David A. Spain, MD

Trauma and critical care surgeon

Trauma Service

  • 300 Pasteur Drive
  • Stanford, CA 94305
  • Phone: 650-723-7570
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Professional Education

Board Certification: General Surgery, American Board of Surgery (1993)

Board Certification: Surgical Critical Care, American Board of Surgery (1996)

Fellowship: University of Louisville Hospital (1994) KY

Residency: Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (1992) NJ

Medical Education: Wayne State University (1986) MI

MD, Wayne State University, Medicine (1986)

BS/Honors, Michigan State University, Biochemistry (1982)

Honors & Awards

General Surgery Chief Residents’ Award, Stanford (2009-2010)

Collins Teaching Award, General Surgery Residency Progran (2004-2005)

Teaching Award, Stanford/Kaiser Emergency Medicine Residency (2003-04 and 2007-08)

Administrative Appointments

Program Director, Surgical Critical Care, 2005

Chief of Trauma and Critical Care Surgery, Stanford University, 2001

Variability in California triage from 2005 to 2009: A population-based longitudinal study of severely injured patients.
Staudenmayer, K., Lin, F., Mackersie, R., Spain, D., & Hsia, R. (2014). Variability in California triage from 2005 to 2009: A population-based longitudinal study of severely injured patients. journal of trauma and acute care surgery, 76(4), 1041-1047.

Cost-effectiveness of helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for trauma scene transport in the United States.
Delgado, M. K., Staudenmayer, K. L., Wang, N. E., Spain, D. A., Weir, S., & Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D. (2013). Cost-effectiveness of helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for trauma scene transport in the United States. Annals of emergency medicine, 62(4), 351-364 e19.

Cost-effectiveness of preoperative imaging for appendicitis after indeterminate ultrasonography in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.
Kastenberg, Z. J., Hurley, M. P., Luan, A., Vasu-Devan, V., Spain, D. A., & Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D. (2013). Cost-effectiveness of preoperative imaging for appendicitis after indeterminate ultrasonography in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology, 122(4), 821-829.

Triage of elderly trauma patients: a population-based perspective.
Staudenmayer, K. L., Hsia, R. Y., Mann, N. C., Spain, D. A., & Newgard, C. D. (2013). Triage of elderly trauma patients: a population-based perspective. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 217(4), 569-576.

Logistics of transfusion support for patients with massive hemorrhage
Goodnough, L. T., Spain, D. A., & Maggio, P. (2013). Logistics of transfusion support for patients with massive hemorrhage. CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, 26(2), 208-214.

Predictors of emergency department death for patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms
Mell, M. W., Callcut, R. A., Bech, F., Delgado, M. K., Staudenmayer, K., & Hernandez-Boussard, T. (2012). Predictors of emergency department death for patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY, 56(3), 651-655.

Payer status is associated with the use of prophylactic inferior vena cava filter in high-risk trauma patients
Pickham, D. M., Callcut, R. A., Maggio, P. M., Mell, M. W., Spain, D. A., & Staudenmayer, K. (2012). Payer status is associated with the use of prophylactic inferior vena cava filter in high-risk trauma patients. SURGERY, 152(2), 232-237.

Outcomes of Complex Abdominal Herniorrhaphy Experience With 106 Cases
Satterwhite, T. S., Miri, S., Chung, C., Spain, D., Lorenz, H. P., & Lee, G. K. (2012). Outcomes of Complex Abdominal Herniorrhaphy Experience With 106 Cases. ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY, 68(4), 382-388.

Abdominal wall reconstruction with dual layer cross-linked porcine dermal xenograft: The "Pork Sandwich" herniorraphy
Satterwhite, T. S., Miri, S., Chung, C., Spain, D. A., Lorenz, H. P., & Lee, G. K. (2012). Abdominal wall reconstruction with dual layer cross-linked porcine dermal xenograft: The "Pork Sandwich" herniorraphy. JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY, 65(3), 333-341.

The forgotten trauma patient: Outcomes for injured patients evaluated by emergency medical services but not transported to the hospital
Staudenmayer, K., Hsia, R., Wang, E., Sporer, K., Ghilarducci, D., & Newgard, C. (2012). The forgotten trauma patient: Outcomes for injured patients evaluated by emergency medical services but not transported to the hospital. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA AND ACUTE CARE SURGERY, 72(3), 594-599.

Statins for Everyone Are We There Yet?
Spain, D. A. (2012). Statins for Everyone Are We There Yet?. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 147(2), 189-189.

Characteristics of Pediatric Trauma Transfers to a Level I Trauma Center: Implications for Developing a Regionalized Pediatric Trauma System in California
Acosta, C. D., Delgado, M. K., Gisondi, M. A., Raghunathan, A., D'Souza, P. A., & Wang, N. E. (2010). Characteristics of Pediatric Trauma Transfers to a Level I Trauma Center: Implications for Developing a Regionalized Pediatric Trauma System in California. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 17(12), 1364-1373.

Early outcomes of deliberate nonoperative management for blunt thoracic aortic injury in trauma
Caffarelli, A. D., Mallidi, H. R., Maggio, P. M., Spain, D. A., Miller, D. C., & Mitchell, R. S. (2010). Early outcomes of deliberate nonoperative management for blunt thoracic aortic injury in trauma. JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY, 140(3), 598-605.

Demographic and Financial Analysis of EMTALA Hand Patient Transfers.
Melkun, E. T., Ford, C., Brundage, S. I., Spain, D. A., & Chang, J. (2010). Demographic and Financial Analysis of EMTALA Hand Patient Transfers. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 5(1), 72-76.

