Lawrence Steinman, MD

Multiple sclerosis specialist

George A. Zimmermann Professor and Professor of Pediatrics

Multiple Sclerosis Center

  • 300 Pasteur Drive
  • Stanford, CA 94305
  • Phone: 650-723-6469
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Professional Education

Residency: Stanford University School of Medicine (1980) CA

Residency: Stanford University School of Medicine (1974) CA

Fellowship: National Institutes of Health (1977) MD

Board Certification: Neurology, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (1984)

Fellowship: Weizmann Institute Of Science (1977) Israel

Internship: Stanford University School of Medicine (1974) CA

Medical Education: Harvard Medical School (1973) MA

MD, Harvard University, Neurochemistry (1973)

Honors & Awards

Charcot Award for Lifetime Achievement in MS Research, Internation Federation of MS Societies (2011)

Member, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences (October, 2009-)

John M. Dystel Prize, American Academy of Neurology and National MS Society (2004)

Friedrich Sasse Prize, Free Univ.of Berlin (1994)

Sen. Jacob Javits Award, US Congress (1988-2002)

Administrative Appointments

Chairman, Interdepartmental Program in Immunology, Interdepartmental Program in Immunology, Stanford University (2002 - 2011)

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate a new medical approach, device, drug, or other treatment. As a Stanford Health Care patient, you may have access to the latest, advanced clinical trials.

Open trials refer to studies currently accepting participants. Closed trials are not currently enrolling, but may open in the future.

Mechanisms of action of therapeutic amyloidogenic hexapeptides in amelioration of inflammatory brain disease.
Kurnellas, M. P., Schartner, J. M., Fathman, C. G., Jagger, A., Steinman, L., & Rothbard, J. B. (2014). Mechanisms of action of therapeutic amyloidogenic hexapeptides in amelioration of inflammatory brain disease. journal of experimental medicine, 211(9), 1847-1856.

Plasmid-Encoded Proinsulin Preserves C-Peptide While Specifically Reducing Proinsulin-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes.
Roep, B. O., Solvason, N., Gottlieb, P. A., Abreu, J. Rf., Harrison, L. C., & Steinman, L. (2013). Plasmid-Encoded Proinsulin Preserves C-Peptide While Specifically Reducing Proinsulin-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes. Science translational medicine, 5(191), 191ra82-?.

Expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells following SIRT1 inactivation in the adult brain.
Rafalski, V. A., Ho, P. P., Brett, J. O., Ucar, D., Dugas, J. C., & Brunet, A. (2013). Expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells following SIRT1 inactivation in the adult brain. Nature cell biology, 15(6), 614-624.

Amyloid Fibrils Composed of Hexameric Peptides Attenuate Neuroinflammation
Kurnellas, M. P., Adams, C. M., Sobel, R. A., Steinman, L., & Rothbard, J. B. (2013). Amyloid Fibrils Composed of Hexameric Peptides Attenuate Neuroinflammation. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 5(179).

A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science
Brownell, S. E., Price, J. V., & Steinman, L. (2013). A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science. ADVANCES IN PHYSIOLOGY EDUCATION, 37(1), 70-79.

Weighing in on autoimmune disease: 'Hub-and-spoke' T cell traffic in autoimmunity.
Steinman, L. (2013). Weighing in on autoimmune disease: 'Hub-and-spoke' T cell traffic in autoimmunity. Nature medicine, 19(2), 139-141.

Inflammatory Cytokines at the Summits of Pathological Signal Cascades in Brain Diseases
Steinman, L. (2013). Inflammatory Cytokines at the Summits of Pathological Signal Cascades in Brain Diseases. SCIENCE SIGNALING, 6(258).

Piet Mondrian's trees and the evolution in understanding multiple sclerosis, Charcot Prize Lecture 2011
Steinman, L., Axtell, R. C., Barbieri, D., Bhat, R., Brownell, S. E., & Rothbard, J. B. (2013). Piet Mondrian's trees and the evolution in understanding multiple sclerosis, Charcot Prize Lecture 2011. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL, 19(1), 5-14.

The discovery of natalizumab, a potent therapeutic for multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2012). The discovery of natalizumab, a potent therapeutic for multiple sclerosis. JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY, 199(3), 413-416.

Chaperone Activity of Small Heat Shock Proteins Underlies Therapeutic Efficacy in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Kurnellas, M. P., Brownell, S. E., Su, L., Malkovskiy, A. V., Rajadas, J., & Rothbard, J. B. (2012). Chaperone Activity of Small Heat Shock Proteins Underlies Therapeutic Efficacy in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 287(43), 36423-36434.

Reversal of Paralysis and Reduced Inflammation from Peripheral Administration of beta-Amyloid in T(H)1 and T(H)17 Versions of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Grant, J. L., Ghosn, E. E. B., Axtell, R. C., Herges, K., Kuipers, H. F., & Steinman, L. (2012). Reversal of Paralysis and Reduced Inflammation from Peripheral Administration of beta-Amyloid in T(H)1 and T(H)17 Versions of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 4(145).

Janus-like opposing roles of CD47 in autoimmune brain inflammation in humans and mice
Han, M. H., Lundgren, D. H., Jaiswal, S., Chao, M., Graham, K. L., & Steinman, L. (2012). Janus-like opposing roles of CD47 in autoimmune brain inflammation in humans and mice. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 209(7), 1325-1334.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)a and -? regulate IFN? and IL-17A production by human T cells in a sex-specific way.
Zhang, M. A., Rego, D., Moshkova, M., Kebir, H., Chruscinski, A., & Dunn, S. E. (2012). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)a and -? regulate IFN? and IL-17A production by human T cells in a sex-specific way. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9505-9510.

Identification of Naturally Occurring Fatty Acids of the Myelin Sheath That Resolve Neuroinflammation
Ho, P. P., Kanter, J. L., Johnson, A. M., Srinagesh, H. K., Chang, E.-J., & Robinson, W. H. (2012). Identification of Naturally Occurring Fatty Acids of the Myelin Sheath That Resolve Neuroinflammation. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 4(137).

Protective effect of an elastase inhibitor in a neuromyelitis optica-like disease driven by a peptide of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein
Herges, K., de Jong, B. A., Kolkowitz, I., Dunn, C., Mandelbaum, G., & Axtell, R. C. (2012). Protective effect of an elastase inhibitor in a neuromyelitis optica-like disease driven by a peptide of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL, 18(4), 398-408.

Therapeutic Effects of Systemic Administration of Chaperone alpha B-Crystallin Associated with Binding Proinflammatory Plasma Proteins
Rothbard, J. B., Kurnellas, M. P., Brownell, S., Adams, C. M., Su, L., & Steinman, L. (2012). Therapeutic Effects of Systemic Administration of Chaperone alpha B-Crystallin Associated with Binding Proinflammatory Plasma Proteins. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 287(13), 9708-9721.

Optimization of current and future therapy for autoimmune diseases
Steinman, L., Merrill, J. T., McInnes, I. B., & Peakman, M. (2012). Optimization of current and future therapy for autoimmune diseases. NATURE MEDICINE, 18(1), 59-65.

Systemic augmentation of alpha B-crystallin provides therapeutic benefit twelve hours post-stroke onset via immune modulation
Arac, A., Brownell, S. E., Rothbard, J. B., Chen, C., Ko, R. M., & Steinberg, G. K. (2011). Systemic augmentation of alpha B-crystallin provides therapeutic benefit twelve hours post-stroke onset via immune modulation. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 108(32), 13287-13292.

Functional rescue of experimental ischemic optic neuropathy with alpha B-crystallin
Pangratz-Fuehrer, S., Kaur, K., Ousman, S. S., Steinman, L., & Liao, Y. J. (2011). Functional rescue of experimental ischemic optic neuropathy with alpha B-crystallin. EYE, 25(6), 809-817.

Interferon-beta exacerbates Th17-mediated inflammatory disease
Axtell, R. C., Raman, C., & Steinman, L. (2011). Interferon-beta exacerbates Th17-mediated inflammatory disease. TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 32(6), 272-277.

Chaperone Activity of alpha B-Crystallin Is Responsible for Its Incorrect Assignment as an Autoantigen in Multiple Sclerosis
Rothbard, J. B., Zhao, X., Sharpe, O., Strohman, M. J., Kurnellas, M., & Steinman, L. (2011). Chaperone Activity of alpha B-Crystallin Is Responsible for Its Incorrect Assignment as an Autoantigen in Multiple Sclerosis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 186(7), 4263-4268.

Modulation of postoperative cognitive decline via blockade of inflammatory cytokines outside the brain
Steinman, L. (2010). Modulation of postoperative cognitive decline via blockade of inflammatory cytokines outside the brain. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 107(48), 20595-20596.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta limits the expansion of pathogenic Th cells during central nervous system autoimmunity
Dunn, S. E., Bhat, R., Straus, D. S., Sobel, R. A., Axtell, R., & Steinman, L. (2010). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta limits the expansion of pathogenic Th cells during central nervous system autoimmunity. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 207(8), 1599-1608.

Inverse vaccination, the opposite of Jenner's concept, for therapy of autoimmunity
Steinman, L. (2010). Inverse vaccination, the opposite of Jenner's concept, for therapy of autoimmunity. JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 267(5), 441-451.

T helper type 1 and 17 cells determine efficacy of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis and experimental encephalomyelitis
Axtell, R. C., de Jong, B. A., Boniface, K., Van der Voort, L. F., Bhat, R., & Raman, C. (2010). T helper type 1 and 17 cells determine efficacy of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis and experimental encephalomyelitis. NATURE MEDICINE, 16(4), 406-U21.

Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation
Bhat, R., Axtell, R., Mitra, A., Miranda, M., Lock, C., & Steinman, L. (2010). Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 107(6), 2580-2585.

Innate and Adaptive Autoimmunity Directed to the Central Nervous System
Bhat, R., & Steinman, L. (2009). Innate and Adaptive Autoimmunity Directed to the Central Nervous System. NEURON, 64(1), 123-132.

Blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme induces potent regulatory T cells and modulates TH1-and TH17-mediated autoimmunity
Platten, M., Youssef, S., Hur, E. M., Ho, P. P., Han, M. H., & Steinman, L. (2009). Blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme induces potent regulatory T cells and modulates TH1-and TH17-mediated autoimmunity. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 106(35), 14948-14953.

A molecular trio in relapse and remission in multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2009). A molecular trio in relapse and remission in multiple sclerosis. NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY, 9(6), 440-447.

Improved Efficacy of a Tolerizing DNA Vaccine for Reversal of Hyperglycemia through Enhancement of Gene Expression and Localization to Intracellular Sites
Solvason, N., Lou, Y.-P., Peters, W., Evans, E., Martinez, J., & Garren, H. (2008). Improved Efficacy of a Tolerizing DNA Vaccine for Reversal of Hyperglycemia through Enhancement of Gene Expression and Localization to Intracellular Sites. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 181(12), 8298-8307.

Nuanced roles of cytokines in three major human brain disorders
Steinman, L. (2008). Nuanced roles of cytokines in three major human brain disorders. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 118(11), 3557-3563.

A rush to judgment on Th17
Steinman, L. (2008). A rush to judgment on Th17. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 205(7), 1517-1522.

Phase 2 trial of a DNA vaccine encoding myelin basic protein for multiple sclerosis
Garren, H., Robinson, W. H., Krasulova, E., Havrdova, E., Nadj, C., & Steinman, L. (2008). Phase 2 trial of a DNA vaccine encoding myelin basic protein for multiple sclerosis. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 63(5), 611-620.

Proteomic analysis of active multiple sclerosis lesions reveals therapeutic targets
Han, M. H., Hwang, S.-I., Roy, D. B., Lundgren, D. H., Price, J. V., & Steinman, L. (2008). Proteomic analysis of active multiple sclerosis lesions reveals therapeutic targets. NATURE, 451(7182), 1076-U2.

Induction of antigen-specific tolerance in multiple sclerosis after immunization with DNA encoding myelin basic protein in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 trial
Bar-Or, A., Vollmer, T., Antel, J., Arnold, D. L., Bodner, C. A., & Garren, H. (2007). Induction of antigen-specific tolerance in multiple sclerosis after immunization with DNA encoding myelin basic protein in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 trial. ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY, 64(10), 1407-1415.

Protective and therapeutic role for alpha B-crystallin in autoimmune demyelination
Ousman, S. S., Tomooka, B. H., Van Noort, J. M., Wawrousek, E. F., O'Connor, K. C., & Steinman, L. (2007). Protective and therapeutic role for alpha B-crystallin in autoimmune demyelination. NATURE, 448(7152), 474-U7.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha expression in T cells mediates gender differences in development of T cell-mediated autoimmunity
Dunn, S. E., Ousman, S. S., Sobel, R. A., Zuniga, L., Baranzini, S. E., & Steinman, L. (2007). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha expression in T cells mediates gender differences in development of T cell-mediated autoimmunity. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 204(2), 321-330.

A brief history of T(H)17, the first major revision in the T(H)1/T(H)2 hypothesis of T cell-mediated tissue damage
Steinman, L. (2007). A brief history of T(H)17, the first major revision in the T(H)1/T(H)2 hypothesis of T cell-mediated tissue damage. NATURE MEDICINE, 13(2), 139-145.

Osteopontin-induced relapse and progression of autoimmune brain disease through enhanced survival of activated T cells
Hur, E. M., Youssef, S., Haws, M. E., Zhang, S. Y., Sobel, R. A., & Steinman, L. (2007). Osteopontin-induced relapse and progression of autoimmune brain disease through enhanced survival of activated T cells. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, 8(1), 74-83.

Isoprenoids determine Th1/Th2 fate in pathogenic T cells, providing a mechanism of modulation of autoimmunity by atorvastatin
Dunn, S. E., Youssef, S., Goldstein, M. J., Prod'homme, T., Weber, M. S., & Steinman, L. (2006). Isoprenoids determine Th1/Th2 fate in pathogenic T cells, providing a mechanism of modulation of autoimmunity by atorvastatin. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 203(2), 401-412.

Lipid microarrays identify key mediators of autoimmune brain inflammation
Kanter, J. L., Narayana, S., Ho, P. P., Catz, I., Warren, K. G., & Robinson, W. H. (2006). Lipid microarrays identify key mediators of autoimmune brain inflammation. NATURE MEDICINE, 12(1), 138-143.

