Sean Mackey, M.D., Ph.D.

Pain specialist, Anesthesiologist

Redlich Professor and Professor, by courtesy, of Neurology at the Stanford University Medical Center

Pain Management Center

  • 450 Broadway Street
  • Redwood City, CA 94063
  • Phone: 650-723-6238
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Anesthesia Preoperative Evaluation Clinic

  • 300 Pasteur Drive
  • Stanford, CA 94305
  • Phone: 650-723-6412
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Professional Education

Internship: Tucson Hospitals Med Ed Prog (1995) AZ

Medical Education: University of Arizona (1994) AZ

Residency: Stanford University School of Medicine (1998) CA

Fellowship: Stanford University School of Medicine (1999) CA

Board Certification: Pain Management, American Board of Anesthesiology (2000)

Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (1999)

M.D., University of Arizona, Medicine (1994)

Ph.D., University of Arizona, Electrical Engineering (1994)

M.S., University of Pennsylvania, Bioengineering (1986)

B.S.E., University of Pennsylvania, Bioengineering (1986)

Honors & Awards

U.S. News and World Report Top 1% of Pain Management Specialists, U.S. News and World Report (2012)

Clinical Center of Excellence, American Pain Society (2012)

Stanford CAM Center for Chronic Back Pain, NIH P01 AT006651 (2011-2016)

Stanford CAM Center for Chronic Back Pain Supplement, NIH P01 AT006651S1 (2011-2012)

Neuroimaging and Mentoring in Translational Pain Research, NIH K24 DA029262 (2010-2015)

Chris Redlich Endowment in Pain Research, Chris Redlich Endowment Fund (2009-forever)

Learned Control of Frontal and Limbic Systems via Real-Time fMRI, NIH R21 DA026092 (2009-2011)

Ellis Cohen Achievement Award, Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University (2010)

fMRI of Pain in the Human Spinal Cord, NIH R01 NS053961 (2006-2010)

Central Mechanisms of Urologic Pelvic Pain: Functional and Structural Analysis by MRI, NIH U01 DK082316 (2008-2013)

Development and Applications of Real Time fMRI Technology, Stanford Bio-X (2009-2010)

Prescription Opioid Use, Misuse, and Pain in Post-Surgical Patients, NIH K23 DA25152 (2008-2013)

Mechanisms of Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia in Pain Patients: Examination via fMRI, NIH K99/R00 DA023609 (2007-2011)

Low-Dose Naltrexone in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia, American Fibromyalgia Syndrome Association (2008-2009)

Duloxetine: Functional MRI Neural Correlates of Efficacy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain, Eli Lilly (2006-2009)

Mechanisms of Analgesic Response During IV Lidocaine Infusion in Neuropathic Pain Patients, Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (2007-2008)

Applications of Real Time fMRI-Phase II, NIH R44 NS050642 (2004-2007)

Fellowship Grant, Arthritis Foundation (2006-2007)

Development of a Human Neuropathic Pain Model, Stanford University (1999-2007)

Imaging Neural Systems in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Foundation for Anesthesia Education & Research (2004-2006)

Applications of Real Time fMRI, NIH R43MH067290 (2002-2004)

Use of NMDA-Antagonists and Opiates in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia, Oxnard Foundation (2001-2004)

Processing of Pain in the Human Central Nervous System: Analysis through fMRI, Stanford Office of Technology Licensing Grant (2001-2004)

Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applied to Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Stanford University (1999-2003)

Dodie and John Rosekrans Pain Research Endowment Fund, Dodie and John Rosekrans Pain Research Endowment Fund (2001 - forever)

Teacher of the Month, Stanford Department of Anesthesia (2003)

Top Doctors in America, Published in "Guide to Top Doctors" (2002)

Cognitive Neurosciences Grant, Clark Center for Bioengeneering, Biomedicine & Bioscience (2000)

Electrical and Thermal Characterization of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation, American College of Cardiology Research Grant (1994)

Optimal Control of Transvenous Catheter Ablation in the Treatment of Tachyarrhythmias, NIH Short Term Research Fellowship (1989-1994)

TV Catheter Delivery of Elec Energy to Ablate Arrhythmogenic Tissue..., Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society Research Fellowship (1991-1992)

Characterization & Optimization of RF Catheter Ablation for the Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias, American Heart Association Fellowship (1990-1991)

Administrative Appointments

Redlich Professor, Anesthesia & Pain Management, Neurosciences and (by courtesy) Neurology, Stanford University (2012 - Present)

Fellowship Program Director, Pain Medicine, Stanford University (2007 - Present)

