Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a virulent manifestation of the Th2 asthma endotype that includes asthma with fungal sensitization, raising the feasibility of biological therapies targeting Th2 pathway molecules or cells. The first molecule amenable to clinical intervention with a biological was IgE. Omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (Mab), targets the same epitope on the IgE CH3 region that binds to and crosslinks high-affinity receptors on mast cells and basophils, thereby initiating the allergic inflammatory cascade. Omalizumab is licensed for allergic asthma and has been beneficial in uncontrolled studies of ABPA, reducing exacerbations and steroid requirements. Trials of several Mabs directed against the Th2 cytokine IL-5 show clinical benefit in patients with a severe refractory eosinophilic asthma phenotype, while a Mab against IL-13 is effective in asthma patients with a Th2-high endotype. Immunodulation is also feasible with small molecule biologicals, such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and cholecalciferol. Controlled trials of Th2-inhibiting biologicals in patients with ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization appear warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06810.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000312501200008
View details for PubMedID 23231714