Treatment of autoimmune neuroinflammation with a synthetic tryptophan metabolite
Platten, M., Ho, P. P., Youssef, S., Fontoura, P., Garren, H., & Steinman, L. (2005). Treatment of autoimmune neuroinflammation with a synthetic tryptophan metabolite. SCIENCE, 310(5749), 850-855.

Design of effective immunotherapy for human autoimmunity
Feldmann, M., & Steinman, L. (2005). Design of effective immunotherapy for human autoimmunity. NATURE, 435(7042), 612-619.

Blocking adhesion molecules as therapy for multiple sclerosis: Natalizumab
Steinman, L. (2005). Blocking adhesion molecules as therapy for multiple sclerosis: Natalizumab. NATURE REVIEWS DRUG DISCOVERY, 4(6), 510-U3.

Immune therapy for autoimmune diseases
Steinman, L. (2004). Immune therapy for autoimmune diseases. SCIENCE, 305(5681), 212-216.

REVERSAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY TO A T-CELL SUBSET MARKER
Waldor, M. K., Sriram, S., Hardy, R., Herzenberg, L. A., Herzenberg, L. A., & Steinman, L. (1985). REVERSAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY TO A T-CELL SUBSET MARKER. SCIENCE, 227(4685), 415-417.

DISAPPEARANCE AND REAPPEARANCE OF B-CELLS AFTER INVIVO TREATMENT WITH MONOCLONAL ANTI-I-A ANTIBODIES
Waldor, M. K., Hardy, R. R., Hayakawa, K., Steinman, L., Herzenberg, L. A., & Herzenberg, L. A. (1984). DISAPPEARANCE AND REAPPEARANCE OF B-CELLS AFTER INVIVO TREATMENT WITH MONOCLONAL ANTI-I-A ANTIBODIES. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 81(9), 2855-2858.

INVIVO THERAPY WITH MONOCLONAL ANTI-I-A ANTIBODY SUPPRESSES IMMUNE-RESPONSES TO ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR
Waldor, M. K., Sriram, S., McDevitt, H. O., & Steinman, L. (1983). INVIVO THERAPY WITH MONOCLONAL ANTI-I-A ANTIBODY SUPPRESSES IMMUNE-RESPONSES TO ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 80(9), 2713-2717.

Janus faces of amyloid proteins in neuroinflammation.
Steinman, L., Rothbard, J. B., & Kurnellas, M. P. (2014). Janus faces of amyloid proteins in neuroinflammation. Journal of clinical immunology, 34, 61-63.

Serum autoantibodies to myelin peptides distinguish acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Van Haren, K., Tomooka, B. H., Kidd, B. A., Banwell, B., Bar-Or, A., & Robinson, W. H. (2013). Serum autoantibodies to myelin peptides distinguish acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL, 19(13), 1726-1733.

Th17 Cells Induce Th1-Polarizing Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
Davidson, M. G., Alonso, M. N., Yuan, R., Axtell, R. C., Kenkel, J. A., & Engleman, E. G. (2013). Th17 Cells Induce Th1-Polarizing Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 191(3), 1175-1187.

The gender gap in multiple sclerosis: intersection of science and society.
Dunn, S. E., & Steinman, L. (2013). The gender gap in multiple sclerosis: intersection of science and society. JAMA neurology, 70(5), 634-635.

Type I Interferons: Beneficial in Th1 and Detrimental in Th17 Autoimmunity
Axtell, R. C., Raman, C., & Steinman, L. (2013). Type I Interferons: Beneficial in Th1 and Detrimental in Th17 Autoimmunity. CLINICAL REVIEWS IN ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY, 44(2), 114-120.

A Tip leads cytotoxic T cells to the crime scene in neuroinflammation
Steinman, L. (2013). A Tip leads cytotoxic T cells to the crime scene in neuroinflammation. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, 14(3), 196-197.

Transient B-Cell Depletion with Anti-CD20 in Combination with Proinsulin DNA Vaccine or Oral Insulin: Immunologic Effects and Efficacy in NOD Mice
Sarikonda, G., Sachithanantham, S., Manenkova, Y., Kupfer, T., Posgai, A., & von Herrath, M. (2013). Transient B-Cell Depletion with Anti-CD20 in Combination with Proinsulin DNA Vaccine or Oral Insulin: Immunologic Effects and Efficacy in NOD Mice. PLOS ONE, 8(2).

Natalizumab Bench to Bedside and Beyond
Rudick, R., Polman, C., Clifford, D., Miller, D., & Steinman, L. (2013). Natalizumab Bench to Bedside and Beyond. JAMA NEUROLOGY, 70(2), 172-182.

Interleukin 17F Level and Interferon Beta Response in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.
Hartung, H. P., Steinman, L., Goodin, D. S., Comi, G., Cook, S., & Pohl, C. (2013). Interleukin 17F Level and Interferon Beta Response in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis. JAMA neurology, 1-5.

The Road Not Taken: Antigen-Specific Therapy and Neuroinflammatory Disease.
Steinman, L. (2013). The Road Not Taken: Antigen-Specific Therapy and Neuroinflammatory Disease. JAMA neurology, 1-2.

CRYAB modulates the activation of CD4+ T cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.
Quach, Q. L., Metz, L. M., Thomas, J. C., Rothbard, J. B., Steinman, L., & Ousman, S. S. (2013). CRYAB modulates the activation of CD4+ T cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England).

Serum IL-17F does not predict poor response to IM IFN beta-1a in relapsing-remitting MS
Bushnell, S. E., Zhao, Z., Stebbins, C. C., Cadavid, D., Buko, A. M., & Medori, R. (2012). Serum IL-17F does not predict poor response to IM IFN beta-1a in relapsing-remitting MS. NEUROLOGY, 79(6), 531-537.

Nostalgia: the similarities between immunological and neurological memory
Steinman, L. (2012). Nostalgia: the similarities between immunological and neurological memory. IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS, 248, 5-9.

Platelets Provide a Bounty of Potential Targets for Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2012). Platelets Provide a Bounty of Potential Targets for Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis. CIRCULATION RESEARCH, 110(9), 1157-1158.

Lessons learned at the intersection of immunology and neuroscience
Steinman, L. (2012). Lessons learned at the intersection of immunology and neuroscience. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 122(4), 1146-1148.

Re-engineering of Pathogenic Aquaporin 4-Specific Antibodies as Molecular Decoys to Treat Neuromyelitis Optica
Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2012). Re-engineering of Pathogenic Aquaporin 4-Specific Antibodies as Molecular Decoys to Treat Neuromyelitis Optica. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 71(3), 287-288.

The protective and therapeutic function of small heat shock proteins in neurological diseases.
Brownell, S. E., Becker, R. A., & Steinman, L. (2012). The protective and therapeutic function of small heat shock proteins in neurological diseases. Frontiers in immunology, 3, 74-?.

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Ameliorate Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Crespo, O., Kang, S. C., Daneman, R., Lindstrom, T. M., Ho, P. P., & Robinson, W. H. (2011). Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Ameliorate Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 31(6), 1010-1020.

Interleukin-17 Accelerates Allograft Rejection by Suppressing Regulatory T Cell Expansion
Itoh, S., Kimura, N., Axtell, R. C., Velotta, J. B., Gong, Y., & Fischbein, M. P. (2011). Interleukin-17 Accelerates Allograft Rejection by Suppressing Regulatory T Cell Expansion. CIRCULATION, 124(11), S187-S196.

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 Ameliorates Th17 Autoimmunity via Transcriptional Modulation of Interleukin-17A
Joshi, S., Pantalena, L.-C., Liu, X. K., Gaffen, S. L., Liu, H., & Youssef, S. (2011). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 Ameliorates Th17 Autoimmunity via Transcriptional Modulation of Interleukin-17A. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, 31(17), 3653-3669.

Combining statins with interferon beta in multiple sclerosis: think twice, it might not be all right
Zamvil, S. S., & Steinman, L. (2011). Combining statins with interferon beta in multiple sclerosis: think twice, it might not be all right. LANCET NEUROLOGY, 10(8), 672-673.

IL-7 Promotes T(H)1 Development and Serum IL-7 Predicts Clinical Response to Interferon-beta in Multiple Sclerosis
Lee, L.-F., Axtell, R., Tu, G. H., Logronio, K., Dilley, J., & Lin, J. C. (2011). IL-7 Promotes T(H)1 Development and Serum IL-7 Predicts Clinical Response to Interferon-beta in Multiple Sclerosis. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 3(93).

alpha B-Crystallin Improves Murine Cardiac Function and Attenuates Apoptosis in Human Endothelial Cells Exposed to Ischemia-Reperfusion
Velotta, J. B., Kimura, N., Chang, S. H., Chung, J., Itoh, S., & Fischbein, M. P. (2011). alpha B-Crystallin Improves Murine Cardiac Function and Attenuates Apoptosis in Human Endothelial Cells Exposed to Ischemia-Reperfusion. ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY, 91(6), 1907-1913.

Human peptidome display
Robinson, W. H., & Steinman, L. (2011). Human peptidome display. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, 29(6), 500-502.

Vitamin D, Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Postpartum Multiple Sclerosis Relapses
Langer-Gould, A., Huang, S., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Gupta, R., Leimpeter, A. D., & Nelson, L. M. (2011). Vitamin D, Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Postpartum Multiple Sclerosis Relapses. ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY, 68(3), 310-313.

Common variants in P2RY11 are associated with narcolepsy
Kornum, B. R., Kawashima, M., Faraco, J., Lin, L., Rico, T. J., & Mignot, E. (2011). Common variants in P2RY11 are associated with narcolepsy. NATURE GENETICS, 43(1), 66-U90.

Delivery of Myelin Peptides through The First Line of Defense, Skin, to Counter Autoimmunity in Multiple Sclerosis
Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2010). Delivery of Myelin Peptides through The First Line of Defense, Skin, to Counter Autoimmunity in Multiple Sclerosis. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 68(5), 567-569.

Inverse Vaccination to Silence Immunity to Myelin in Multiple Sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2010). Inverse Vaccination to Silence Immunity to Myelin in Multiple Sclerosis. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, 37, S49-S58.

Angiotensin II sustains brain inflammation in mice via TGF-beta
Lanz, T. V., Ding, Z., Ho, P. P., Luo, J., Agrawal, A. N., & Steinman, L. (2010). Angiotensin II sustains brain inflammation in mice via TGF-beta. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 120(8), 2782-2794.

alpha B-Crystallin Is a Target for Adaptive Immune Responses and a Trigger of Innate Responses in Preactive Multiple Sclerosis Lesions
van Noort, J. M., Bsibsi, M., Gerritsen, W. H., van der Valk, P., Bajramovic, J. J., & Amor, S. (2010). alpha B-Crystallin Is a Target for Adaptive Immune Responses and a Trigger of Innate Responses in Preactive Multiple Sclerosis Lesions. JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY, 69(7), 694-703.

IL-17 Contributes to the Development of Chronic Rejection in a Murine Heart Transplant Model
Itoh, S., Nakae, S., Axtell, R. C., Velotta, J. B., Kimura, N., & Fischbein, M. P. (2010). IL-17 Contributes to the Development of Chronic Rejection in a Murine Heart Transplant Model. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 30(2), 235-240.

Treatment with a Toll-like receptor inhibitory GpG oligonucleotide delays and attenuates lupus nephritis in NZB/W mice
Graham, K. L., Lee, L. Y., Higgins, J. P., Steinman, L., Utz, P. J., & Ho, P. P. (2010). Treatment with a Toll-like receptor inhibitory GpG oligonucleotide delays and attenuates lupus nephritis in NZB/W mice. AUTOIMMUNITY, 43(2), 140-155.

Interferon-gamma-Producing T Cells, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Relapses of Multiple Sclerosis
Langer-Gould, A., Gupta, R., Huang, S., Hagan, A., Atkuri, K., & Nelson, L. M. (2010). Interferon-gamma-Producing T Cells, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Relapses of Multiple Sclerosis. ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY, 67(1), 51-57.

Autoimmunity against Fibrinogen Mediates Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice
Ho, P. P., Lee, L. Y., Zhao, X., Tomooka, B. H., Paniagua, R. T., & Robinson, W. H. (2010). Autoimmunity against Fibrinogen Mediates Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 184(1), 379-390.

Mixed results with modulation of T-H-17 cells in human autoimmune diseases
Steinman, L. (2010). Mixed results with modulation of T-H-17 cells in human autoimmune diseases. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, 11(1), 41-44.

Socioeconomic Trends in Hospitalization for Multiple Sclerosis
Lad, S. P., Chapman, C. H., Vaninetti, M., Steinman, L., Green, A., & Boakye, M. (2010). Socioeconomic Trends in Hospitalization for Multiple Sclerosis. NEUROEPIDEMIOLOGY, 35(2), 93-99.

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Causes Increased Necrosis and Apoptosis in an In Vivo Mouse Glioblastoma Multiforme Model
Bababeygy, S. R., Polevaya, N. V., Youssef, S., Sun, A., Xiong, A., & Tse, V. (2009). HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Causes Increased Necrosis and Apoptosis in an In Vivo Mouse Glioblastoma Multiforme Model. ANTICANCER RESEARCH, 29(12), 4901-4908.

PPAR-delta senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance
Mukundan, L., Odegaard, J. I., Morel, C. R., Heredia, J. E., Mwangi, J. W., & Chawla, A. (2009). PPAR-delta senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance. NATURE MEDICINE, 15(11), 1266-U59.

Shifting therapeutic attention in MS to osteopontin, type 1 and type 2 IFN
Steinman, L. (2009). Shifting therapeutic attention in MS to osteopontin, type 1 and type 2 IFN. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 39(9), 2358-2360.

The gray aspects of white matter disease in multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2009). The gray aspects of white matter disease in multiple sclerosis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 106(20), 8083-8084.

Systems biology for identification of molecular networks in multiple sclerosis
Han, M. H., & Steinman, L. (2009). Systems biology for identification of molecular networks in multiple sclerosis. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, 15(5), 529-530.

Anaphylaxis to a self-peptide in the absence of mast cells or histamine
Musio, S., Pedotti, P., Mantegazza, R., Ohtsu, H., Boon, L., & Pedotti, R. (2009). Anaphylaxis to a self-peptide in the absence of mast cells or histamine. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 89(4), 398-405.