Chief, Division of Pain Medicine, Stanford University (2007 - Present)

Associate Professor, Anesthesia & Pain Management, Neurosciences and (by courtesy) Neurology, Stanford University (2007 - 2012)

Co-Director, Pain Working Group, Neuroscience Institute, Stanford University (2005 - Present)

Co-Director, Stanford Pain Research and Clinical Center (SPARCC) (2004 - Present)

Associate Director, Pain Management Division, Stanford University (2004 - 2007)

Director, Stanford Systems Neuroscience and Pain Lab (SNAPL) (2002 - Present)

Director (and Co-Founder), Regional Anesthesia Services (2000 - 2006)

Assistant Professor, Anesthesia & Pain Management, Neurosciences, Stanford University (1999 - 2007)

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Health Care patient, you may have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.

Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future.

Self-Loathing Aspects of Depression Reduce Postoperative Opioid Cessation Rate
Hah, J. M., Mackey, S., Barelka, P. L., Wang, C. Km., Wang, B. M., & Carroll, I. R. (2014). Self-Loathing Aspects of Depression Reduce Postoperative Opioid Cessation Rate. PAIN MEDICINE, 15(6), 954-964.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Is Associated With Structural Abnormalities in Pain-Related Regions of the Human Brain
Barad, M. J., Ueno, T., Younger, J., Chatterjee, N., & Mackey, S. (2014). Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Is Associated With Structural Abnormalities in Pain-Related Regions of the Human Brain. JOURNAL OF PAIN, 15(2), 197-203.

Response to: Letter from Paul Eugene Summers, Federico Giove, and Carlo Adolfo Porro.
Nash, P., Glover, G., & Mackey, S. (2013). Response to: Letter from Paul Eugene Summers, Federico Giove, and Carlo Adolfo Porro. Pain, 154(11), 2574-2575.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging identifies somatotopic organization of nociception in the human spinal cord.
Nash, P., Wiley, K., Brown, J., Shinaman, R., Ludlow, D., & Mackey, S. (2013). Functional magnetic resonance imaging identifies somatotopic organization of nociception in the human spinal cord. Pain, 154(6), 776-781.

Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain
Carroll, I., Hah, J., Mackey, S., Ottestad, E., Kong, J. T., & Curtin, C. (2013). Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain. JOURNAL OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY, 29(4), 213-222.

Perioperative interventions to reduce chronic postsurgical pain.
Carroll, I., Hah, J., Mackey, S., Ottestad, E., Kong, J. T., & Curtin, C. (2013). Perioperative interventions to reduce chronic postsurgical pain. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery, 29(4), 213-222.

Central Neuroimaging of Pain
Mackey, S. C. (2013). Central Neuroimaging of Pain. JOURNAL OF PAIN, 14(4), 328-331.

Low-Dose Naltrexone for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia
Younger, J., Noor, N., McCue, R., & Mackey, S. (2013). Low-Dose Naltrexone for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 65(2), 529-538.

Understanding Central Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia Using Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing: A Review
Kong, J.-T., Schnyer, R. N., Johnson, K. A., & Mackey, S. (2013). Understanding Central Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia Using Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing: A Review. EVIDENCE-BASED COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE.

Test-Retest Reliability of Thermal Temporal Summation Using an Individualized Protocol
Kong, J.-T., Johnson, K. A., Balise, R. R., & Mackey, S. (2013). Test-Retest Reliability of Thermal Temporal Summation Using an Individualized Protocol. JOURNAL OF PAIN, 14(1), 79-88.

Development of the Stanford Expectations of Treatment Scale (SETS): A tool for measuring patient outcome expectancy in clinical trials
Younger, J., Gandhi, V., Hubbard, E., & Mackey, S. (2012). Development of the Stanford Expectations of Treatment Scale (SETS): A tool for measuring patient outcome expectancy in clinical trials. CLINICAL TRIALS, 9(6), 767-776.

A Pilot Cohort Study of the Determinants of Longitudinal Opioid Use After Surgery
Carroll, I., Barelka, P., Wang, C. K. M., Wang, B. M., Gillespie, M. J., & Mackey, S. C. (2012). A Pilot Cohort Study of the Determinants of Longitudinal Opioid Use After Surgery. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 115(3), 694-702.

Real-time fMRI applied to pain management
Chapin, H., Bagarinao, E., & Mackey, S. (2012). Real-time fMRI applied to pain management. NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS, 520(2), 174-181.