Emergency Innovation: Implications for the Trauma Surgeon
Pretz, J. L., Magnus, D., & Spain, D. A. (2009). Emergency Innovation: Implications for the Trauma Surgeon. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 67(6), 1443-1447.

Massive Transfusion Protocols: The Role of Aggressive Resuscitation Versus Product Ratio in Mortality Reduction
Riskin, D. J., Tsai, T. C., Riskin, L., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Purtill, M., & Brundage, S. I. (2009). Massive Transfusion Protocols: The Role of Aggressive Resuscitation Versus Product Ratio in Mortality Reduction. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, 209(2), 198-205.

Commitment to COT Verification Improves Patient Outcomes and Financial Performance
Maggio, P. M., Brundage, S. I., Hernandez-Boussard, T., & Spain, D. A. (2009). Commitment to COT Verification Improves Patient Outcomes and Financial Performance. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 67(1), 190-195.

The impact of hypopituitarism on function and performance in subjects with recent history of traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
Srinivasan, L., Roberts, B., Bushnik, T., Englander, J., Spain, D. A., & Katznelson, L. (2009). The impact of hypopituitarism on function and performance in subjects with recent history of traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. BRAIN INJURY, 23(7-8), 639-648.

Validation of a Prehospital Trauma Triage Tool: A 10-Year Perspective
Purtill, M.-A., Benedict, K., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Brundage, S. I., Kritayakirana, K., & Spain, D. A. (2008). Validation of a Prehospital Trauma Triage Tool: A 10-Year Perspective. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 65(6), 1253-1257.

Insulin increases the release of proinflammatory mediators
Brundage, S. I., Kirilcuk, N. N., Lam, J. C., Spain, D. A., & Zautke, N. A. (2008). Insulin increases the release of proinflammatory mediators. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 65(2), 367-372.

CT angiography effectively evaluates extremity vascular trauma
Peng, P. D., Spain, D. A., Tataria, M., Hellinger, J. C., Rubin, G. D., & Brundage, S. I. (2008). CT angiography effectively evaluates extremity vascular trauma. AMERICAN SURGEON, 74(2), 103-107.

Pediatric blunt abdominal injury: Age is irrelevant and delayed operation is not detrimental
Tataria, M., Nance, M. L., Holmes, J. H., Miller, C. C., Mattix, K. D., & Brundage, S. L. (2007). Pediatric blunt abdominal injury: Age is irrelevant and delayed operation is not detrimental. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 63(3), 608-614.

Venous air embolism and pressure infusion devices
Mendenhall, M. L., & Spain, D. A. (2007). Venous air embolism and pressure infusion devices. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 63(1), 246-246.

Recruitment strategies for a fall prevention program: If we build it, will they really come?
Shandro, J. R., Spain, D. A., & Dicker, R. A. (2007). Recruitment strategies for a fall prevention program: If we build it, will they really come?. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 63(1), 142-146.

Requests for 692 transfers to an academic Level I trauma center: Implications of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act
Spain, D. A., Bellino, M., Kopelman, A., Chang, J., Park, J., & Brundage, S. I. (2007). Requests for 692 transfers to an academic Level I trauma center: Implications of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 62(1), 63-67.

Early enteral nutrition after abdominal trauma: effects on septic morbidity and practicality.
Weissenfluh, G. M., Brundage, S. I., & Spain, D. A. (2006). Early enteral nutrition after abdominal trauma: effects on septic morbidity and practicality. Nutrition in clinical practice , 21(5), 479-484.

Dramatic shift in the primary management of traumatic thoracic aortic rupture
Lebl, D. R., Dicker, R. A., Spain, D. A., & Brundage, S. I. (2006). Dramatic shift in the primary management of traumatic thoracic aortic rupture. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 141(2), 177-180.

Endovascular management of a gunshot wound to the thoracic aorta
Fang, T. D., Peterson, D. A., Kirilcuk, N. N., Dicker, R. A., Spain, D. A., & Brundage, S. I. (2006). Endovascular management of a gunshot wound to the thoracic aorta. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 60(1), 204-208.

Are temporary inferior vena cava filters really temporary?
Kirilcuk, N. N., Herget, E. J., Dicker, R. A., Spain, D. A., Hellinger, J. C., & Brundage, S. I. (2005). Are temporary inferior vena cava filters really temporary?. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 190(6), 858-863.

Spontaneous splenic rupture: The masquerade of minor trauma
Tataria, M., Dicker, R. A., Melcher, M., Spain, D. A., & Brundage, S. I. (2005). Spontaneous splenic rupture: The masquerade of minor trauma. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 59(5), 1228-1230.

Education and training of the future trauma surgeon in acute care surgery: trauma, critical care, and emergency surgery
Spain, D. A., & Miller, F. B. (2005). Education and training of the future trauma surgeon in acute care surgery: trauma, critical care, and emergency surgery. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 190(2), 212-217.

Potential targets to encourage a surgical career
Brundage, S. I., Lucci, A., Miller, C. C., Azizzadeh, A., Spain, D. A., & Kozar, R. A. (2005). Potential targets to encourage a surgical career. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, 200(6), 946-953.

Poor validity of residual volumes as a marker for risk of aspiration in critically ill patients
McClave, S. A., Lukan, J. K., Stefater, J. A., Lowen, C. C., Looney, S. W., & Spain, D. A. (2005). Poor validity of residual volumes as a marker for risk of aspiration in critically ill patients. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 33(2), 324-330.

Interleukin-6 infusion blunts proinflarnmatory cytokine production without causing systematic toxicity in a swine model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock
Brundage, S. I., Zautke, N. A., Holcomb, J. B., Spain, D. A., Lam, J. C., & Tweardy, D. J. (2004). Interleukin-6 infusion blunts proinflarnmatory cytokine production without causing systematic toxicity in a swine model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 57(5), 970-977.