Enhanced Immune Recognition of Cryptic Glycan Markers in Human Tumors
Newsom-Davis, T. E., Wang, D., Steinman, L., Chen, P. Ft., Wang, L.-X., & Screaton, G. R. (2009). Enhanced Immune Recognition of Cryptic Glycan Markers in Human Tumors. CANCER RESEARCH, 69(5), 2018-2025.

New targets for treatment of multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2008). New targets for treatment of multiple sclerosis. JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, 274(1-2), 1-4.

Differential Regulation of Chemokines by IL-17 in Colonic Epithelial Cells
Lee, J. W., Wang, P., Kattah, M. G., Youssef, S., Steinman, L., & Straus, D. S. (2008). Differential Regulation of Chemokines by IL-17 in Colonic Epithelial Cells. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 181(9), 6536-6545.

Thymic selection determines gamma delta T cell effector fate: Antigen-naive cells make interleukin-17 and antigen-experienced cells make interferon gamma
Jensen, K. Dc., Su, X., Shin, S., Li, L., Youssef, S., & Chien, Y.-H. (2008). Thymic selection determines gamma delta T cell effector fate: Antigen-naive cells make interleukin-17 and antigen-experienced cells make interferon gamma. IMMUNITY, 29(1), 90-100.

Failure of oral atorvastatin to modulate a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus
Graham, K. L., Lee, L. Y., Higgins, J. P., Steinman, L., Utz, P. J., & Ho, P. P. (2008). Failure of oral atorvastatin to modulate a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 58(7), 2098-2104.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a regulator of Th17 and Treg cell development in disease
Ho, P. P., & Steinman, L. (2008). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a regulator of Th17 and Treg cell development in disease. CELL RESEARCH, 18(6), 605-608.

Type 1 interferons cool the inflamed brain
Axtell, R. C., & Steinman, L. (2008). Type 1 interferons cool the inflamed brain. IMMUNITY, 28(5), 600-602.

Extensive fusion of haematopoietic cells with Purkinje neurons in response to chronic inflammation
Johansson, C. B., Youssef, S., Koleckar, K., Holbrook, C., Doyonnas, R., & Blau, H. M. (2008). Extensive fusion of haematopoietic cells with Purkinje neurons in response to chronic inflammation. NATURE CELL BIOLOGY, 10(5), 575-583.

CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells specific for a thymus-expressed antigen prevent the development of anaphylaxis to self
Scabeni, S., Lapilla, M., Musio, S., Gallo, B., Ciusani, E., & Pedotti, R. (2008). CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells specific for a thymus-expressed antigen prevent the development of anaphylaxis to self. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 180(7), 4433-4440.

Bioluminescence in vivo imaging of autoimmune encephalomyelitis predicts disease
Luo, J., Ho, P., Steinman, L., & Wyss-Coray, T. (2008). Bioluminescence in vivo imaging of autoimmune encephalomyelitis predicts disease. JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION, 5.

Epitope spreading to citrullinated antigens in mouse models of autoimmune arthritis and demyelination
Kidd, B. A., Ho, P. P., Sharpe, O., Zhao, X., Tomooka, B. H., & Robinson, W. H. (2008). Epitope spreading to citrullinated antigens in mouse models of autoimmune arthritis and demyelination. ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY, 10(5).

Preemptive HMG-CoA reductase inhibition provides graft-versus-host disease protection by Th-2 polarization while sparing graft-versus-leukemia activity
Zeiser, R., Youssef, S., Baker, J., Kambham, N., Steinman, L., & Negrin, R. S. (2007). Preemptive HMG-CoA reductase inhibition provides graft-versus-host disease protection by Th-2 polarization while sparing graft-versus-leukemia activity. BLOOD, 110(13), 4588-4598.

Glia-dependent TGF-beta signaling, acting independently of the TH17 pathway, is critical for initiation of murine autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Luo, J., Ho, P. P., Buckwalter, M. S., Hsu, T., Lee, L. Y., & Wyss-Coray, T. (2007). Glia-dependent TGF-beta signaling, acting independently of the TH17 pathway, is critical for initiation of murine autoimmune encephalomyelitis. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 117(11), 3306-3315.

Tryptophan degradation in autoimmune diseases
Opitz, C. A., Wick, W., Steinman, L., & Platten, M. (2007). Tryptophan degradation in autoimmune diseases. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES, 64(19-20), 2542-2563.

Inhibition of HMGcoA reductase by atorvastatin prevents and reverses MYC-induced lymphomagenesis
Shachaf, C. M., Perez, O. D., Youssef, S., Fan, A. C., Elchuri, S., & Felsher, D. W. (2007). Inhibition of HMGcoA reductase by atorvastatin prevents and reverses MYC-induced lymphomagenesis. BLOOD, 110(7), 2674-2684.

Nanosensor detection of an immunoregulatory tryptophan influx/kynurenine efflux cycle
Kaper, T., Looger, L. L., Takanaga, H., Platten, M., Steinman, L., & Frommer, W. B. (2007). Nanosensor detection of an immunoregulatory tryptophan influx/kynurenine efflux cycle. PLOS BIOLOGY, 5(10), 2201-2210.

Antigen-specific therapy of multiple sclerosis: The long-sought magic bullet
Steinman, L. (2007). Antigen-specific therapy of multiple sclerosis: The long-sought magic bullet. NEUROTHERAPEUTICS, 4(4), 661-665.

Statins-treatment option for central nervous system autoimmune disease?
Weber, M. S., Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2007). Statins-treatment option for central nervous system autoimmune disease?. NEUROTHERAPEUTICS, 4(4), 693-700.

Type II monocytes modulate T cell-mediated central nervous system autoimmune disease
Weber, M. S., Prod'homme, T., Youssef, S., Dunn, S. E., Rundle, C. D., & Zamvil, S. S. (2007). Type II monocytes modulate T cell-mediated central nervous system autoimmune disease. NATURE MEDICINE, 13(8), 935-943.

Self-antigen tetramers discriminate between myelin autoantibodies to native or denatured protein
O'Connor, K. C., McLaughlin, K. A., De Jager, P. L., Chitnis, T., Bettelli, E., & Wucherpfennig, K. W. (2007). Self-antigen tetramers discriminate between myelin autoantibodies to native or denatured protein. NATURE MEDICINE, 13(2), 211-217.

Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide suppress autoimmune neuroinflammation
Chora, A. A., Fontoura, P., Cunha, A., Pais, T. F., Cardoso, S., & Soares, M. P. (2007). Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide suppress autoimmune neuroinflammation. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 117(2), 438-447.

Tolerizing DNA vaccines for autoimmune arthritis
Ho, P. P., Higgins, J. P., Kidd, B. A., Tomooka, B., Digennaro, C., & Robinson, W. H. (2006). Tolerizing DNA vaccines for autoimmune arthritis. AUTOIMMUNITY, 39(8), 675-682.

Selective tyrosine kinase inhibition by imatinib mesylate for the treatment of autoimmune arthritis
Paniagua, R. T., Sharpe, O., Ho, P. P., Chan, S. M., Chang, A., & Robinson, W. H. (2006). Selective tyrosine kinase inhibition by imatinib mesylate for the treatment of autoimmune arthritis. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 116(10), 2633-2642.

At once harmful and beneficial: the dual properties of NF-kappa B
Youssef, S., & Steinman, L. (2006). At once harmful and beneficial: the dual properties of NF-kappa B. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, 7(9), 901-902.

Statins in the treatment of central nervous system autoimmune disease
Weber, M. S., Youssef, S., Dunn, S. E., Prod'homme, T., Neuhaus, O., & Zamvil, S. S. (2006). Statins in the treatment of central nervous system autoimmune disease. JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 178(1-2), 140-148.

The coming of age for antigen-specific therapy of multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2006). The coming of age for antigen-specific therapy of multiple sclerosis. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, 13(8), 793-794.

State of the art. Four easy pieces: interconnections between tissue injury, intermediary metabolism, autoimmunity, and chronic degeneration.
Steinman, L. (2006). State of the art. Four easy pieces: interconnections between tissue injury, intermediary metabolism, autoimmunity, and chronic degeneration. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 3(6), 484-486.

How to successfully apply animal studies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis to research on multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2006). How to successfully apply animal studies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis to research on multiple sclerosis. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 60(1), 12-21.

Nogo in multiple sclerosis: Growing roles of a growth inhibitor
Fontoura, P., & Steinman, L. (2006). Nogo in multiple sclerosis: Growing roles of a growth inhibitor. JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, 245(1-2), 201-210.

Emerging therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis
Fontoura, P., Steinman, L., & Miller, A. (2006). Emerging therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis. CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROLOGY, 19(3), 260-266.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and multiple sclerosis: Lessons from natalizumab
Langer-Gould, A., & Steinman, L. (2006). Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and multiple sclerosis: Lessons from natalizumab. CURRENT NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCE REPORTS, 6(3), 253-258.

Statin therapy and autoimmune disease: from protein prenylation to immunomodulation
Greenwood, J., Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2006). Statin therapy and autoimmune disease: from protein prenylation to immunomodulation. NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY, 6(5), 358-370.

A neuropeptide in immune-mediated inflammation, Y?
Prod'homme, T., Weber, M. S., Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2006). A neuropeptide in immune-mediated inflammation, Y?. TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 27(4), 164-167.

Most patients with multiple sclerosis or a clinically isolated demyelinating syndrome should be treated at the time of diagnosis
Frohman, E. M., Havrdova, E., Lublin, F., Barkhof, F., Achiron, A., & Filippi, M. (2006). Most patients with multiple sclerosis or a clinically isolated demyelinating syndrome should be treated at the time of diagnosis. ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY, 63(4), 614-619.

Immunomodulatory synergy by combination of atorvastatin and glatiramer acetate in treatment of CNS autoimmunity
Stuve, O., Youssef, S., Weber, M. S., Nessler, S., von Budingen, H. C., & Zamvil, S. S. (2006). Immunomodulatory synergy by combination of atorvastatin and glatiramer acetate in treatment of CNS autoimmunity. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 116(4), 1037-1044.

What went wrong in the natalizumab trials?
Langer-Gould, A., & Steinman, L. (2006). What went wrong in the natalizumab trials?. LANCET, 367(9512), 708-710.

A key regulatory role for histamine in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Disease exacerbation in histidine decarboxylase-deficient mice
Musio, S., Gallo, B., Scabeni, S., Lapilla, M., Poliani, P. L., & Pedotti, R. (2006). A key regulatory role for histamine in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Disease exacerbation in histidine decarboxylase-deficient mice. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 176(1), 17-26.

Controlling autoimmunity in sporadic inclusion-body myositis
Steinman, L. (2006). Controlling autoimmunity in sporadic inclusion-body myositis. NEUROLOGY, 66, S56-S58.

Drug Insight: using statins to treat neuroinflammatory disease
Weber, M. S., Prod'homme, T., Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2005). Drug Insight: using statins to treat neuroinflammatory disease. NATURE CLINICAL PRACTICE NEUROLOGY, 1(2), 106-112.

A suppressive oligodeoxynucleotide enhances the efficacy of myelin cocktail/IL-4-tolerizing DNA vaccination and treats autoimmune disease
Ho, P. P., Fontoura, P., Platten, M., Sobel, R. A., DeVoss, J. J., & Steinman, L. (2005). A suppressive oligodeoxynucleotide enhances the efficacy of myelin cocktail/IL-4-tolerizing DNA vaccination and treats autoimmune disease. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 175(9), 6226-6234.

Virtues and pitfalls of EAE for the development of therapies for multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2005). Virtues and pitfalls of EAE for the development of therapies for multiple sclerosis. TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 26(11), 565-571.

Therapeutic considerations for disease progression in multiple sclerosis - Evidence, experience, and future expectations
Frohman, E. M., Stuve, O., Havrdova, E., Corboy, J., Achiron, A., & Filippi, M. (2005). Therapeutic considerations for disease progression in multiple sclerosis - Evidence, experience, and future expectations. ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY, 62(10), 1519-1530.

Antigen-specific therapies in multiple sclerosis: Going beyond proteins and peptides
Fontoura, P., Garren, H., & Steinman, L. (2005). Antigen-specific therapies in multiple sclerosis: Going beyond proteins and peptides. INTERNATIONAL REVIEWS OF IMMUNOLOGY, 24(5-6), 415-446.

Characterizing the mechanisms of progression in multiple sclerosis - Evidence and new hypotheses for future directions
Frohman, E. M., Filippi, M., Stuve, O., Waxman, S. G., Corboy, J., & Racke, M. K. (2005). Characterizing the mechanisms of progression in multiple sclerosis - Evidence and new hypotheses for future directions. ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY, 62(9), 1345-1356.

Multiple sclerosis: trapped in deadly glue
Platten, M., & Steinman, L. (2005). Multiple sclerosis: trapped in deadly glue. NATURE MEDICINE, 11(3), 252-253.

Suppression of autoimmunity via microbial mimics of altered peptide ligands
Steinman, L., Utz, P. J., & Robinson, W. H. (2005). Suppression of autoimmunity via microbial mimics of altered peptide ligands. MOLECULAR MIMICRY: INFECTION-INDUCING AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE, 296, 55-63.

Immunity to the extracellular domain of Nogo-A modulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Fontoura, P., Ho, P. P., DeVoss, J., Zheng, B. H., Lee, B. J., & Steinman, L. (2004). Immunity to the extracellular domain of Nogo-A modulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 173(11), 6981-6992.

The multifaceted role of transglutaminase in neurodegeneration: Review article
Karpuj, M., & Steinman, L. (2004). The multifaceted role of transglutaminase in neurodegeneration: Review article. AMINO ACIDS, 26(4), 373-379.

High-throughput methods for measuring autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases
Graham, K. L., Robinson, W. H., Steinman, L., & Utz, P. J. (2004). High-throughput methods for measuring autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMUNITY, 37(4), 269-272.

Elaborate interactions between the immune and nervous systems
Steinman, L. (2004). Elaborate interactions between the immune and nervous systems. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, 5(6), 575-581.

Statins as potential therapeutic agents in multiple sclerosis.
Stüve, O., Prod'homme, T., Youssef, S., Dunn, S., Neuhaus, O., & Zamvil, S. S. (2004). Statins as potential therapeutic agents in multiple sclerosis. Current neurology and neuroscience reports, 4(3), 237-244.

