETICS OF HIGH-DOSE THIOPENTAL USED IN CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION
Stanski, D. R., Mihm, F. G., Rosenthal, M. H., & KALMAN, S. M. (1980). PHARMACOKINETICS OF HIGH-DOSE THIOPENTAL USED IN CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 53(2), 169-171.

THE LACK OF EFFECT OF VARIABLE BLOOD WITHDRAWAL RATES ON THE MEASUREMENT OF MIXED VENOUS OXYGEN-SATURATION
Mihm, F., Feeley, T. W., Rosenthal, M., & Raffin, T. A. (1980). THE LACK OF EFFECT OF VARIABLE BLOOD WITHDRAWAL RATES ON THE MEASUREMENT OF MIXED VENOUS OXYGEN-SATURATION. CHEST, 78(3), 452-455.