Management of acute complete tracheal transection caused by nonpenetrating trauma: Report of a case and review of the literature
Chow, J. L., Coady, M. A., Varner, J., Cannon, W., Spain, D., & Brock-Utne, J. G. (2004). Management of acute complete tracheal transection caused by nonpenetrating trauma: Report of a case and review of the literature. JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA, 18(4), 475-478.

Perioperative risk assessment in elderly and high-risk patients
Richardson, J. D., Cocanour, C. S., Kern, J. A., Garrison, R. N., Kirton, O. C., & Thomason, M. H. (2004). Perioperative risk assessment in elderly and high-risk patients. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, 199(1), 133-146.

Impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation response after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock involved postreceptor mechanisms
Zakaria, E. R., Garrison, R. N., Spain, D. A., & Harris, P. D. (2004). Impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation response after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock involved postreceptor mechanisms. SHOCK, 21(2), 175-181.

The continuing challenge of intra-abdominal infection.
Cheadle, W. G., & Spain, D. A. (2003). The continuing challenge of intra-abdominal infection. American journal of surgery, 186(5A), 15S-22S.

Society of University Surgeons position statement on the volume-outcome relationship for surgical procedures
Berger, D. H., Ko, C. Y., & Spain, D. A. (2003). Society of University Surgeons position statement on the volume-outcome relationship for surgical procedures. SURGERY, 134(1), 34-40.

Intraperitoneal resuscitation improves intestinal blood flow following hemorrhagic shock
Zakaria, E. R., Garrison, R. N., Spain, D. A., Matheson, P. J., Harris, P. D., & Richardson, J. D. (2003). Intraperitoneal resuscitation improves intestinal blood flow following hemorrhagic shock. ANNALS OF SURGERY, 237(5), 704-711.

Immune-enhancing enteral diet increases blood flow and proinflammatory cytokines in the rat ileum
Matheson, P. J., Hurt, R. T., Mittel, O. F., Wilson, M. A., Spain, D. A., & Garrison, R. N. (2003). Immune-enhancing enteral diet increases blood flow and proinflammatory cytokines in the rat ileum. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 110(2), 360-370.

Achievement of steady state optimizes results when performing indirect calorimetry
McClave, S. A., Spain, D. A., Skolnick, J. L., Lowen, C. C., Kjeber, M. J., & Looney, S. W. (2003). Achievement of steady state optimizes results when performing indirect calorimetry. JOURNAL OF PARENTERAL AND ENTERAL NUTRITION, 27(1), 16-20.

Resuscitation regimens for hemorrhagic shock must contain blood
Zakaria, E. R., Spain, D. A., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (2002). Resuscitation regimens for hemorrhagic shock must contain blood. SHOCK, 18(6), 567-573.

When is the seriously ill patient ready to be fed?
Spain, D. A. (2002). When is the seriously ill patient ready to be fed?. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition, 26(6), S62-5.

Risk factors for delirium tremens in trauma patients
Lukan, J. K., Reed, D. N., Looney, S. W., Spain, D. A., & Blondell, R. D. (2002). Risk factors for delirium tremens in trauma patients. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 53(5), 901-906.

Examination of the role of abdominal computed tomography in the evaluation of victims of trauma with increased aspartate aminotransferase in the era of focused abdominal sonography for trauma
Stassen, N. A., Lukan, J. K., Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., Norfleet, L. A., & Polk, H. C. (2002). Examination of the role of abdominal computed tomography in the evaluation of victims of trauma with increased aspartate aminotransferase in the era of focused abdominal sonography for trauma. SURGERY, 132(4), 642-646.

Generalized dilation of the visceral microvasculature by peritoneal dialysis solutions
Zakaria, E. R., Spain, D. A., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (2002). Generalized dilation of the visceral microvasculature by peritoneal dialysis solutions. PERITONEAL DIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, 22(5), 593-601.

Immune-enhancing enteral diet selectively augments ileal blood flow in the rat
Rhoden, D., Matheson, P. J., Carricato, N. D., Spain, D. A., & Garrison, R. N. (2002). Immune-enhancing enteral diet selectively augments ileal blood flow in the rat. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 106(1), 25-30.

Abdominal seat belt marks in the era of focused abdominal Sonography for trauma
Stassen, N. A., Lukan, J. K., Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., & Richardson, J. D. (2002). Abdominal seat belt marks in the era of focused abdominal Sonography for trauma. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 137(6), 718-722.

Do facial fractures protect the brain or are they a marker for severe head injury?
Martin, R. Cg., Spain, D. A., & Richardson, J. D. (2002). Do facial fractures protect the brain or are they a marker for severe head injury?. AMERICAN SURGEON, 68(5), 477-481.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia and surgical patients
Spain, D. A. (2002). Ventilator-associated pneumonia and surgical patients. CHEST, 121(5), 1390-1391.

A comparison of alcohol-positive and alcohol-negative trauma patients
Blondell, R. D., Looney, S. W., Krieg, C. L., & Spain, D. A. (2002). A comparison of alcohol-positive and alcohol-negative trauma patients. JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL, 63(3), 380-383.

Femoral vessel injuries
Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (2002). Femoral vessel injuries. SURGICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 82(1), 49-?.

Handsewn versus stapled anastomosis in penetrating colon injuries requiring resection: A multicenter study
Demetriades, D., Murray, J. A., Chan, L. S., Ordonez, C., Bowley, D., & Spain, D. A. (2002). Handsewn versus stapled anastomosis in penetrating colon injuries requiring resection: A multicenter study. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 52(1), 117-121.

Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for severe traumatic brain injury
Vitaz, T. W., McIlvoy, L., Raque, G. H., Spain, D., & Shields, C. B. (2001). Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for severe traumatic brain injury. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 51(2), 369-375.

Thermal injury in the elderly: When is comfort care the right choice?
Stassen, N. A., Lukan, J. K., Mizuguchi, N. N., Spain, D. A., Carrillo, E. H., & Polk, H. C. (2001). Thermal injury in the elderly: When is comfort care the right choice?. AMERICAN SURGEON, 67(7), 704-708.

Progressive decrease in constrictor reactivity of the non-absorbing intestine during chronic sepsis
Zhao, H. L., Spain, D. A., Matheson, P. J., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (2001). Progressive decrease in constrictor reactivity of the non-absorbing intestine during chronic sepsis. SHOCK, 16(1), 40-43.

Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries
Vitaz, T. W., McIlvoy, L., Raque, G. H., Spain, D. A., & Shields, C. B. (2001). Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries. JOURNAL OF SPINAL DISORDERS, 14(3), 271-276.

Impact of recent trends of noninvasive trauma evaluation and nonoperative management in surgical resident education
Lukan, J. K., Carrillo, E. H., Franklin, G. A., Spain, D. A., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (2001). Impact of recent trends of noninvasive trauma evaluation and nonoperative management in surgical resident education. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 50(6), 1015-1019.

Penetrating colon injuries requiring resection: Diversion or primary anastomosis? An AAST prospective multicenter study
Demetriades, D., Murray, J. A., Chan, L., Ordonez, C., Bowley, D., & Spain, D. A. (2001). Penetrating colon injuries requiring resection: Diversion or primary anastomosis? An AAST prospective multicenter study. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 50(5), 765-774.

Successful incorporation of the Severe Head Injury Guidelines into a phased-outcome clinical pathway.
McIlvoy, L., Spain, D. A., RAQUE, G., Vitaz, T., Boaz, P., & Meyer, K. (2001). Successful incorporation of the Severe Head Injury Guidelines into a phased-outcome clinical pathway. journal of neuroscience nursing , 33(2), 72-?.

A multicenter evaluation of whether gender dimorphism affects survival after trauma
Wohltmann, C. D., Franklin, G. A., Boaz, P. W., Luchette, F. A., Kearney, P. A., & Spain, D. A. (2001). A multicenter evaluation of whether gender dimorphism affects survival after trauma. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 181(4), 297-300.

"Incidental" pericardial effusion during surgeon-performed ultrasonography in patients with blunt torso trauma
Lukan, J. K., Franklin, G. A., Spain, D. A., & Carrillo, E. H. (2001). "Incidental" pericardial effusion during surgeon-performed ultrasonography in patients with blunt torso trauma. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 50(4), 743-745.

Delayed laparoscopy facilitates the management of biliary peritonitis in patients with complex liver injuries
Carrillo, E. H., Reed, D. N., Gordon, L., Spain, D. A., & Richardson, J. D. (2001). Delayed laparoscopy facilitates the management of biliary peritonitis in patients with complex liver injuries. SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 15(3), 319-322.

Sepsis increases NOS-2 activity and decreases non-NOS-mediated acetylcholine-induced dilation in rat aorta
Beach, P. K., Spain, D. A., Kawabe, T., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (2001). Sepsis increases NOS-2 activity and decreases non-NOS-mediated acetylcholine-induced dilation in rat aorta. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 96(1), 17-22.

Does cell-saver blood administration and free hemoglobin load cause renal dysfunction?
Klodell, C. T., Richardson, J. D., Bergamini, T. M., & Spain, D. A. (2001). Does cell-saver blood administration and free hemoglobin load cause renal dysfunction?. AMERICAN SURGEON, 67(1), 44-47.

Sustained infection induces 2 distinct microvascular mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation
Zhao, H. L., Spain, D. A., Matheson, P. J., Vaughn, C., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (2000). Sustained infection induces 2 distinct microvascular mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation. SURGERY, 128(4), 513-518.

Lazaroid and pentoxifylline suppress sepsis-induced increases in renal vascular resistance via altered arachidonic acid metabolism
Krysztopik, R. J., Matheson, P. J., Spain, D. A., Garrison, R. N., & Wilson, M. A. (2000). Lazaroid and pentoxifylline suppress sepsis-induced increases in renal vascular resistance via altered arachidonic acid metabolism. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 93(1), 75-81.

Evolution in the management of hepatic trauma: A 25-year perspective
Richardson, J. D., Franklin, G. A., Lukan, J. K., Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., & Flint, L. M. (2000). Evolution in the management of hepatic trauma: A 25-year perspective. ANNALS OF SURGERY, 232(3), 324-329.

Prehospital hypotension as a valid indicator of trauma team activation
Franklin, G. A., Boaz, P. W., Spain, D. A., Lukan, J. K., Carrillo, E. H., & Richardson, J. D. (2000). Prehospital hypotension as a valid indicator of trauma team activation. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 48(6), 1034-1037.

Blunt hemopericardium detected by surgeon-performed sonography
Carrillo, E. H., Schirmer, T. P., Sideman, M. J., Wallace, J. M., & Spain, D. A. (2000). Blunt hemopericardium detected by surgeon-performed sonography. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 48(5), 971-974.

Practice management guidelines tor prophylactic antibiotic use in tube thoracostomy for traumatic hemopneumothorax: The EAST practice management guidelines work group
Luchette, F. A., Barrie, P. S., Oswanski, M. F., Spain, D. A., Mullins, C. D., & Pasquale, M. D. (2000). Practice management guidelines tor prophylactic antibiotic use in tube thoracostomy for traumatic hemopneumothorax: The EAST practice management guidelines work group. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 48(4), 753-757.