Genomic and proteomic analysis of multiple sclerosis - Opinion
Robinson, W. H., Utz, P. J., & Steinman, L. (2003). Genomic and proteomic analysis of multiple sclerosis - Opinion. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, 15(6), 660-667.

An immunomodulatory GpG oligonucleotide for the treatment of autoimmunity via the innate and adaptive immune systems
Ho, P. P., Fontoura, P., Ruiz, P. J., Steinman, L., & Garren, H. (2003). An immunomodulatory GpG oligonucleotide for the treatment of autoimmunity via the innate and adaptive immune systems. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 171(9), 4920-4926.

Engineering better cytokines
Steinman, L. (2003). Engineering better cytokines. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, 21(11), 1293-1294.

The potential therapeutic role of statins in central nervous system autoimmune disorders
Stuve, O., Youssef, S., Dunn, S., Slavin, A. J., Steinmann, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2003). The potential therapeutic role of statins in central nervous system autoimmune disorders. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES, 60(11), 2483-2491.

Protein arrays for autoantibody profiling and fine-specificity mapping
Robinson, W. H., Steinman, L., & Utz, P. J. (2003). Protein arrays for autoantibody profiling and fine-specificity mapping. PROTEOMICS, 3(11), 2077-2084.

Statins and their potential targets in multiple sclerosis therapy
Stuve, O., Prod'homme, T., Slavin, A., Youssef, S., Dunn, S., & Zamvil, S. S. (2003). Statins and their potential targets in multiple sclerosis therapy. EXPERT OPINION ON THERAPEUTIC TARGETS, 7(5), 613-622.

Microarray profiling of antibody responses against simian-human immunodeficiency virus: Postchallenge convergence of reactivities independent of host histocompatibility type and vaccine regimen
de Vegvar, H. En., Amara, R. R., Steinman, L., Utz, P. J., Robinson, H. L., & Robinson, W. H. (2003). Microarray profiling of antibody responses against simian-human immunodeficiency virus: Postchallenge convergence of reactivities independent of host histocompatibility type and vaccine regimen. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 77(20), 11125-11138.

Involvement of both 'allergic' and "autoimmune' mechanisms in EAE, MS and other autoimmune diseases
Pedotti, R., De Voss, J. J., Steinman, L., & GALLI, S. J. (2003). Involvement of both 'allergic' and "autoimmune' mechanisms in EAE, MS and other autoimmune diseases. TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 24(9), 479-484.

Protein microarrays guide tolerizing DNA vaccine treatment of autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Robinson, W. H., Fontoura, P., Lee, B. J., de Vegvar, H. En., Tom, J., & Steinman, L. (2003). Protein microarrays guide tolerizing DNA vaccine treatment of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, 21(9), 1033-1039.

Diverse targets for intervention during inflammatory and neurodegenerative phases of multiple sclerosis
Zamvil, S. S., & Steinman, L. (2003). Diverse targets for intervention during inflammatory and neurodegenerative phases of multiple sclerosis. NEURON, 38(5), 685-688.

Osteopontin polymorphisms and disease course in multiple sclerosis
Caillier, S., Barcellos, L. F., Baranzini, S. E., Swerdlin, A., Lincoln, R. R., & Oksenberg, J. R. (2003). Osteopontin polymorphisms and disease course in multiple sclerosis. GENES AND IMMUNITY, 4(4), 312-315.

Statins as potential therapeutic agents in neuroinflammatory disorders
Stuve, O., Youssef, S., Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2003). Statins as potential therapeutic agents in neuroinflammatory disorders. CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROLOGY, 16(3), 393-401.

Transcriptional analysis of targets in multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L., & Zamvil, S. (2003). Transcriptional analysis of targets in multiple sclerosis. NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY, 3(6), 483-492.

Optic neuritis, a new variant of experimental encephalomyelitis, a durable model for all seasons, now in its seventieth year
Steinman, L. (2003). Optic neuritis, a new variant of experimental encephalomyelitis, a durable model for all seasons, now in its seventieth year. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 197(9), 1065-1071.

Medicine - Collateral damage repaired
Steinman, L. (2003). Medicine - Collateral damage repaired. NATURE, 422(6933), 671-672.

Severe anaphylactic reactions to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) self peptides in NOD mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Pedotti, R., Sanna, M., Tsai, M., DeVoss, J., Steinman, L., & Galli, S. J. (2003). Severe anaphylactic reactions to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) self peptides in NOD mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus. BMC immunology, 4, 2-?.

Multiple elements of the allergic arm of the immune response modulate autoimmune demyelination
Pedotti, R., DeVoss, J. J., Youssef, S., Mitchell, D., Wedemeyer, J., & Steinman, L. (2003). Multiple elements of the allergic arm of the immune response modulate autoimmune demyelination. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 100(4), 1867-1872.

The intricate interplay among body weight, stress, and the immune response to friend or foe
Steinman, L., Conlon, P., Maki, R., & Foster, A. (2003). The intricate interplay among body weight, stress, and the immune response to friend or foe. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 111(2), 183-185.

Protein and peptide array analysis of autoimmune disease
Robinson, W. H., Steinman, L., & Utz, P. J. (2002). Protein and peptide array analysis of autoimmune disease. BIOTECHNIQUES, 66-69.

The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, promotes a Th2 bias and reverses paralysis in central nervous system autoimmune disease
Youssef, S., Stuve, O., Patarroyo, J. C., Ruiz, P. J., Radosevich, J. L., & Zamvil, S. S. (2002). The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, promotes a Th2 bias and reverses paralysis in central nervous system autoimmune disease. NATURE, 420(6911), 78-84.

Cholesterol-lowering statins possess anti-inflammatory activity that might be useful for treatment of MS
Zamvil, S. S., & Steinman, L. (2002). Cholesterol-lowering statins possess anti-inflammatory activity that might be useful for treatment of MS. NEUROLOGY, 59(7), 970-971.

Approved and future pharmacotherapy for multiple sclerosis
Stuve, O., Cree, B. C., von Budingen, H. C., Yousef, S., Bowen, J. D., & Zamvil, S. S. (2002). Approved and future pharmacotherapy for multiple sclerosis. NEUROLOGIST, 8(5), 290-301.

Late pregnancy suppresses relapses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Evidence for a suppressive pregancy-related serum factor
Langer-Gould, A., Garren, H., Slansky, A., Ruiz, P. J., & Steinman, L. (2002). Late pregnancy suppresses relapses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Evidence for a suppressive pregancy-related serum factor. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 169(2), 1084-1091.

Altered peptide ligands and MS treatment
Conlon, P., & Steinman, L. (2002). Altered peptide ligands and MS treatment. SCIENCE, 296(5574), 1801-1801.

Immunomodulatory vaccination in autoimmune disease
Urbanek-Ruiz, I., Ruiz, P. J., Steinman, L., & Fathman, C. G. (2002). Immunomodulatory vaccination in autoimmune disease. ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 31(2), 441-?.

Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Lock, C., Hermans, G., Pedotti, R., Brendolan, A., Schadt, E., & Steinman, L. (2002). Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. NATURE MEDICINE, 8(5), 500-508.

Millennium Award. Proteomics for the development of DNA tolerizing vaccines to treat autoimmune disease.
Robinson, W. H., Garren, H., Utz, P. J., & Steinman, L. (2002). Millennium Award. Proteomics for the development of DNA tolerizing vaccines to treat autoimmune disease. Clinical immunology , 103(1), 7-12.

Proteomics technologies for the study of autoimmune disease
Robinson, W. H., Steinman, L., & Utz, P. J. (2002). Proteomics technologies for the study of autoimmune disease. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 46(4), 885-893.

Autoantigen microarrays for multiplex characterization of autoantibody responses
Robinson, W. H., DiGennaro, C., Hueber, W., Haab, B. B., KAMACHI, M., & Utz, P. J. (2002). Autoantigen microarrays for multiplex characterization of autoantibody responses. NATURE MEDICINE, 8(3), 295-301.

Prolonged survival and decreased abnormal movements in transgenic model of Huntington disease, with administration of the transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine
Karpuj, M. V., Becher, M. W., Springer, J. E., Chabas, D., Youssef, S., & Steinman, L. (2002). Prolonged survival and decreased abnormal movements in transgenic model of Huntington disease, with administration of the transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine. NATURE MEDICINE, 8(2), 143-149.

Evidence for a role for transglutaminase in Huntington's disease and the potential therapeutic implications
Karpuj, M. V., Becher, M. W., & Steinman, L. (2002). Evidence for a role for transglutaminase in Huntington's disease and the potential therapeutic implications. NEUROCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL, 40(1), 31-36.

Autoantibody profiling for the study and treatment of autoimmune disease
Hueber, W., Utz, P. J., Steinman, L., & Robinson, W. H. (2002). Autoantibody profiling for the study and treatment of autoimmune disease. ARTHRITIS RESEARCH, 4(5), 290-295.

Multiple sclerosis: Deeper understanding of its pathogenesis reveals new targets for therapy
Steinman, L., Martin, R., Bernard, C., Conlon, P., & Oksenberg, J. R. (2002). Multiple sclerosis: Deeper understanding of its pathogenesis reveals new targets for therapy. ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE, 25, 491-505.

N-epsilon-(gamma-L-glutamyl)-L-lysine (GGEL) is increased in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huntington's disease
Jeitner, T. M., Bogdanov, M. B., Matson, W. R., Daikhin, Y., Yudkoff, M., & Cooper, A. Jl. (2001). N-epsilon-(gamma-L-glutamyl)-L-lysine (GGEL) is increased in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huntington's disease. JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, 79(5), 1109-1112.

The influence of the proinflammatory cytokine, osteopontin, on autoimmune demyelinating disease
Chabas, D., Baranzini, S. E., Mitchell, D., Bernard, C. Ca., Rittling, S. R., & Steinman, L. (2001). The influence of the proinflammatory cytokine, osteopontin, on autoimmune demyelinating disease. SCIENCE, 294(5547), 1731-1735.

Gene microarrays and experimental demyelinating disease: a tool to enhance serendipity
Steinman, L. (2001). Gene microarrays and experimental demyelinating disease: a tool to enhance serendipity. BRAIN, 124, 1897-1899.

Immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis: the end of the beginning
Steinman, L. (2001). Immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis: the end of the beginning. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, 13(5), 597-600.

Blockade of gamma interferon might be beneficial in MS - Commentary
Steinman, L. (2001). Blockade of gamma interferon might be beneficial in MS - Commentary. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL, 7(5), 275-276.

Myelin-specific CD8 T cells in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalitis and multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2001). Myelin-specific CD8 T cells in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalitis and multiple sclerosis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 194(5), F27-F30.

Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with ordered peptides based on MHC-TCR binding motifs
Ruiz, P. J., DeVoss, J. J., Nguyen, L. Vt., Fontoura, P. P., Hirschberg, D. L., & Steinman, L. (2001). Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with ordered peptides based on MHC-TCR binding motifs. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 167(5), 2688-2693.

Multiple sclerosis: a two-stage disease
Steinman, L. (2001). Multiple sclerosis: a two-stage disease. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, 2(9), 762-764.

Posttraumatic therapeutic vaccination with modified myelin self-antigen prevents complete paralysis while avoiding autoimmune disease
Hauben, E., Agranov, E., Gothilf, A., Nevo, U., Cohen, A., & Schwartz, M. (2001). Posttraumatic therapeutic vaccination with modified myelin self-antigen prevents complete paralysis while avoiding autoimmune disease. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 108(4), 591-599.

Immunization with DNA encoding an immunodominant peptide of insulin prevents diabetes in NOD mice
Urbanek-Ruiz, I., Ruiz, P. J., Paragas, V., Garren, H., Steinman, L., & Fathman, C. G. (2001). Immunization with DNA encoding an immunodominant peptide of insulin prevents diabetes in NOD mice. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 100(2), 164-171.

Combination of gene delivery and DNA vaccination to protect from and reverse Th1 autoimmune disease via deviation to the Th2 pathway
Garren, H., Ruiz, P. J., Watkins, T. A., Fontoura, P., Nguyen, L. Vt., & Steinman, L. (2001). Combination of gene delivery and DNA vaccination to protect from and reverse Th1 autoimmune disease via deviation to the Th2 pathway. IMMUNITY, 15(1), 15-22.

Evaluating human T cell receptor gene expression by PCR.
Gussoni, E., Panzara, M. A., & Steinman, L. (2001). Evaluating human T cell receptor gene expression by PCR. Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.], Chapter 10, Unit 10 26-?.

Antigen specific immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L., & Conlon, P. (2001). Antigen specific immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 21(2), 93-98.

An unexpected version of horror autotoxicus: anaphylactic shock to a self peptide
Pedotti, R., Mitchell, D., Wedemeyer, J., Karpuj, M., Chabas, D., & Steinman, L. (2001). An unexpected version of horror autotoxicus: anaphylactic shock to a self peptide. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, 2(3), 216-222.

Multiple sclerosis and gene expression profiling
Steinman, L. (2001). Multiple sclerosis and gene expression profiling. MECHANISMS OF LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION AND IMMUNE REGULATION VIII: AUTOIMMUNITY 2000 AND BEYOND, 490, 109-112.

The design, synthesis, and evaluation of molecules that enable or enhance cellular uptake: Peptoid molecular transporters
Wender, P. A., Mitchell, D. J., Pattabiraman, K., Pelkey, E. T., Steinman, L., & Rothbard, J. B. (2000). The design, synthesis, and evaluation of molecules that enable or enhance cellular uptake: Peptoid molecular transporters. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 97(24), 13003-13008.

Polyarginine enters cells more efficiently than other polycationic homopolymers
Mitchell, D. J., Kim, D. T., Steinman, L., Fathman, C. G., & Rothbard, J. B. (2000). Polyarginine enters cells more efficiently than other polycationic homopolymers. JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE RESEARCH, 56(5), 318-325.

Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand in a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial
Kappos, L., Comi, G., Panitch, H., Oger, J., Antel, J., & Steinman, L. (2000). Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand in a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial. NATURE MEDICINE, 6(10), 1176-1182.

Despite epitope spreading in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, highly restricted approaches to immune therapy may still succeed [with a hedge on this bet]
Steinman, L. (2000). Despite epitope spreading in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, highly restricted approaches to immune therapy may still succeed [with a hedge on this bet]. JOURNAL OF AUTOIMMUNITY, 14(4), 278-282.