Sensory Pain Qualities in Neuropathic Pain
Mackey, S., Carroll, I., Emir, B., Murphy, T. K., Whalen, E., & Dumenci, L. (2012). Sensory Pain Qualities in Neuropathic Pain. JOURNAL OF PAIN, 13(1), 58-63.

Strategy-dependent Dissociation of the Neural Correlates Involved in Pain Modulation
Lawrence, J. M., Hoeft, F., Sheau, K. E., & Mackey, S. C. (2011). Strategy-dependent Dissociation of the Neural Correlates Involved in Pain Modulation. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 115(4), 844-851.

Towards a Physiology-Based Measure of Pain: Patterns of Human Brain Activity Distinguish Painful from Non-Painful Thermal Stimulation
Brown, J. E., Chatterjee, N., Younger, J., & Mackey, S. (2011). Towards a Physiology-Based Measure of Pain: Patterns of Human Brain Activity Distinguish Painful from Non-Painful Thermal Stimulation. PLOS ONE, 6(9).

Prescription opioid analgesics rapidly change the human brain
Younger, J. W., Chu, L. F., D'Arcy, N. T., Trott, K. E., Jastrzab, L. E., & Mackey, S. C. (2011). Prescription opioid analgesics rapidly change the human brain. PAIN, 152(8), 1803-1810.

Morphine and its metabolites after patient-controlled analgesia: considerations for respiratory depression
Sam, W. J., Mackey, S. C., Loetsch, J., & Drover, D. R. (2011). Morphine and its metabolites after patient-controlled analgesia: considerations for respiratory depression. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 23(2), 102-106.

Human Response to Unintended Intrathecal Injection of Botulinum Toxin
Carroll, I., Fischbein, N., Barad, M., & Mackey, S. (2011). Human Response to Unintended Intrathecal Injection of Botulinum Toxin. PAIN MEDICINE, 12(7), 1094-1097.

Viewing Pictures of a Romantic Partner Reduces Experimental Pain: Involvement of Neural Reward Systems
Younger, J., Aron, A., Parke, S., Chatterjee, N., & Mackey, S. (2010). Viewing Pictures of a Romantic Partner Reduces Experimental Pain: Involvement of Neural Reward Systems. PLOS ONE, 5(10).

Chronic myofascial temporomandibular pain is associated with neural abnormalities in the trigeminal and limbic systems
Younger, J. W., Shen, Y. F., Goddard, G., & Mackey, S. C. (2010). Chronic myofascial temporomandibular pain is associated with neural abnormalities in the trigeminal and limbic systems. PAIN, 149(2), 222-228.

Healthy young women with serotonin transporter SS polymorphism show a pro-inflammatory bias under resting and stress conditions
Fredericks, C. A., Drabant, E. M., Edge, M. D., Tillie, J. M., Hallmayer, J., & Dhabhar, F. S. (2010). Healthy young women with serotonin transporter SS polymorphism show a pro-inflammatory bias under resting and stress conditions. BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY, 24(3), 350-357.

A Novel CT-Guided Transpsoas Approach to Diagnostic Genitofemoral Nerve Block and Ablation
Parris, D., Fischbein, N., Mackey, S., & Carroll, I. (2010). A Novel CT-Guided Transpsoas Approach to Diagnostic Genitofemoral Nerve Block and Ablation. PAIN MEDICINE, 11(5), 785-789.

Subcutaneous Injection of Botulinum Toxin A Is Beneficial in Postherpetic Neuralgia
Xiao, L., Mackey, S., Hui, H., Xong, D., Zhang, Q., & Zhang, D. (2010). Subcutaneous Injection of Botulinum Toxin A Is Beneficial in Postherpetic Neuralgia. PAIN MEDICINE, 11(12), 1827-1833.

Pain Quality Predicts Lidocaine Analgesia among Patients with Suspected Neuropathic Pain
Carroll, I. R., Younger, J. W., & Mackey, S. C. (2010). Pain Quality Predicts Lidocaine Analgesia among Patients with Suspected Neuropathic Pain. PAIN MEDICINE, 11(4), 617-621.

Randomized Clinical Trial of Acupuncture for Myofascial Pain of the Jaw Muscles
Shen, Y. F., Younger, J., Goddard, G., & Mackey, S. (2009). Randomized Clinical Trial of Acupuncture for Myofascial Pain of the Jaw Muscles. JOURNAL OF OROFACIAL PAIN, 23(4), 353-359.