Should trauma surgeons do general surgery?
Spain, D. A., Richardson, J. D., Carrillo, E. H., Miller, F. B., Wilson, M. A., & Polk, H. C. (2000). Should trauma surgeons do general surgery?. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 48(3), 433-437.

Routine intragastric feeding following traumatic brain injury is safe and well tolerated
Klodell, C. T., Carroll, M., Carrillo, E. H., & Spain, D. A. (2000). Routine intragastric feeding following traumatic brain injury is safe and well tolerated. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 179(3), 168-171.

Empyema and restrictive pleural processes after blunt trauma: An under-recognized cause of respiratory failure
Watkins, J. A., Spain, D. A., Richardson, J. D., & Polk, H. C. (2000). Empyema and restrictive pleural processes after blunt trauma: An under-recognized cause of respiratory failure. AMERICAN SURGEON, 66(2), 210-214.

Discussion
Barie, P. S., Croce, M. A., Spain, D. A., Polk, H. C., Barie, D., & Boucher, D. (2000). Discussion. American journal of surgery, 179(2A Suppl), 39-40.

Discussion
Polk, H. C., Fabian, T. C., Polk, D., Fabian, D., Livingston, D. H., & Croce, D. (2000). Discussion. American journal of surgery, 179(2A Suppl), 24-5.

Discussion
Barie, P. S., Fabian, T. C., Barie, D., Malangoni, M. A., Malangoni, D., & Fabian, D. (2000). Discussion. American journal of surgery, 179(2A Suppl), 7.

Discussion
Spain, D. A., Croce, M. A., Rodriguez, J. L., Croce, D., Rodriguez, D., & Barie, D. (2000). Discussion. American journal of surgery, 179(2A Suppl), 30.

The continuing challenge of Fournier's gangrene in the 1990s
Olsofka, J. N., Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., & Polk, H. C. (1999). The continuing challenge of Fournier's gangrene in the 1990s. AMERICAN SURGEON, 65(12), 1156-1159.

Infusion protocol improves delivery of enteral tube feeding in the critical care unit
Spain, D. A., McClave, S. A., Sexton, L. K., Adams, J. L., Blanford, B. S., & Snider, H. L. (1999). Infusion protocol improves delivery of enteral tube feeding in the critical care unit. JOURNAL OF PARENTERAL AND ENTERAL NUTRITION, 23(5), 288-292.

Enteral tube feeding in the intensive care unit: Factors impeding adequate delivery
McClave, S. A., Sexton, L. K., Spain, D. A., Adams, J. L., Owens, N. A., & Snider, H. L. (1999). Enteral tube feeding in the intensive care unit: Factors impeding adequate delivery. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 27(7), 1252-1256.

Decreased alpha-adrenergic response in the intestinal microcirculation after "two-hit" hemorrhage resuscitation and bacteremia
Spain, D. A., Kawabe, T., Keelan, P. C., Wilson, M. A., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (1999). Decreased alpha-adrenergic response in the intestinal microcirculation after "two-hit" hemorrhage resuscitation and bacteremia. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 84(2), 180-185.

Blunt carotid artery injuries: Difficulties with the diagnosis prior to neurologic event
Carrillo, E. H., Osborne, D. L., Spain, D. A., Miller, F. B., Senler, S. O., & Richardson, J. D. (1999). Blunt carotid artery injuries: Difficulties with the diagnosis prior to neurologic event. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 46(6), 1120-1125.

Glucose and glutamine gavage increase portal vein nitric oxide metabolite levels via adenosine A2b activation
Matheson, P. J., Spain, D. A., Harris, P. D., Garrison, R. N., & Wilson, M. A. (1999). Glucose and glutamine gavage increase portal vein nitric oxide metabolite levels via adenosine A2b activation. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 84(1), 57-63.

Common and external iliac artery injuries associated with pelvic fractures
Carrillo, E. H., Wohltmann, C. D., Spain, D. A., Schmieg, R. E., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (1999). Common and external iliac artery injuries associated with pelvic fractures. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA, 13(5), 351-355.

Subacute sepsis impairs vascular smooth muscle contractile machinery and alters vasoconstrictor and dilator mechanisms
Price, S. A., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (1999). Subacute sepsis impairs vascular smooth muscle contractile machinery and alters vasoconstrictor and dilator mechanisms. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 83(1), 75-80.

Preoperative issues in clinical nutrition
McClave, S. A., Snider, H. L., & Spain, D. A. (1999). Preoperative issues in clinical nutrition. CHEST, 115(5), 64S-70S.

Interventional techniques are useful adjuncts in nonoperative management of hepatic injuries
Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., Wohltmann, C. D., Schmieg, R. E., Boaz, P. W., & Richardson, J. D. (1999). Interventional techniques are useful adjuncts in nonoperative management of hepatic injuries. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 46(4), 619-622.

Complement activation mediates intestinal injury after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock
Spain, D. A., Fruchterman, T. M., Matheson, P. J., Wilson, M. A., Martin, A. W., & Garrison, R. N. (1999). Complement activation mediates intestinal injury after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 46(2), 224-232.

Altered vasoconstrictor and dilator responses after a "two-hit" model of sequential hemorrhage and bacteremia
Price, S. A., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (1999). Altered vasoconstrictor and dilator responses after a "two-hit" model of sequential hemorrhage and bacteremia. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 81(1), 59-64.

Selective microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction in the small intestine following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock
Fruchterman, T. M., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (1998). Selective microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction in the small intestine following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock. SHOCK, 10(6), 417-422.