ICAM-1 expression in autoimmune encephalitis visualized using magnetic resonance imaging
Sipkins, D. A., Gijbels, K., Tropper, F. D., Bednarski, M., Li, K. Cp., & Steinman, L. (2000). ICAM-1 expression in autoimmune encephalitis visualized using magnetic resonance imaging. JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 104(1), 1-9.

Gene microarray identification of redox and mitochondrial elements that control resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis
Voehringer, D. W., Hirschberg, D. L., Xiao, J., Lu, Q., Roederer, M., & Herzenberg, L. A. (2000). Gene microarray identification of redox and mitochondrial elements that control resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 97(6), 2680-2685.

Multiple approaches to multiple sclerosis
Steinman, L. (2000). Multiple approaches to multiple sclerosis. NATURE MEDICINE, 6(1), 15-16.

DNA vaccination in the treatment of autoimmune disease.
Garren, H., & Steinman, L. (2000). DNA vaccination in the treatment of autoimmune disease. Current directions in autoimmunity, 2, 203-216.

The role of TNF alpha and lymphotoxin in demyelinating disease
Lock, C., Oksenberg, J., & Steinman, L. (1999). The role of TNF alpha and lymphotoxin in demyelinating disease. ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 58, 121-128.

The role of TNFalpha and lymphotoxin in demyelinating disease.
Lock, C., Oksenberg, J., & Steinman, L. (1999). The role of TNFalpha and lymphotoxin in demyelinating disease. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 58, I121-8.

Assessment of animal models for MS and demyelinating disease in the design of rational therapy
Steinman, L. (1999). Assessment of animal models for MS and demyelinating disease in the design of rational therapy. NEURON, 24(3), 511-514.

T cell receptor BV gene rearrangements in the spinal cords and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Panzara, M. A., Gussoni, E., Begovich, A. B., MURRAY, R. S., Zang, Y. Q., & Zhang, J. W. (1999). T cell receptor BV gene rearrangements in the spinal cords and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE, 6(5), 392-405.

Pick your fights wisely
Steinman, L. (1999). Pick your fights wisely. CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROLOGY, 12(4), 375-376.

Transglutaminase aggregates huntingtin into nonamyloidogenic polymers, and its enzymatic activity increases in Huntington's disease brain nuclei
Karpuj, M. V., Garren, H., Slunt, H., Price, D. L., Gusella, J., & Steinman, L. (1999). Transglutaminase aggregates huntingtin into nonamyloidogenic polymers, and its enzymatic activity increases in Huntington's disease brain nuclei. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 96(13), 7388-7393.

Antibodies to CD44 and integrin alpha(4), but not L-selectin, prevent central nervous system inflammation and experimental encephalomyelitis by blocking secondary leukocyte recruitment
Brocke, S., Piercy, C., Steinman, L., Weissman, I. L., & VEROMAA, T. (1999). Antibodies to CD44 and integrin alpha(4), but not L-selectin, prevent central nervous system inflammation and experimental encephalomyelitis by blocking secondary leukocyte recruitment. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 96(12), 6896-6901.

The immunobiology of multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease of the central nervous system
Conlon, P., Oksenberg, J. R., Zhang, J. Q., & Steinman, L. (1999). The immunobiology of multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE, 6(3), 149-166.

Microbial epitopes act as altered peptide ligands to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Ruiz, P. J., Garren, H., Hirschberg, D. L., Langer-Gould, A. M., Levite, M., & Steinman, L. (1999). Microbial epitopes act as altered peptide ligands to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 189(8), 1275-1283.

Absence of "original antigenic sin" in autoimmunity provides an unforeseen platform for immune therapy - Commentary
Steinman, L. (1999). Absence of "original antigenic sin" in autoimmunity provides an unforeseen platform for immune therapy - Commentary. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 189(7), 1021-1024.

Suppressive immunization with DNA encoding a self-peptide prevents autoimmune disease: Modulation of T cell costimulation
Ruiz, P. J., Garren, H., Ruiz, I. U., Hirschberg, D. L., Nguyen, L. Vt., & Steinman, L. (1999). Suppressive immunization with DNA encoding a self-peptide prevents autoimmune disease: Modulation of T cell costimulation. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 162(6), 3336-3341.

Selection of hprt mutant T cells as surrogates for dividing cells reveals a restricted T cell receptor BV repertoire in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Falta, M. T., Magin, G. K., Allegretta, M., Steinman, L., Atkinson, M. A., & Albertini, R. J. (1999). Selection of hprt mutant T cells as surrogates for dividing cells reveals a restricted T cell receptor BV repertoire in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 90(3), 340-351.

Non-coding plasmid DNA induces IFN-gamma in vivo and suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Boccaccio, G. L., Mor, F., & Steinman, L. (1999). Non-coding plasmid DNA induces IFN-gamma in vivo and suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOLOGY, 11(2), 289-296.

Local delivery of TNF by retrovirus-transduced T lymphocytes exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Dal Canto, R. A., Shaw, M. K., Nolan, G. P., Steinman, L., & Fathman, C. G. (1999). Local delivery of TNF by retrovirus-transduced T lymphocytes exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 90(1), 10-14.

Viral peptide with limited homology to a self peptide can induce clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Gautam, A. M., Liblau, R., Chelvanayagam, G., Steinman, L., & Boston, T. (1998). Viral peptide with limited homology to a self peptide can induce clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 161(1), 60-64.

Idiotypic immunization induces immunity to mutated p53 and tumor rejection
Ruiz, P. J., Wolkowicz, R., Waisman, A., Hirschberg, D. L., Carmi, P., & Cohen, I. R. (1998). Idiotypic immunization induces immunity to mutated p53 and tumor rejection. NATURE MEDICINE, 4(6), 710-712.

Short peptide-based tolerogens without self-antigenic or pathogenic activity reverse autoimmune disease
Karin, N., Binah, O., Grabie, N., Mitchell, D. J., Felzen, B., & Steinman, L. (1998). Short peptide-based tolerogens without self-antigenic or pathogenic activity reverse autoimmune disease. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 160(10), 5188-5194.

Microbial peptides and superantigens in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system
Brocke, S., Hausmann, S., Steinman, L., & Wucherpfennig, K. W. (1998). Microbial peptides and superantigens in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. SEMINARS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 10(1), 57-67.

Neuropeptides, via specific receptors, regulate T cell adhesion to fibronectin
Levite, M., Cahalon, L., HERSHKOVIZ, R., Steinman, L., & Lider, O. (1998). Neuropeptides, via specific receptors, regulate T cell adhesion to fibronectin. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 160(2), 993-1000.

The specificity of the antibody response in multiple sclerosis
Garren, H., Steinman, L., & Lock, C. (1998). The specificity of the antibody response in multiple sclerosis. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 43(1), 4-6.

CD4(+) T-cell subsets in autoimmunity
O'Garra, A., Steinman, L., & Gijbels, K. (1997). CD4(+) T-cell subsets in autoimmunity. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, 9(6), 872-883.

More mayhem from molecular mimics
Steinman, L., & Oldstone, M. Ba. (1997). More mayhem from molecular mimics. NATURE MEDICINE, 3(12), 1321-1322.

Viral damage and the breakdown of self-tolerance
Steinman, L., & Conlon, P. (1997). Viral damage and the breakdown of self-tolerance. NATURE MEDICINE, 3(10), 1085-1087.

Recognition of the immunodominant myelin basic protein peptide by autoantibodies and HLA-DR2-restricted T cell clones from multiple sclerosis patients - Identity of key contact residues in the B-cell and T-cell epitopes
Wucherpfennig, K. W., Catz, I., Hausmann, S., STROMINGER, J. L., Steinman, L., & Warren, K. G. (1997). Recognition of the immunodominant myelin basic protein peptide by autoantibodies and HLA-DR2-restricted T cell clones from multiple sclerosis patients - Identity of key contact residues in the B-cell and T-cell epitopes. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 100(5), 1114-1122.

Perivascular T cells express the pro-inflammatory chemokine RANTES mRNA in multiple sclerosis lesions
Hvas, J., McLean, C., Justesen, J., Kannourakis, G., Steinman, L., & Bernard, C. Ca. (1997). Perivascular T cells express the pro-inflammatory chemokine RANTES mRNA in multiple sclerosis lesions. SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 46(2), 195-203.

Some misconceptions about understanding autoimmunity through experiments with knockouts
Steinman, L. (1997). Some misconceptions about understanding autoimmunity through experiments with knockouts. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 185(12), 2039-2041.

Stress and autoimmunity - The neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin suppress encephalomyelitis via effects on both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system
Poliak, S., Mor, F., Conlon, P., Wong, T., Ling, N., & Steinman, L. (1997). Stress and autoimmunity - The neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin suppress encephalomyelitis via effects on both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 158(12), 5751-5756.

Exploring the potential of DNA vaccination
Cohen, I. R., & Steinman, L. (1997). Exploring the potential of DNA vaccination. HOSPITAL PRACTICE, 32(5), 169-?.

Local delivery of interleukin 4 by retrovirus-transduced T lymphocytes ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Shaw, M. K., Lorens, J. B., Dhawan, A., DalCanto, R., Tse, H. Y., & Fathman, C. G. (1997). Local delivery of interleukin 4 by retrovirus-transduced T lymphocytes ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 185(9), 1711-1714.

Multiple sclerosis: a polygenic disease involving epistatic interactions, germline rearrangements and environmental effects
Karpuj, M. V., Steinman, L., & Oksenberg, J. R. (1997). Multiple sclerosis: a polygenic disease involving epistatic interactions, germline rearrangements and environmental effects. NEUROGENETICS, 1(1), 21-28.

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in IL-4-deficient mice
Liblau, R., Steinman, L., & Brocke, S. (1997). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in IL-4-deficient mice. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOLOGY, 9(5), 799-803.

Amelioration of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with altered myelin basic protein peptides involves different cellular mechanisms
Gaur, A., Boehme, S. A., Chalmers, D., Crowe, P. D., Pahuja, A., & Conlon, P. J. (1997). Amelioration of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with altered myelin basic protein peptides involves different cellular mechanisms. JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 74(1-2), 149-158.

Myoblast implantation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: The San Francisco study
MILLER, R. G., Sharma, K. R., PAVLATH, G. K., Gussoni, E., MYNHIER, M., & Blau, H. M. (1997). Myoblast implantation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: The San Francisco study. MUSCLE & NERVE, 20(4), 469-478.

Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Brenner, T., Brocke, S., Szafer, F., Sobel, R. A., Parkinson, J. F., & Steinman, L. (1997). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 158(6), 2940-2946.

IL-2 and TNF receptors as targets of regulatory T-T interactions - Isolation and characterization of cytokine receptor-reactive T cell lines in the Lewis rat
Mor, F., Reizis, B., Cohen, I. R., & Steinman, L. (1996). IL-2 and TNF receptors as targets of regulatory T-T interactions - Isolation and characterization of cytokine receptor-reactive T cell lines in the Lewis rat. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 157(11), 4855-4861.

Differential activation of human autoreactive T cell clones by altered peptide ligands derived from myelin basic protein peptide (87-99)
Vergelli, M., Hemmer, B., Utz, U., Vogt, A., Kalbus, M., & Martin, R. (1996). Differential activation of human autoreactive T cell clones by altered peptide ligands derived from myelin basic protein peptide (87-99). EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 26(11), 2624-2634.

The right stuff: Breaking through the xenotransplant barrier
Steinman, L. (1996). The right stuff: Breaking through the xenotransplant barrier. NATURE MEDICINE, 2(11), 1185-1186.

Multiple sclerosis: From a myelin point of view
Boccaccio, G. L., & Steinman, L. (1996). Multiple sclerosis: From a myelin point of view. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, 45(6), 647-654.

Suppressive vaccination with DNA encoding a variable region gene of the T-cell receptor prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis and activates Th2 immunity
Waisman, A., Ruiz, P. J., Hirschberg, D. L., Gelman, A., Oksenberg, J. R., & Steinman, L. (1996). Suppressive vaccination with DNA encoding a variable region gene of the T-cell receptor prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis and activates Th2 immunity. NATURE MEDICINE, 2(8), 899-905.

CD45 isoforms on human CD4(+) T-cell subsets
Shanafelt, M. C., Yssel, H., SODERBERG, C., Steinman, L., Adelman, D. C., & Lahesmaa, R. (1996). CD45 isoforms on human CD4(+) T-cell subsets. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 98(2), 433-440.

Regulation of disease susceptibility: Decreased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergic disease in patients with multiple sclerosis
ORO, A. S., Guarino, T. J., Driver, R., Steinman, L., & Umetsu, D. T. (1996). Regulation of disease susceptibility: Decreased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergic disease in patients with multiple sclerosis. JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 97(6), 1402-1408.

Multiple sclerosis: A coordinated immunological attack against myelin in the central nervous system
Steinman, L. (1996). Multiple sclerosis: A coordinated immunological attack against myelin in the central nervous system. CELL, 85(3), 299-302.

Superantigens in demyelinating disease
Brocke, S., Piercy, C., & Steinman, L. (1996). Superantigens in demyelinating disease. SPRINGER SEMINARS IN IMMUNOPATHOLOGY, 18(1), 51-56.

TCR usage in human and experimental demyelinating disease
Hafler, D. A., Saadeh, M. G., Kuchroo, V. K., Milford, E., & Steinman, L. (1996). TCR usage in human and experimental demyelinating disease. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY, 17(4), 152-159.

A few autoreactive cells in an autoimmune infiltrate control a vast population of nonspecific cells: A tale of smart bombs and the infantry
Steinman, L. (1996). A few autoreactive cells in an autoimmune infiltrate control a vast population of nonspecific cells: A tale of smart bombs and the infantry. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 93(6), 2253-2256.

Treatment of experimental encephalomyelitis with a peptide analogue of myelin basic protein
Brocke, S., Gijbels, K., Allegretta, M., Ferber, I., Piercy, C., & Steinman, L. (1996). Treatment of experimental encephalomyelitis with a peptide analogue of myelin basic protein. NATURE, 379(6563), 343-346.

Mice with a disrupted IFN-gamma gene are susceptible to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalolmyelitis (EAE)
Ferber, I. A., Brocke, S., TAYLOREDWARDS, C., Ridgway, W., Dinisco, C., & Fathman, C. G. (1996). Mice with a disrupted IFN-gamma gene are susceptible to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalolmyelitis (EAE). JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 156(1), 5-7.