Fibromyalgia Symptoms Are Reduced by Low-Dose Naltrexone: A Pilot Study
Younger, J., & Mackey, S. (2009). Fibromyalgia Symptoms Are Reduced by Low-Dose Naltrexone: A Pilot Study. PAIN MEDICINE, 10(4), 663-672.

Forebrain pain mechanisms
Neugebauer, V., Galhardo, V., Maione, S., & Mackey, S. C. (2009). Forebrain pain mechanisms. BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS, 60(1), 226-242.

Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin to Treat Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Carroll, I., Clark, J. D., & Mackey, S. (2009). Sympathetic Block with Botulinum Toxin to Treat Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 65(3), 348-351.

Pain outcomes: A brief review of instruments and techniques
Younger, J., McCue, R., & Mackey, S. (2009). Pain outcomes: A brief review of instruments and techniques. CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS, 13(1), 39-43.

Spinal cord stimulation compared with medical management for failed back surgery syndrome
Coleman, S. D., & Mackey, S. (2009). Spinal cord stimulation compared with medical management for failed back surgery syndrome. CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS, 13(1), 1-2.

Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series.
Wang, C. K., Gowda, A., Barad, M., Mackey, S. C., & Carroll, I. R. (2009). Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series. Journal of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury, 4, 17-?.

Reduced Cold Pain Tolerance in Chronic Pain Patients Following Opioid Detoxification
Younger, J., Barelka, P., Carroll, I., Kaplan, K., Chu, L., & Mackey, S. (2008). Reduced Cold Pain Tolerance in Chronic Pain Patients Following Opioid Detoxification. PAIN MEDICINE, 9(8), 1158-1163.

Toward optimal health: A discussion on sex, gender, and pain
Godfrey, J. R., & Mackey, S. (2008). Toward optimal health: A discussion on sex, gender, and pain. JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, 17(6), 917-920.

Your pain or mine? Common and distinct neural systems supporting the perception of pain in self and other
Ochsner, K. N., Zaki, J., Hanelin, J., Ludlow, D. H., Knierim, K., & Mackey, S. C. (2008). Your pain or mine? Common and distinct neural systems supporting the perception of pain in self and other. SOCIAL COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE, 3(2), 144-160.

Pulsed radiofrequency for chronic pain
Byrd, D., & Mackey, S. (2008). Pulsed radiofrequency for chronic pain. CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS, 12(1), 37-41.

Role of neuroimaging in analgesic drug development
Lawrence, J., & Mackey, S. C. (2008). Role of neuroimaging in analgesic drug development. DRUGS IN R&D, 9(5), 323-334.

Mexiletine Therapy for Chronic Pain: Survival Analysis Identifies Factors Predicting Clinical Success.
Carroll, Kaplan, & Mackey. (2008). Mexiletine Therapy for Chronic Pain: Survival Analysis Identifies Factors Predicting Clinical Success. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 35(3).

Multivariate analysis of chronic pain patients undergoing lidocaine infusions: Increasing pain severity and advancing age predict likelihood of clinically meaningful analgesia
Carroll, I., Gaeta, R., & Mackey, S. (2007). Multivariate analysis of chronic pain patients undergoing lidocaine infusions: Increasing pain severity and advancing age predict likelihood of clinically meaningful analgesia. CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 23(8), 702-706.

Different circuits for different pain: Patterns of functional connectivity reveal distinct networks for processing pain in self and others
Zaki, J., Ochsner, K. N., Hanellin, J., Wager, T. D., & Mackey, S. C. (2007). Different circuits for different pain: Patterns of functional connectivity reveal distinct networks for processing pain in self and others. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE, 2(3-4), 276-291.

Pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of chronic ilioinguinal neuropathy.
Mitra, R., Zeighami, A., & Mackey, S. (2007). Pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of chronic ilioinguinal neuropathy. Hernia , 11(4), 369-371.

Potential clinical applications for spinal functional MRI.
Kornelsen, J., & Mackey, S. (2007). Potential clinical applications for spinal functional MRI. Current pain and headache reports, 11(3), 165-170.

Pharmacologic therapies for complex regional pain syndrome.
Mackey, S., & Feinberg, S. (2007). Pharmacologic therapies for complex regional pain syndrome. Current pain and headache reports, 11(1), 38-43.

The role of adrenergic receptors and pain: The good, the bad, and the unknown.
Carroll I, Mackey S, & Gaeta R. (2007). The role of adrenergic receptors and pain: The good, the bad, and the unknown. Seminars in Anesthesia and Perioperative Pain, 26(1).

Imaging the Spinal Cord
Mackey S. (2007). Imaging the Spinal Cord. Current Pain and Headache Reports (accepted).