Small intestinal production of nitric oxide is decreased following resuscitated hemorrhage
Fruchterman, T. M., Spain, D. A., Matheson, P. J., Martin, A. W., Wilson, M. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1998). Small intestinal production of nitric oxide is decreased following resuscitated hemorrhage. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 80(1), 102-109.

Complement inhibition prevents gut ischemia and endothelial cell dysfunction after hemorrhage/resuscitation
Fruchterman, T. M., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Harris, P. D., & Garrison, R. N. (1998). Complement inhibition prevents gut ischemia and endothelial cell dysfunction after hemorrhage/resuscitation. SURGERY, 124(4), 782-792.

Effect of a clinical pathway for severe traumatic brain injury on resource utilization
Spain, D. A., McIlvoy, L. H., Fix, S. E., Carrillo, E. H., Boaz, P. W., & Miller, F. B. (1998). Effect of a clinical pathway for severe traumatic brain injury on resource utilization. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 45(1), 101-104.

Nutritional management in acute and chronic pancreatitis
McClave, S. A., Spain, D. A., & Snider, H. L. (1998). Nutritional management in acute and chronic pancreatitis. GASTROENTEROLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 27(2), 421-?.

Microvascular changes explain the "two-hit" theory of multiple organ failure
Garrison, R. N., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Keelen, P. A., & Harris, P. D. (1998). Microvascular changes explain the "two-hit" theory of multiple organ failure. ANNALS OF SURGERY, 227(6), 851-859.

Comparison of sequential compression devices and foot pumps for prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis in high-risk trauma patients
Spain, D. A., Bergamini, T. M., Hoffmann, J. F., Carrillo, E. H., & Richardson, J. D. (1998). Comparison of sequential compression devices and foot pumps for prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis in high-risk trauma patients. AMERICAN SURGEON, 64(6), 522-526.

Thoracoscopy in the management of posttraumatic persistent pneumothorax
Carrillo, E. H., Schmacht, D. C., Gable, D. R., Spain, D. A., & Richardson, J. D. (1998). Thoracoscopy in the management of posttraumatic persistent pneumothorax. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, 186(6), 636-639.

Alternatives in the management of penetrating injuries to the iliac vessels
Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (1998). Alternatives in the management of penetrating injuries to the iliac vessels. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 44(6), 1024-1029.

Impact of trauma attending surgeon case volume on outcome: Is more better?
Richardson, J. D., Schmieg, R., Boaz, P., Spain, D. A., Wohltmann, C., & Fulton, R. L. (1998). Impact of trauma attending surgeon case volume on outcome: Is more better?. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 44(2), 266-271.

Quality assessment of intraoperative blood salvage and autotransfusion
Spain, D. A., Miller, F. B., Bergamini, T. M., Montgomery, R. C., & Richardson, J. D. (1997). Quality assessment of intraoperative blood salvage and autotransfusion. AMERICAN SURGEON, 63(12), 1059-1063.

Lazaroid improves intestinal blood flow in the rat during hyperdynamic bacteraemia
Krysztopik, R. J., Bentley, F. R., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1997). Lazaroid improves intestinal blood flow in the rat during hyperdynamic bacteraemia. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 84(12), 1717-1721.

Twelfth rib resection - Preferred therapy for subphrenic abscess in selected surgical patients
Spain, D. A., Martin, R. Cg., Carrillo, E. H., & Polk, H. C. (1997). Twelfth rib resection - Preferred therapy for subphrenic abscess in selected surgical patients. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 132(11), 1203-1206.

Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy for airway control
Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., Bumpous, J. M., Schmieg, R. E., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (1997). Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy for airway control. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 174(5), 469-473.

Bedside percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy - A safe alternative for early nutritional support in critically ill trauma patients
Carrillo, E. H., Heniford, B. T., Osborne, D. L., Spain, D. A., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (1997). Bedside percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy - A safe alternative for early nutritional support in critically ill trauma patients. SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY-ULTRASOUND AND INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 11(11), 1068-1071.

Glucose-induced intestinal hyperemia is mediated by nitric oxide
Matheson, P. J., Wilson, M. A., Spain, D. A., Harris, P. D., Anderson, G. L., & Garrison, R. N. (1997). Glucose-induced intestinal hyperemia is mediated by nitric oxide. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 72(2), 146-154.

Risk-taking behaviors among adolescent trauma patients
Spain, D. A., Boaz, P. W., Davidson, D. J., Miller, F. B., Carrillo, E. H., & Richardson, J. D. (1997). Risk-taking behaviors among adolescent trauma patients. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 43(3), 423-426.

Heme oxygenase-dependent carbon monoxide production is a hepatic adaptive response to sepsis
Downard, P. J., Wilson, M. A., Spain, D. A., Matheson, P. J., Siow, Y., & Garrison, R. N. (1997). Heme oxygenase-dependent carbon monoxide production is a hepatic adaptive response to sepsis. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 71(1), 7-12.

Intrahepatic vascular clamping in complex hepatic vein injuries
Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (1997). Intrahepatic vascular clamping in complex hepatic vein injuries. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 43(1), 131-133.

Lazaroids prevent acute cyclosporine-induced renal vasoconstriction
Krysztopik, R. J., Bentley, F. R., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1997). Lazaroids prevent acute cyclosporine-induced renal vasoconstriction. TRANSPLANTATION, 63(9), 1215-1220.

The role of thoracoscopy in the management of retained thoracic collections after trauma
Heniford, B. T., Carrillo, E. H., Spain, D. A., Sosa, J. L., Fulton, R. L., & Richardson, J. D. (1997). The role of thoracoscopy in the management of retained thoracic collections after trauma. ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY, 63(4), 940-943.