Isolation and Characterization of Autoreactive T Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis of the Mouse
Brocke, S., Quigley, L., McFarland, H. F., & Steinman, L. (1996). Isolation and Characterization of Autoreactive T Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis of the Mouse. Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 9(3), 458-62.

Characterization of acute bone marrow graft rejection in T cell-depleted, partially mismatched related donor bone marrow transplantation
Lamb, L. S., Szafer, F., HENSLEEDOWNEY, P. J., Walker, M., King, S., & Gee, A. P. (1995). Characterization of acute bone marrow graft rejection in T cell-depleted, partially mismatched related donor bone marrow transplantation. EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY, 23(14), 1595-1600.

FINE SPECIFICITY OF THE ANTIBODY-RESPONSE TO MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN IN THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - THE MINIMAL B-CELL EPITOPE AND A MODEL OF ITS FEATURES
Warren, K. G., Catz, I., & Steinman, L. (1995). FINE SPECIFICITY OF THE ANTIBODY-RESPONSE TO MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN IN THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - THE MINIMAL B-CELL EPITOPE AND A MODEL OF ITS FEATURES. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 92(24), 11061-11065.

ADMINISTRATION OF NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES TO INTERLEUKIN-6 (IL-6) REDUCES EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AND IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED LEVELS OF IL-6 BIOACTIVITY IN CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM AND CIRCULATION
Gijbels, K., Brocke, S., Abrams, J. S., & Steinman, L. (1995). ADMINISTRATION OF NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES TO INTERLEUKIN-6 (IL-6) REDUCES EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AND IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED LEVELS OF IL-6 BIOACTIVITY IN CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM AND CIRCULATION. MOLECULAR MEDICINE, 1(7), 795-805.

PATHOGEN ANTIGEN-REACTIVE AND SUPERANTIGEN-REACTIVE SYNOVIAL-FLUID T-CELLS IN REACTIVE ARTHRITIS
Lahesmaa, R., SODERBERG, C., BLISKA, J., ALLSUP, A., Luukkainen, R., & Peltz, G. (1995). PATHOGEN ANTIGEN-REACTIVE AND SUPERANTIGEN-REACTIVE SYNOVIAL-FLUID T-CELLS IN REACTIVE ARTHRITIS. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 172(5), 1290-1297.

MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - PRESENTING AN ODD AUTOANTIGEN
Steinman, L. (1995). MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - PRESENTING AN ODD AUTOANTIGEN. NATURE, 375(6534), 739-740.

T-cell receptor repertoire V beta in alopecia areata.
Szafer, F., Price, V. H., Oksenberg, J. R., & Steinman, L. (1995). T-cell receptor repertoire V beta in alopecia areata. journal of investigative dermatology, 104(5), 22S-24S.

REINDUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN MICE
Lindsey, J. W., Pappolla, M., & Steinman, L. (1995). REINDUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN MICE. CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY, 162(2), 235-240.

MAJOR T-CELL RESPONSES IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Steinman, L., Waisman, A., & ALTMANN, D. (1995). MAJOR T-CELL RESPONSES IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. MOLECULAR MEDICINE TODAY, 1(2), 79-83.

DESIGNING RATIONAL THERAPIES FOR MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Steinman, L., & Conlon, P. (1995). DESIGNING RATIONAL THERAPIES FOR MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. BIO-TECHNOLOGY, 13(2), 118-120.

ESCAPE FROM HORROR AUTOTOXICUS - PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE
Steinman, L. (1995). ESCAPE FROM HORROR AUTOTOXICUS - PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. CELL, 80(1), 7-10.

UNIQUE T-CELL RECEPTOR JUNCTIONAL SEQUENCES FOUND IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND T-CELLS MEDIATING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Allegretta, M., & Steinman, L. (1995). UNIQUE T-CELL RECEPTOR JUNCTIONAL SEQUENCES FOUND IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND T-CELLS MEDIATING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. T-CELL RECEPTOR USE IN HUMAN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, 756, 265-282.

COCCIDIOIDAL ANTIGEN-REACTIVE CD4(+) T-LYMPHOCYTES IN THE CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID IN COCCIDIOIDES-IMMITIS MENINGITIS
Vollmer, T. L., Gaiser, C., DELLOCA, R. L., Porteus, M., Steinman, L., & Stevens, D. A. (1995). COCCIDIOIDAL ANTIGEN-REACTIVE CD4(+) T-LYMPHOCYTES IN THE CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID IN COCCIDIOIDES-IMMITIS MENINGITIS. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY MYCOLOGY, 33(1), 43-48.

A PREDOMINANT ROLE OF INTEGRIN ALPHA(4) IN THE SPONTANEOUS DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES IN NONOBESE DIABETIC MICE
Yang, X. D., Michie, S. A., Tisch, R., Karin, N., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1994). A PREDOMINANT ROLE OF INTEGRIN ALPHA(4) IN THE SPONTANEOUS DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES IN NONOBESE DIABETIC MICE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 91(26), 12604-12608.

REVERSAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY A SOLUBLE PEPTIDE VARIANT OF A MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN EPITOPE - T-CELL RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM AND REDUCTION OF INTERFERON-GAMMA AND TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA PRODUCTION
Karin, N., Mitchell, D. J., Brocke, S., Ling, N., & Steinman, L. (1994). REVERSAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY A SOLUBLE PEPTIDE VARIANT OF A MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN EPITOPE - T-CELL RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM AND REDUCTION OF INTERFERON-GAMMA AND TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA PRODUCTION. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 180(6), 2227-2237.

REVERSAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH A HYDROXAMATE INHIBITOR OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEASES
Gijbels, K., Galardy, R. E., & Steinman, L. (1994). REVERSAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH A HYDROXAMATE INHIBITOR OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEASES. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 94(6), 2177-2182.

CELL-ADHESION MOLECULES - A SELECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TARGET FOR ALLEVIATION OF IDDM
Yang, X. D., Michie, S. A., Tisch, R., Karin, N., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1994). CELL-ADHESION MOLECULES - A SELECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TARGET FOR ALLEVIATION OF IDDM. JOURNAL OF AUTOIMMUNITY, 7(6), 859-864.

SPECIFIC T-CELL RECEPTOR GENE REARRANGEMENTS AT THE SITE OF MUSCLE DEGENERATION IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY
Gussoni, E., PAVLATH, G. K., MILLER, R. G., Panzara, M. A., Powell, M., & Steinman, L. (1994). SPECIFIC T-CELL RECEPTOR GENE REARRANGEMENTS AT THE SITE OF MUSCLE DEGENERATION IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 153(10), 4798-4805.

MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN PEPTIDE SPECIFICITY AND T-CELL RECEPTOR GENE USAGE OF HPRT MUTANT T-CELL CLONES IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Lodge, P. A., Allegretta, M., Steinman, L., & Sriram, S. (1994). MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN PEPTIDE SPECIFICITY AND T-CELL RECEPTOR GENE USAGE OF HPRT MUTANT T-CELL CLONES IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 36(5), 734-740.

IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF HUMAN INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS - LESSONS FROM LYME AND REACTIVE ARTHRITIS
Lahesmaa, R., Shanafelt, M. C., Steinman, L., & Peltz, G. (1994). IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF HUMAN INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS - LESSONS FROM LYME AND REACTIVE ARTHRITIS. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 170(4), 978-985.

REPEATED TREATMENT WITH CHIMERIC ANTI-CD4 ANTIBODY IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Lindsey, J. W., Hodgkinson, S., Mehta, R., Mitchell, D., ENZMANN, D., & Steinman, L. (1994). REPEATED TREATMENT WITH CHIMERIC ANTI-CD4 ANTIBODY IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 36(2), 183-189.

HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN T-CELL RECEPTOR JUNCTIONAL SEQUENCES UNIQUE TO MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND T-CELLS MEDIATING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Allegretta, M., Albertini, R. J., Howell, M. D., Smith, L. R., Martin, R., & Steinman, L. (1994). HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN T-CELL RECEPTOR JUNCTIONAL SEQUENCES UNIQUE TO MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND T-CELLS MEDIATING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, 94(1), 105-109.

Specific motifs in T cell receptor V beta D beta J beta gene sequences in multiple sclerosis lesions in brain.
Steinman, L. (1994). Specific motifs in T cell receptor V beta D beta J beta gene sequences in multiple sclerosis lesions in brain. Behring Institute Mitteilungen, (94), 148-157.

Infection and multiple sclerosis: a possible role for superantigens?
Brocke, S., VEROMAA, T., Weissman, I. L., Gijbels, K., & Steinman, L. (1994). Infection and multiple sclerosis: a possible role for superantigens?. Trends in microbiology, 2(7), 250-254.

NEW ALLELIC POLYMORPHISMS IN TAP GENES
Szafer, F., Oksenberg, J. R., & Steinman, L. (1994). NEW ALLELIC POLYMORPHISMS IN TAP GENES. IMMUNOGENETICS, 39(5), 374-374.

MINIMUM STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PEPTIDE PRESENTATION BY MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX CLASS-II MOLECULES - IMPLICATIONS IN INDUCTION OF AUTOIMMUNITY
Gautam, A. M., Lock, C. B., Smilek, D. E., Pearson, C. I., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1994). MINIMUM STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PEPTIDE PRESENTATION BY MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX CLASS-II MOLECULES - IMPLICATIONS IN INDUCTION OF AUTOIMMUNITY. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 91(2), 767-771.

THE EPIGENETICS OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - CLUES TO ETIOLOGY AND A RATIONALE FOR IMMUNE THERAPY
Steinman, L., Miller, A., Bernard, C. Ca., & Oksenberg, J. R. (1994). THE EPIGENETICS OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - CLUES TO ETIOLOGY AND A RATIONALE FOR IMMUNE THERAPY. ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE, 17, 247-265.

GENETIC-FACTORS IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Oksenberg, J. R., Begovich, A. B., Erlich, H. A., & Steinman, L. (1993). GENETIC-FACTORS IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 270(19), 2362-2369.

INHIBITION OF INSULITIS AND PREVENTION OF DIABETES IN NONOBESE DIABETIC MICE BY BLOCKING L-SELECTIN AND VERY LATE ANTIGEN-4 ADHESION RECEPTORS
Yang, X. D., Karin, N., Tisch, R., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1993). INHIBITION OF INSULITIS AND PREVENTION OF DIABETES IN NONOBESE DIABETIC MICE BY BLOCKING L-SELECTIN AND VERY LATE ANTIGEN-4 ADHESION RECEPTORS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 90(22), 10494-10498.

COMPETITIVE PCR QUANTIFICATION OF CD4, CD8, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, AND MHC CLASS-II MESSENGER-RNA IN THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM DURING DEVELOPMENT AND RESOLUTION OF EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Lindsey, J. W., & Steinman, L. (1993). COMPETITIVE PCR QUANTIFICATION OF CD4, CD8, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, AND MHC CLASS-II MESSENGER-RNA IN THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM DURING DEVELOPMENT AND RESOLUTION OF EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 48(2), 227-234.

INDUCTION OF RELAPSING PARALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY BACTERIAL SUPERANTIGEN
Brocke, S., Gaur, A., Piercy, C., Gautam, A., Gijbels, K., & Steinman, L. (1993). INDUCTION OF RELAPSING PARALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY BACTERIAL SUPERANTIGEN. NATURE, 365(6447), 642-644.

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE IMMUNE-SYSTEM AND THE NERVOUS-SYSTEM
Steinman, L. (1993). CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE IMMUNE-SYSTEM AND THE NERVOUS-SYSTEM. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 90(17), 7912-7914.

AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE
Steinman, L. (1993). AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 269(3), 106-?.

GAMMA-DELTA T-CELL RECEPTOR REPERTOIRE IN BRAIN-LESIONS OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Hvas, J., Oksenberg, J. R., Fernando, R., Steinman, L., & Bernard, C. Ca. (1993). GAMMA-DELTA T-CELL RECEPTOR REPERTOIRE IN BRAIN-LESIONS OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 46(1-2), 225-234.

THERAPEUTIC PEPTIDES THAT BLOCK INTERACTION OF T-CELLS WITH MHC IN EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Steinman, L. (1993). THERAPEUTIC PEPTIDES THAT BLOCK INTERACTION OF T-CELLS WITH MHC IN EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 685, 521-524.

PREFERENTIAL USAGE OF T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR-V REGION GENE SEGMENT V-BETA-5.1 BY BORRELIA-BURGDORFERI ANTIGEN-REACTIVE T-CELL CLONES ISOLATED FROM A PATIENT WITH LYME-DISEASE
Lahesmaa, R., Shanafelt, M. C., ALLSUP, A., SODERBERG, C., Anzola, J., & Peltz, G. (1993). PREFERENTIAL USAGE OF T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR-V REGION GENE SEGMENT V-BETA-5.1 BY BORRELIA-BURGDORFERI ANTIGEN-REACTIVE T-CELL CLONES ISOLATED FROM A PATIENT WITH LYME-DISEASE. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 150(9), 4125-4135.

DIVERSE T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA GENE USAGE IN THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM IN EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Bell, R. B., Lindsey, J. W., Sobel, R. A., Hodgkinson, S., & Steinman, L. (1993). DIVERSE T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA GENE USAGE IN THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM IN EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 150(9), 4085-4092.

SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE STAGES IN HOMING OF T-LYMPHOCYTES TO THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM DURING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Karin, N., Szafer, F., Mitchell, D., Gold, D. P., & Steinman, L. (1993). SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE STAGES IN HOMING OF T-LYMPHOCYTES TO THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM DURING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 150(9), 4116-4124.

MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - FROM IMMUNOGENETICS TO IMMUNOTHERAPY
Oksenberg, J. R., Panzara, M. A., & Steinman, L. (1993). MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS - FROM IMMUNOGENETICS TO IMMUNOTHERAPY. JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, 115, S29-S37.

SEB INDUCED ANERGY - MODULATION OF IMMUNE-RESPONSE TO T-CELL DETERMINANTS OF MYOGLOBIN AND MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN
Gaur, A., Fathman, C. G., Steinman, L., & Brocke, S. (1993). SEB INDUCED ANERGY - MODULATION OF IMMUNE-RESPONSE TO T-CELL DETERMINANTS OF MYOGLOBIN AND MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 150(7), 3062-3069.