Neural correlates of individual differences in pain-related fear and anxiety
Ochsner, K. N., Ludlow, D. H., Knierim, K., Hanelin, J., Ramachandran, T., & Mackey, S. C. (2006). Neural correlates of individual differences in pain-related fear and anxiety. PAIN, 120(1-2), 69-77.

Control over brain activation and pain learned by using real-time functional MRI
deCharms, R. C., Maeda, F., Glover, G. H., Ludlow, D., Pauly, J. M., & Mackey, S. C. (2005). Control over brain activation and pain learned by using real-time functional MRI. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 102(51), 18626-18631.

A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster
Carroll, I., Gaeta, R., & Mackey, S. (2005). A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 353(13), 1414-1415.

Continuous peripheral nerve blocks.
Shinaman, R. C., & Mackey, S. (2005). Continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Current pain and headache reports, 9(1), 24-29.

Reflecting upon feelings: an fMRI study of neural systems supporting the attribution of emotion to self and other
Ochsner, K. N., Knierim, K., Ludlow, D. H., Hanelin, J., Ramachandran, T., & Mackey, S. C. (2004). Reflecting upon feelings: an fMRI study of neural systems supporting the attribution of emotion to self and other. JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE, 16(10), 1746-1772.

Functional imaging and the neural systems of chronic pain
Mackey, S. C., & Maeda, F. (2004). Functional imaging and the neural systems of chronic pain. NEUROSURGERY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 15(3), 269-?.

Mechanisms of inflammatory pain - Therapeutic implications
Mackey, S. (2004). Mechanisms of inflammatory pain - Therapeutic implications. JCR-JOURNAL OF CLINICAL RHEUMATOLOGY, 10(3), S5-S11.

Low Back Pain: Management Across a Spectrum of Presentations (book chapter)
Mackey S. (2004). Low Back Pain: Management Across a Spectrum of Presentations (book chapter). Current Issues in Pain Management for the Primary Care Physician.

Mechanisms of inflammatory pain: therapeutic implications
Mackey S. (2004). Mechanisms of inflammatory pain: therapeutic implications. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 10(3S).

Perioperative Pain Management (book chapter)
Mackey S, & Gaeta R. (2003). Perioperative Pain Management (book chapter). Anesthesiologist's Manual of Surgical Procedures, 3rd ed..

MR guidance of sympathetic nerve blockade: Measurement of vasomotor response-initial experience in seven patients
Sze, D. Y., & Mackey, S. C. (2002). MR guidance of sympathetic nerve blockade: Measurement of vasomotor response-initial experience in seven patients. RADIOLOGY, 223(2), 574-580.

Delayed subdural block after a stellate ganglion block
Leong, M. S., & Mackey, S. (2001). Delayed subdural block after a stellate ganglion block. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 94(2), 358-359.

Selection and placement of the double-lumen tube in the Asian patient
Mackey S, & Brodsky JB. (1998). Selection and placement of the double-lumen tube in the Asian patient. Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals, 6(3).

Selecting the correct size left double-lumen tube
Brodsky, J. B., & Cannon, W. B. (1997). Selecting the correct size left double-lumen tube. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 11(7), 924-925.

Bilateral vocal cord paralysis after radical cystectomy in a patient with a history of bulbar polio
Macario, A., Mackey, S., & Terris, D. (1997). Bilateral vocal cord paralysis after radical cystectomy in a patient with a history of bulbar polio. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 85(5), 1171-1172.

Reduction of propofol injection pain with a double lumen IV set
Angst, M. S., Mackey, S. C., Zupfer, G. H., Tataru, C. D., & BROCKUTNE, J. G. (1997). Reduction of propofol injection pain with a double lumen IV set. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 9(6), 462-466.

Isolation techniques - adances in thoracic anesthesia and postoperative care
Brodsky JB, & Mackey S. (1997). Isolation techniques - adances in thoracic anesthesia and postoperative care. Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 1(3).

Simultaneous multipolar radiofrequency ablation in the monopolar mode increases lesion size
Mackey, S., Thornton, L., He, D. S., Marcus, F. I., & LAMPE, L. F. (1996). Simultaneous multipolar radiofrequency ablation in the monopolar mode increases lesion size. PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, 19(7), 1042-1048.

Comparison of gold versus platinum electrodes on myocardial lesion size using radiofrequency energy
Simmons, W. N., Mackey, S., He, D. S., & Marcus, F. I. (1996). Comparison of gold versus platinum electrodes on myocardial lesion size using radiofrequency energy. PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, 19(4), 398-402.