Blunt popliteal artery trauma: A challenging injury
Harrell, D. J., Spain, D. A., Bergamini, T. M., Miller, F. B., & Richardson, J. D. (1997). Blunt popliteal artery trauma: A challenging injury. AMERICAN SURGEON, 63(3), 228-231.

Venous thromboembolism in the high-risk trauma patient: Do risks justify aggressive screening and prophylaxis?
Spain, D. A., Richardson, J. D., Polk, H. C., Bergamini, T. M., Wilson, M. A., & Miller, F. B. (1997). Venous thromboembolism in the high-risk trauma patient: Do risks justify aggressive screening and prophylaxis?. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 42(3), 463-467.

Differential intestinal microvascular dysfunction occurs during bacteremia
Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Krysztopik, R. J., Matheson, P. J., & Garrison, R. N. (1997). Differential intestinal microvascular dysfunction occurs during bacteremia. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 67(1), 67-71.

Heparan preserves intestinal perfusion after hemorrhage and resuscitation
Watkins, J. M., Spain, D. A., Krysztopik, R. J., Downard, P. J., Wilson, M. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1996). Heparan preserves intestinal perfusion after hemorrhage and resuscitation. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 66(2), 154-158.

Operative strategies for management of abdominal aortic gunshot wounds
Richardson, J. D., Bergamini, T. M., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Carrillo, E. H., & Miller, F. B. (1996). Operative strategies for management of abdominal aortic gunshot wounds. SURGERY, 120(4), 667-671.

Free radical scavenging by lazaroids improves renal blood flow during sepsis
Krysztopik, R. J., Bentley, F. R., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1996). Free radical scavenging by lazaroids improves renal blood flow during sepsis. SURGERY, 120(4), 657-662.

Fluid resuscitation attenuates early cytokine mRNA expression after peritonitis
Wilson, M. A., Chou, M. C., Spain, D. A., Downard, P. J., Qian, Q. H., & Garrison, R. N. (1996). Fluid resuscitation attenuates early cytokine mRNA expression after peritonitis. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 41(4), 622-627.

Complex thoracic injuries
Richardson, J. D., Miller, F. B., Carrillo, E. H., & Spain, D. A. (1996). Complex thoracic injuries. SURGICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 76(4), 725-?.

Vasomotor response to pentoxifylline mediates improved renal blood flow to bacteremia.
Krysztopik, R. J., Bentley, F. R., Wilson, M. A., Spain, D. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1996). Vasomotor response to pentoxifylline mediates improved renal blood flow to bacteremia. journal of surgical research, 63(1), 17-22.

Predicting the need to pack early for severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage
Garrison, J. R., Richardson, J. D., HILAKOS, A. S., Spain, D. A., Miller, F. B., & Fulton, R. L. (1996). Predicting the need to pack early for severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 40(6), 923-927.

Preoperative saline loading improves outcome after elective, noncardiac surgical procedures
Garrison, R. N., Wilson, M. A., Matheson, P. J., & Spain, D. A. (1996). Preoperative saline loading improves outcome after elective, noncardiac surgical procedures. AMERICAN SURGEON, 62(3), 223-231.

ENDOTHELIN-1 EXPRESSION IN THE SMALL-INTESTINE DURING CHRONIC PERITONITIS
Chou, M. C., Wilson, M. A., Spain, D. A., Hadjiminas, D., Anderson, G. L., & Garrison, R. N. (1995). ENDOTHELIN-1 EXPRESSION IN THE SMALL-INTESTINE DURING CHRONIC PERITONITIS. SHOCK, 4(6), 411-414.

Transpyloric passage of feeding tubes in patients with head injuries does not decrease complications
Spain, D. A., DEWEESE, C., REYNOLDS, M. A., & Richardson, J. D. (1995). Transpyloric passage of feeding tubes in patients with head injuries does not decrease complications. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 39(6), 1100-1102.

HAEMOPHILUS PNEUMONIA IS A COMMON-CAUSE OF EARLY PULMONARY DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING TRAUMA
Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Boaz, P. W., Barnatan, M. F., & Garrison, R. N. (1995). HAEMOPHILUS PNEUMONIA IS A COMMON-CAUSE OF EARLY PULMONARY DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING TRAUMA. ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, 130(11), 1228-1232.

IS THE TIMING OF FRACTURE FIXATION IMPORTANT FOR THE PATIENT WITH MULTIPLE TRAUMA
REYNOLDS, M. A., Richardson, J. D., Spain, D. A., Seligson, D., Wilson, M. A., & Miller, F. B. (1995). IS THE TIMING OF FRACTURE FIXATION IMPORTANT FOR THE PATIENT WITH MULTIPLE TRAUMA. ANNALS OF SURGERY, 222(4), 470-481.

ALPHA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM PREVENTS INTESTINAL VASOCONSTRICTION BUT NOT HYPOPERFUSION FOLLOWING RESUSCITATED HEMORRHAGE
THEUER, C. J., Wilson, M. A., Spain, D. A., Edwards, M. J., & Garrison, R. N. (1995). ALPHA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM PREVENTS INTESTINAL VASOCONSTRICTION BUT NOT HYPOPERFUSION FOLLOWING RESUSCITATED HEMORRHAGE. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 59(2), 292-298.

NITRIC-OXIDE MEDIATES REDISTRIBUTION OF INTRARENAL BLOOD-FLOW DURING BACTEREMIA
Garrison, R. N., Wilson, M. A., Matheson, P. J., & Spain, D. A. (1995). NITRIC-OXIDE MEDIATES REDISTRIBUTION OF INTRARENAL BLOOD-FLOW DURING BACTEREMIA. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 39(1), 90-97.

AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY OF ALTERED NITRIC-OXIDE METABOLISM AS A MECHANISM OF CYCLOSPORINE-INDUCED RENAL VASOCONSTRICTION
BLOOM, I. Tm., Bentley, F. R., Spain, D. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1995). AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY OF ALTERED NITRIC-OXIDE METABOLISM AS A MECHANISM OF CYCLOSPORINE-INDUCED RENAL VASOCONSTRICTION. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 82(2), 195-198.

PLATELET-ACTIVATING-FACTOR AND SEPSIS-INDUCED SMALL-INTESTINAL MICROVASCULAR HYPOPERFUSION
Barnatan, M. F., Wilson, M. A., Spain, D. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1995). PLATELET-ACTIVATING-FACTOR AND SEPSIS-INDUCED SMALL-INTESTINAL MICROVASCULAR HYPOPERFUSION. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 58(1), 38-45.

The delirious ICU patient: often misdiagnosed and undertreated.
Spain, D. A., & Miller, F. B. (1995). The delirious ICU patient: often misdiagnosed and undertreated. journal of the Kentucky Medical Association, 93(1), 10-14.

DIFFERENTIAL MICROVASCULAR RESPONSE TO CYCLOOXYGENASE BLOCKADE IN THE RAT SMALL-INTESTINE DURING ACUTE BACTEREMIA
Gosche, J. R., Spain, D. A., Garrison, R. N., Lubbe, A. S., & Cryer, H. G. (1994). DIFFERENTIAL MICROVASCULAR RESPONSE TO CYCLOOXYGENASE BLOCKADE IN THE RAT SMALL-INTESTINE DURING ACUTE BACTEREMIA. SHOCK, 2(6), 408-412.

ANTIBIOTIC OVERKILL OF TRAUMA VICTIMS
Hadjiminas, D., Cheadle, W. G., Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Short, A., & Rodriguez, J. L. (1994). ANTIBIOTIC OVERKILL OF TRAUMA VICTIMS. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 168(3), 288-290.

NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION EXACERBATES SEPSIS-INDUCED RENAL HYPOPERFUSION
Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., & Garrison, R. N. (1994). NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION EXACERBATES SEPSIS-INDUCED RENAL HYPOPERFUSION. SURGERY, 116(2), 322-331.

ROLE OF NITRIC-OXIDE IN THE SMALL-INTESTINAL MICROCIRCULATION DURING BACTEREMIA
Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Barnatan, M. F., & Garrison, R. N. (1994). ROLE OF NITRIC-OXIDE IN THE SMALL-INTESTINAL MICROCIRCULATION DURING BACTEREMIA. SHOCK, 2(1), 41-46.

RENAL MICROVASCULAR RESPONSES TO SEPSIS ARE DEPENDENT ON NITRIC-OXIDE
Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., BLOOM, I. Tm., & Garrison, R. N. (1994). RENAL MICROVASCULAR RESPONSES TO SEPSIS ARE DEPENDENT ON NITRIC-OXIDE. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, 56(6), 524-529.

NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION AGGRAVATES INTESTINAL MICROVASCULAR VASOCONSTRICTION AND HYPOPERFUSION OF BACTEREMIA
Spain, D. A., Wilson, M. A., Barnatan, M. F., Garrison, R. N., GRYER, H. G., & Swan, K. G. (1994). NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITION AGGRAVATES INTESTINAL MICROVASCULAR VASOCONSTRICTION AND HYPOPERFUSION OF BACTEREMIA. JOURNAL OF TRAUMA-INJURY INFECTION AND CRITICAL CARE, 36(5), 720-725.

TRACHEOSTOMY AND PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE HEAD-INJURED TRAUMA PATIENT
DAMELIO, L. F., Hammond, J. S., Spain, D. A., & Sutyak, J. P. (1994). TRACHEOSTOMY AND PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE HEAD-INJURED TRAUMA PATIENT. AMERICAN SURGEON, 60(3), 180-185.

OPERATIVE TUBE VERSUS PERCUTANEOUS CHOLECYSTOSTOMY FOR ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS
Spain, D. A., Bibbo, C., ECKER, T., Nosher, J. L., & Brolin, R. E. (1993). OPERATIVE TUBE VERSUS PERCUTANEOUS CHOLECYSTOSTOMY FOR ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 166(1), 28-31.

NONOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL SHATTERED KIDNEYS FROM BLUNT TRAUMA
Spain, D. A., Berger, Y., BOYARSKY, A. H., & Flancbaum, L. J. (1993). NONOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL SHATTERED KIDNEYS FROM BLUNT TRAUMA. UROLOGY, 41(6), 579-581.

PERITONEAL LEUKOCYTE RESPONSE FOLLOWING PLACEMENT OF POLYGLYCOLIC ACID INTESTINAL SLING IN PATIENTS WITH RECTAL-CARCINOMA
DEVEREUX, D. F., OCONNELL, S. M., Spain, D. A., & Robertson, F. M. (1991). PERITONEAL LEUKOCYTE RESPONSE FOLLOWING PLACEMENT OF POLYGLYCOLIC ACID INTESTINAL SLING IN PATIENTS WITH RECTAL-CARCINOMA. DISEASES OF THE COLON & RECTUM, 34(8), 670-674.

THE ADEQUACY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ROUTINE RESUSCITATION-AREA CERVICAL-SPINE RADIOGRAPHS
Spain, D. A., Trooskin, S. Z., Flancbaum, L., BOYARSKY, A. H., & Nosher, J. L. (1990). THE ADEQUACY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ROUTINE RESUSCITATION-AREA CERVICAL-SPINE RADIOGRAPHS. ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 19(3), 276-278.

Whipple operation revisited.
Spain, D. A., & Greco, R. S. (1990). Whipple operation revisited. New Jersey medicine : the journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 87(1), 41-44.