SELECTION FOR T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA-D-BETA-J-BETA GENE REARRANGEMENTS WITH SPECIFICITY FOR A MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN PEPTIDE IN BRAIN-LESIONS OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Oksenberg, J. R., Panzara, M. A., Begovich, A. B., Mitchell, D., Erlich, H. A., & Steinman, L. (1993). SELECTION FOR T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA-D-BETA-J-BETA GENE REARRANGEMENTS WITH SPECIFICITY FOR A MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN PEPTIDE IN BRAIN-LESIONS OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. NATURE, 362(6415), 68-70.

Selection for T cell receptor Vbeta-Dbeta-Jbeta gene rearrangements with specificity for a myelin basic protein peptide in brain lesions of multiple sclerosis
Steinman L., Oksenberg JR, Panzara MA, Begovich AB, Mitchell D, & Bernard CCA. (1993). Selection for T cell receptor Vbeta-Dbeta-Jbeta gene rearrangements with specificity for a myelin basic protein peptide in brain lesions of multiple sclerosis. Nature.

From treatment of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis to clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.
Steinman, L., Lindsey, J. W., Alters, S., & Hodgkinson, S. (1993). From treatment of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis to clinical trials in multiple sclerosis. Immunology series, 59, 253-260.

RECURRENT TRANSVERSE MYELITIS, MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS, AND AUTOANTIBODIES
Lindsey, J. W., Albers, G. W., & Steinman, L. (1992). RECURRENT TRANSVERSE MYELITIS, MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS, AND AUTOANTIBODIES. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 32(3), 407-409.

A POLYALANINE PEPTIDE WITH ONLY 5 NATIVE MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN RESIDUES INDUCES AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Gautam, A. M., Pearson, C. I., Smilek, D. E., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1992). A POLYALANINE PEPTIDE WITH ONLY 5 NATIVE MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN RESIDUES INDUCES AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 176(2), 605-609.

[An analysis of lymphokine gene expression within astrocytoma].
NITTA, T., Steinman, L., & Sato, K. (1992). [An analysis of lymphokine gene expression within astrocytoma]. No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery, 20(7), 763-768.

YERSINIA-ENTEROCOLITICA ACTIVATES A T-HELPER TYPE-1-LIKE T-CELL SUBSET IN REACTIVE ARTHRITIS
Lahesmaa, R., Yssel, H., Batsford, S., Luukkainen, R., MOTTONEN, T., & Peltz, G. (1992). YERSINIA-ENTEROCOLITICA ACTIVATES A T-HELPER TYPE-1-LIKE T-CELL SUBSET IN REACTIVE ARTHRITIS. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 148(10), 3079-3085.

INHIBITION OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY A NONIMMUNOGENIC NON-SELF PEPTIDE THAT BINDS TO I-A(UL)
Gautam, A. M., Pearson, C. I., Sinha, A. A., Smilek, D. E., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1992). INHIBITION OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY A NONIMMUNOGENIC NON-SELF PEPTIDE THAT BINDS TO I-A(UL). JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 148(10), 3049-3054.

ANALYSIS OF THE T-CELL REPERTOIRE USING THE PCR AND SPECIFIC OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PRIMERS
Panzara, M. A., Gussoni, E., Steinman, L., & Oksenberg, J. R. (1992). ANALYSIS OF THE T-CELL REPERTOIRE USING THE PCR AND SPECIFIC OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PRIMERS. BIOTECHNIQUES, 12(5), 728-735.

[T-cell receptor repertoire in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within malignant brain tumors].
NITTA, T., Ikeda, M., Cogen, P., Steinman, L., & Sato, K. (1992). [T-cell receptor repertoire in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within malignant brain tumors]. No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery, 20(5), 559-566.

NORMAL DYSTROPHIN TRANSCRIPTS DETECTED IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY PATIENTS AFTER MYOBLAST TRANSPLANTATION
Gussoni, E., PAVLATH, G. K., LANCTOT, A. M., Sharma, K. R., MILLER, R. G., & Blau, H. M. (1992). NORMAL DYSTROPHIN TRANSCRIPTS DETECTED IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY PATIENTS AFTER MYOBLAST TRANSPLANTATION. NATURE, 356(6368), 435-438.

THE POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION FOR DETECTION OF T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION
Panzara, M. A., Oksenberg, J. R., & Steinman, L. (1992). THE POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION FOR DETECTION OF T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, 4(2), 205-210.

PREVENTION OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY ANTIBODIES AGAINST ALPHA-4-BETA-1 INTEGRIN
YEDNOCK, T. A., Cannon, C., Fritz, L. C., SANCHEZMADRID, F., Steinman, L., & Karin, N. (1992). PREVENTION OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS BY ANTIBODIES AGAINST ALPHA-4-BETA-1 INTEGRIN. NATURE, 356(6364), 63-66.

ASSOCIATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS WITH TCR GENES
Steinman, L., Oksenberg, J. R., & Bernard, C. Ca. (1992). ASSOCIATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS WITH TCR GENES. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY, 13(2), 49-51.

EXPRESSION OF GRANULOCYTE COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR AND GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR GENES IN HUMAN ASTROCYTOMA CELL-LINES AND IN GLIOMA SPECIMENS
NITTA, T., Sato, K., Allegretta, M., Brocke, S., Lim, M., & Steinman, L. (1992). EXPRESSION OF GRANULOCYTE COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR AND GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR GENES IN HUMAN ASTROCYTOMA CELL-LINES AND IN GLIOMA SPECIMENS. BRAIN RESEARCH, 571(1), 19-25.

MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND ITS ANIMAL-MODELS - THE ROLE OF THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX AND THE T-CELL RECEPTOR REPERTOIRE
Steinman, L. (1992). MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND ITS ANIMAL-MODELS - THE ROLE OF THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX AND THE T-CELL RECEPTOR REPERTOIRE. SPRINGER SEMINARS IN IMMUNOPATHOLOGY, 14(1), 79-93.

EAE: a model for immune intervention with synthetic peptides.
Smilek, D. E., Gautam, A. M., Pearson, C., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1992). EAE: a model for immune intervention with synthetic peptides. International reviews of immunology, 9(3), 223-230.

NEOPLASTIC AND REACTIVE HUMAN ASTROCYTES EXPRESS INTERLEUKIN-8 GENE
NITTA, T., Allegretta, M., Okumura, K., Sato, K., & Steinman, L. (1992). NEOPLASTIC AND REACTIVE HUMAN ASTROCYTES EXPRESS INTERLEUKIN-8 GENE. NEUROSURGICAL REVIEW, 15(3), 203-207.

Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against a4b1 integrin
Steinman L, Yednock T, Cannon C, Fritz L, Sanchez-Madrid F, & Karin N. (1992). Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against a4b1 integrin. Nature.

PROSPECTS FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY DIRECTED TO THE T-CELL RECEPTOR IN HUMAN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE
Steinman, L. (1991). PROSPECTS FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY DIRECTED TO THE T-CELL RECEPTOR IN HUMAN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 636, 147-153.

[Expression of cytokine genes within astrocytoma cell lines and brain specimens].
NITTA, T., Steinman, L., & Sato, K. (1991). [Expression of cytokine genes within astrocytoma cell lines and brain specimens]. No to shinkei = Brain and nerve, 43(12), 1145-1150.

A SINGLE AMINO-ACID CHANGE IN A MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN PEPTIDE CONFERS THE CAPACITY TO PREVENT RATHER THAN INDUCE EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Smilek, D. E., Wraith, D. C., Hodgkinson, S., Dwivedy, S., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1991). A SINGLE AMINO-ACID CHANGE IN A MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN PEPTIDE CONFERS THE CAPACITY TO PREVENT RATHER THAN INDUCE EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 88(21), 9633-9637.

AN ANALYSIS OF T-CELL-RECEPTOR VARIABLE-REGION GENES IN TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES WITHIN MALIGNANT-TUMORS
NITTA, T., Sato, K., Okumura, K., & Steinman, L. (1991). AN ANALYSIS OF T-CELL-RECEPTOR VARIABLE-REGION GENES IN TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES WITHIN MALIGNANT-TUMORS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, 49(4), 545-550.

T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA GENE-EXPRESSION DIFFERS IN TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES WITHIN PRIMARY AND METASTATIC MELANOMA
NITTA, T., Bell, R., Okumura, K., Sato, K., & Steinman, L. (1991). T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA GENE-EXPRESSION DIFFERS IN TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES WITHIN PRIMARY AND METASTATIC MELANOMA. CANCER RESEARCH, 51(20), 5565-5569.

New approaches to the therapy of demyelinating disease.
Oksenberg, J. R., & Steinman, L. (1991). New approaches to the therapy of demyelinating disease. Current opinion in neurobiology, 1(3), 436-440.

MODULATION OF MHC CLASS-II ANTIGEN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MYOBLASTS AFTER TREATMENT WITH IFN-GAMMA
Mantegazza, R., Hughes, S. M., Mitchell, D., Travis, M., Blau, H. M., & Steinman, L. (1991). MODULATION OF MHC CLASS-II ANTIGEN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MYOBLASTS AFTER TREATMENT WITH IFN-GAMMA. NEUROLOGY, 41(7), 1128-1132.

Trimolecular interactions in experimental autoimmune demyelinating disease and prospects for immunotherapy.
Bell, R. B., & Steinman, L. (1991). Trimolecular interactions in experimental autoimmune demyelinating disease and prospects for immunotherapy. Seminars in immunology, 3(4), 237-245.

OLIGONUCLEOTIDE DOT-BLOT ANALYSIS OF HLA-DQ-BETA ALLELES ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Sinha, A. A., Bell, R. B., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1991). OLIGONUCLEOTIDE DOT-BLOT ANALYSIS OF HLA-DQ-BETA ALLELES ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 32(1), 61-65.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR SELECTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY AGAINST AUTOIMMUNE DEMYELINATING DISEASE
Steinman, L. (1991). THE DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR SELECTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY AGAINST AUTOIMMUNE DEMYELINATING DISEASE. ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGY, 49, 357-379.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF CHIMERIC ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY IN PATIENTS WITH MYCOSIS-FUNGOIDES
Knox, S. J., Levy, R., Hodgkinson, S., Bell, R., Brown, S., & Reichert, T. (1991). OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF CHIMERIC ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY IN PATIENTS WITH MYCOSIS-FUNGOIDES. BLOOD, 77(1), 20-30.

ISOLATION OF A COMPLEMENTARY-DNA CLONE ENCODING AN AUTOANTIGEN RECOGNIZED BY AN ANTINEURONAL CELL ANTIBODY FROM A PATIENT WITH PARANEOPLASTIC CEREBELLAR DEGENERATION
Sakai, K., Mitchell, D. J., Tsukamoto, T., & Steinman, L. (1990). ISOLATION OF A COMPLEMENTARY-DNA CLONE ENCODING AN AUTOANTIGEN RECOGNIZED BY AN ANTINEURONAL CELL ANTIBODY FROM A PATIENT WITH PARANEOPLASTIC CEREBELLAR DEGENERATION. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 28(5), 692-698.

The use of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of autoimmune disease.
Steinman, L. (1990). The use of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of autoimmune disease. Journal of clinical immunology, 10(6), 30S-38S.

HTLV-I SEQUENCES ARE NOT DETECTED IN PERIPHERAL-BLOOD GENOMIC DNA OR IN BRAIN CDNA OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS PATIENTS
Oksenberg, J. R., Mantegazza, R., Sakai, K., Bernard, C. Ca., & Steinman, L. (1990). HTLV-I SEQUENCES ARE NOT DETECTED IN PERIPHERAL-BLOOD GENOMIC DNA OR IN BRAIN CDNA OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS PATIENTS. ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, 28(4), 574-577.

PREDOMINANT EXPRESSION OF T-CELL RECEPTOR-V-ALPHA-7 IN TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES OF UVEAL MELANOMA
NITTA, T., Oksenberg, J. R., Rao, N. A., & Steinman, L. (1990). PREDOMINANT EXPRESSION OF T-CELL RECEPTOR-V-ALPHA-7 IN TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES OF UVEAL MELANOMA. SCIENCE, 249(4969), 672-674.

INCREASED INCIDENCE OF CERTAIN TCR AND HLA GENES ASSOCIATED WITH MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS IN ITALIANS
Mantegazza, R., Oksenberg, J. R., Baggi, F., Antozzi, C., Illeni, M. T., & Steinman, L. (1990). INCREASED INCIDENCE OF CERTAIN TCR AND HLA GENES ASSOCIATED WITH MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS IN ITALIANS. JOURNAL OF AUTOIMMUNITY, 3(4), 431-440.

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC THERAPIES FOR AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE
Steinman, L. (1990). DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC THERAPIES FOR AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY & MEDICINE, 7(4), 333-339.

PROSPECTS FOR SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS
Steinman, L., & Mantegazza, R. (1990). PROSPECTS FOR SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS. FASEB JOURNAL, 4(10), 2726-2731.

MECHANISMS OF ANTI-CD4-MEDIATED DEPLETION AND IMMUNOTHERAPY - A STUDY USING A SET OF CHIMERIC ANTI-CD4 ANTIBODIES
Alters, S. E., Sakai, K., Steinman, L., & Oi, V. T. (1990). MECHANISMS OF ANTI-CD4-MEDIATED DEPLETION AND IMMUNOTHERAPY - A STUDY USING A SET OF CHIMERIC ANTI-CD4 ANTIBODIES. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 144(12), 4587-4592.

LYMPHOTOXIN AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA PRODUCTION BY MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN-SPECIFIC T-CELL CLONES CORRELATES WITH ENCEPHALITOGENICITY
Powell, M. B., Mitchell, D., Lederman, J., Buckmeier, J., Zamvil, S. S., & Steinman, L. (1990). LYMPHOTOXIN AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA PRODUCTION BY MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN-SPECIFIC T-CELL CLONES CORRELATES WITH ENCEPHALITOGENICITY. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOLOGY, 2(6), 539-544.

LIMITED HETEROGENEITY OF REARRANGED T-CELL RECEPTOR V-ALPHA TRANSCRIPTS IN BRAINS OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS PATIENTS
Oksenberg, J. R., Stuart, S., Begovich, A. B., Bell, R. B., Erlich, H. A., & Bernard, C. Ca. (1990). LIMITED HETEROGENEITY OF REARRANGED T-CELL RECEPTOR V-ALPHA TRANSCRIPTS IN BRAINS OF MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS PATIENTS. NATURE, 345(6273), 344-346.

