The quail slow myosin heavy chain 3 (slow MyHC 3) gene is expressed in the developing heart and in slow muscles of the developing limb. It is first expressed in the pulsatile cardiac tube in the embryo, and as the heart chamberizes its expression becomes restricted to the atria. To identify regulatory elements responsible for atrial-specific expression, the 5' upstream region of slow MyHC 3 gene was investigated. An atrial regulatory domain (ARD1) between -840 and -680 acts as an atrial cell-specific enhancer in primary cardiocyte cultures. ARD1 also specifies atrial-specific expression in vivo when the ARD1/heterologous promoter was introduced into developing chick embryos by a replication-competent retroviral vector. ARD1 is the first atrial cell-specific enhancer to be identified. Fine deletion and mutation analysis within ARD1 defined a 40-base pair vitamin D3 receptor-like element that controls atrial cell-specific expression of the slow MyHC 3 gene by inhibiting its expression in ventricular cardiocytes.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VC66900034
View details for PubMedID 8702693