THE ROLE OF THE MHC AND T-CELL RECEPTOR IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS
Oksenberg, J. R., & Steinman, L. (1990). THE ROLE OF THE MHC AND T-CELL RECEPTOR IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, 2(4), 619-621.

THE LYMPHOCYTE-T IN EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Zamvil, S. S., & Steinman, L. (1990). THE LYMPHOCYTE-T IN EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. ANNUAL REVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGY, 8, 579-621.

T cell recognition in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: prospects for immune intervention with synthetic peptides.
Wraith, D. C., Smilek, D. E., Mitchell, D. J., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1990). T cell recognition in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: prospects for immune intervention with synthetic peptides. International reviews of immunology, 6(1), 37-47.

IMMUNOGENETIC MECHANISMS IN MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS
Steinman, L. (1990). IMMUNOGENETIC MECHANISMS IN MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS. PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH, 84, 117-124.

GENETIC INFLUENCES ON NEUROIMMUNOLOGICAL DISEASE
Steinman, L. (1990). GENETIC INFLUENCES ON NEUROIMMUNOLOGICAL DISEASE. IMMUNOLOGIC MECHANISMS IN NEUROLOGIC AND PSYCHIATRIC DISEASE, 68, 11-14.

MULTIPLE T-CELL AND B-CELL EPITOPES IN THE S1 SUBUNIT (A-MONOMER) OF THE PERTUSSIS TOXIN MOLECULE
Oksenberg, J. R., Ko, C., Judd, A. K., Lim, M., Kent, A., & Steinman, L. (1989). MULTIPLE T-CELL AND B-CELL EPITOPES IN THE S1 SUBUNIT (A-MONOMER) OF THE PERTUSSIS TOXIN MOLECULE. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 143(12), 4227-4231.

PREVENTION OF EXPERIMENTAL ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH PEPTIDES THAT BLOCK INTERACTION OF T-CELLS WITH MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX PROTEINS
Sakai, K., Zamvil, S. S., Mitchell, D. J., Hodgkinson, S., Rothbard, J. B., & Steinman, L. (1989). PREVENTION OF EXPERIMENTAL ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH PEPTIDES THAT BLOCK INTERACTION OF T-CELLS WITH MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX PROTEINS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 86(23), 9470-9474.

ANTIGEN RECOGNITION IN AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AND THE POTENTIAL FOR PEPTIDE-MEDIATED IMMUNOTHERAPY
Wraith, D. C., Smilek, D. E., Mitchell, D. J., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1989). ANTIGEN RECOGNITION IN AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AND THE POTENTIAL FOR PEPTIDE-MEDIATED IMMUNOTHERAPY. CELL, 59(2), 247-255.

POLYMORPHIC RESIDUES ON THE I-A-BETA CHAIN MODULATE THE STIMULATION OF T-CELL CLONES SPECIFIC FOR THE N-TERMINAL PEPTIDE OF THE AUTO-ANTIGEN MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN
Davis, C. B., Mitchell, D. J., Wraith, D. C., Todd, J. A., Zamvil, S. S., & Jones, P. P. (1989). POLYMORPHIC RESIDUES ON THE I-A-BETA CHAIN MODULATE THE STIMULATION OF T-CELL CLONES SPECIFIC FOR THE N-TERMINAL PEPTIDE OF THE AUTO-ANTIGEN MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 143(7), 2083-2093.

CYCLIC ADENOSINE-3',5'-MONOPHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN ACTIVATED T-CELL CLONES
Oksenberg, D., Oksenberg, J. R., Sakai, K., Peroutka, S. J., & Steinman, L. (1989). CYCLIC ADENOSINE-3',5'-MONOPHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN ACTIVATED T-CELL CLONES. IMMUNOLOGY, 67(4), 484-488.

T-CELL RECOGNITION AS THE TARGET FOR IMMUNE INTERVENTION IN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE
Wraith, D. C., McDevitt, H. O., Steinman, L., & ACHAORBEA, H. (1989). T-CELL RECOGNITION AS THE TARGET FOR IMMUNE INTERVENTION IN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. CELL, 57(5), 709-715.

The role of the MHC and T-cell receptor in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.
Oksenberg, J. R., & Steinman, L. (1989). The role of the MHC and T-cell receptor in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Current opinion in immunology, 2(4), 619-621.

COMPARISON OF RAT AND RAT-MOUSE CHIMERIC ANTI-MURINE CD4 ANTIBODIES INVITRO - CHIMERIC ANTIBODIES LYSE LOW-DENSITY CD4+ CELLS
Alters, S. E., Steinman, L., & Oi, V. T. (1989). COMPARISON OF RAT AND RAT-MOUSE CHIMERIC ANTI-MURINE CD4 ANTIBODIES INVITRO - CHIMERIC ANTIBODIES LYSE LOW-DENSITY CD4+ CELLS. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 142(6), 2018-2023.

T-CELL RECEPTOR V-ALPHA AND C-ALPHA ALLELES ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS
Oksenberg, J. R., Sherritt, M., Begovich, A. B., Erlich, H. A., Bernard, C. C., & Steinman, L. (1989). T-CELL RECEPTOR V-ALPHA AND C-ALPHA ALLELES ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 86(3), 988-992.

T-CELL RECEPTORS IN MURINE AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASES
ACHAORBEA, H., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1989). T-CELL RECEPTORS IN MURINE AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASES. ANNUAL REVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGY, 7, 371-405.

EVOLUTION, FUNCTION, AND UTILIZATION OF MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX POLYMORPHISM IN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE
McDevitt, H. O., Wraith, D. C., Smilek, D. E., Lundberg, A. S., & Steinman, L. (1989). EVOLUTION, FUNCTION, AND UTILIZATION OF MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX POLYMORPHISM IN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. COLD SPRING HARBOR SYMPOSIA ON QUANTITATIVE BIOLOGY, 54, 853-857.

T-CELL RECEPTORS IN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE AS TARGETS FOR IMMUNE INTERVENTION
ACHAORBEA, H., Steinman, L., & McDevitt, H. O. (1989). T-CELL RECEPTORS IN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE AS TARGETS FOR IMMUNE INTERVENTION. GENOME, 31(2), 656-661.

MHC-RESTRICTED RECOGNITION OF IMMUNOGENIC T-CELL EPITOPES OF PERTUSSIS TOXIN REVEALS DETERMINANTS IN MAN DISTINCT FROM THE ADP-RIBOSYLASE ACTIVE-SITE
Oksenberg, J. R., Judd, A. K., Ko, C., Lim, M., Fernandez, R., & Steinman, L. (1988). MHC-RESTRICTED RECOGNITION OF IMMUNOGENIC T-CELL EPITOPES OF PERTUSSIS TOXIN REVEALS DETERMINANTS IN MAN DISTINCT FROM THE ADP-RIBOSYLASE ACTIVE-SITE. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 168(5), 1855-1864.

INVOLVEMENT OF DISTINCT MURINE T-CELL RECEPTORS IN THE AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITOGENIC RESPONSE TO NESTED EPITOPES OF MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN
Sakai, K., Sinha, A. A., Mitchell, D. J., Zamvil, S. S., Rothbard, J. B., & Steinman, L. (1988). INVOLVEMENT OF DISTINCT MURINE T-CELL RECEPTORS IN THE AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITOGENIC RESPONSE TO NESTED EPITOPES OF MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 85(22), 8608-8612.

MULTIPLE DISCRETE ENCEPHALITOGENIC EPITOPES OF THE AUTO-ANTIGEN MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN INCLUDE A DETERMINANT FOR I-E CLASS-II-RESTRICTED T-CELLS
Zamvil, S. S., Mitchell, D. J., Powell, M. B., Sakai, K., Rothbard, J. B., & Steinman, L. (1988). MULTIPLE DISCRETE ENCEPHALITOGENIC EPITOPES OF THE AUTO-ANTIGEN MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN INCLUDE A DETERMINANT FOR I-E CLASS-II-RESTRICTED T-CELLS. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 168(3), 1181-1186.

CHARACTERIZATION OF A MAJOR ENCEPHALITOGENIC T-CELL EPITOPE IN SJL/J MICE WITH SYNTHETIC OLIGOPEPTIDES OF MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN
Sakai, K., Zamvil, S. S., Mitchell, D. J., Lim, M., Rothbard, J. B., & Steinman, L. (1988). CHARACTERIZATION OF A MAJOR ENCEPHALITOGENIC T-CELL EPITOPE IN SJL/J MICE WITH SYNTHETIC OLIGOPEPTIDES OF MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN. JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 19(1-2), 21-32.

LIMITED HETEROGENEITY OF T-CELL RECEPTORS FROM LYMPHOCYTES MEDIATING AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ALLOWS SPECIFIC IMMUNE INTERVENTION
ACHAORBEA, H., Mitchell, D. J., Timmermann, L., Wraith, D. C., TAUSCH, G. S., & Steinman, L. (1988). LIMITED HETEROGENEITY OF T-CELL RECEPTORS FROM LYMPHOCYTES MEDIATING AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ALLOWS SPECIFIC IMMUNE INTERVENTION. CELL, 54(2), 263-273.

POLYMORPHIC MARKERS OF HUMAN T-CELL RECEPTOR ALPHA-GENES AND BETA-GENES - FAMILY STUDIES AND COMPARISON OF FREQUENCIES IN HEALTHY-INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS
Oksenberg, J. R., GAISER, C. N., CAVALLISFORZA, L. L., & Steinman, L. (1988). POLYMORPHIC MARKERS OF HUMAN T-CELL RECEPTOR ALPHA-GENES AND BETA-GENES - FAMILY STUDIES AND COMPARISON OF FREQUENCIES IN HEALTHY-INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS AND MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS. HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY, 22(2), 111-121.

A MOLECULAR-BASIS FOR MHC CLASS-II - ASSOCIATED AUTOIMMUNITY
Todd, J. A., ACHAORBEA, H., Bell, J. I., Chao, N., Fronek, Z., & McDevitt, H. O. (1988). A MOLECULAR-BASIS FOR MHC CLASS-II - ASSOCIATED AUTOIMMUNITY. SCIENCE, 240(4855), 1003-1009.

HLA CLASS-II ALLELIC VARIATION AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS
Scharf, S. J., Friedmann, A., Brautbar, C., Szafer, F., Steinman, L., & Erlich, H. A. (1988). HLA CLASS-II ALLELIC VARIATION AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 85(10), 3504-3508.

PREDOMINANT EXPRESSION OF A T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA GENE SUBFAMILY IN AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Zamvil, S. S., Mitchell, D. J., Lee, N. E., Moore, A. C., Waldor, M. K., & ACHAORBEA, H. (1988). PREDOMINANT EXPRESSION OF A T-CELL RECEPTOR V-BETA GENE SUBFAMILY IN AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, 167(5), 1586-1596.

ADP-RIBOSYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF PERTUSSIS TOXIN AND IMMUNOMODULATION BY BORDETELLA-PERTUSSIS
BLACK, W. J., Munoz, J. J., Peacock, M. G., Schad, P. A., COWELL, J. L., & FALKOW, S. (1988). ADP-RIBOSYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF PERTUSSIS TOXIN AND IMMUNOMODULATION BY BORDETELLA-PERTUSSIS. SCIENCE, 240(4852), 656-659.

A NEWLY CHARACTERIZED HLA DQ-BETA ALLELE ASSOCIATED WITH PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS
Sinha, A. A., Brautbar, C., Szafer, F., Friedmann, A., TZFONI, E., & McDevitt, H. O. (1988). A NEWLY CHARACTERIZED HLA DQ-BETA ALLELE ASSOCIATED WITH PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS. SCIENCE, 239(4843), 1026-1029.

Immunologic basis for functional recovery in neurologic diseases.
Steinman, L. (1988). Immunologic basis for functional recovery in neurologic diseases. Advances in neurology, 47, 255-264.

IMPORTANCE OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPE IN THERAPY OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH MONOCLONAL ANTI-CD4 ANTIBODY
Waldor, M. K., Mitchell, D., Kipps, T. J., Herzenberg, L. A., & Steinman, L. (1987). IMPORTANCE OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPE IN THERAPY OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH MONOCLONAL ANTI-CD4 ANTIBODY. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 139(11), 3660-3664.

HLA-DQ RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS IN MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS
Bell, J. I., Steinman, L., Toyka, K., & McDevitt, H. O. (1987). HLA-DQ RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS IN MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 505, 382-387.

TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS WITH MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES TO IMMUNE-RESPONSE GENE-PRODUCTS
Waldor, M. K., OHEARN, M., Sriram, S., & Steinman, L. (1987). TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS WITH MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES TO IMMUNE-RESPONSE GENE-PRODUCTS. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 505, 655-668.

Molecular approaches toward a therapy for multiple sclerosis.
Steinman, L. (1987). Molecular approaches toward a therapy for multiple sclerosis. Rivista di neurologia, 57(3), 173-174.

MONOCLONAL ANTI-IA ANTIBODY THERAPY IN ANIMAL-MODELS OF AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE
McDevitt, H. O., Perry, R., & STEINMAN, L. A. (1987). MONOCLONAL ANTI-IA ANTIBODY THERAPY IN ANIMAL-MODELS OF AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE. CIBA FOUNDATION SYMPOSIA, 129, 184-193.

T-CELL EPITOPE OF THE AUTOANTIGEN MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN THAT INDUCES ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
Zamvil, S. S., Mitchell, D. J., Moore, A. C., Kitamura, K., Steinman, L., & Rothbard, J. B. (1986). T-CELL EPITOPE OF THE AUTOANTIGEN MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN THAT INDUCES ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. NATURE, 324(6094), 258-260.

THERAPY OF AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASES WITH ANTIBODY TO IMMUNE-RESPONSE GENE-PRODUCTS OR TO T-CELL SURFACE-MARKERS
Steinman, L., Waldor, M. K., Zamvil, S. S., Lim, M., Herzenberg, L., & Sriram, S. (1986). THERAPY OF AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASES WITH ANTIBODY TO IMMUNE-RESPONSE GENE-PRODUCTS OR TO T-CELL SURFACE-MARKERS. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 475, 274-284.