Steven Shafer

Anesthesiologist

My professional interests are the clinical pharmacology of intravenous anesthetic drugs. This has led me to clinical studies of many of the intravenous opioids and hypnotics used in anesthetic practice. However, my passion is not the drugs themselves, but rather the mathematical models that characterize drug behavior. These include conventional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models, inverse models (used to drive target controlled infusion systems), Bayesian models (used to handle model uncertainty), pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models of drug interaction, models of receptor function that help elucidate mechanisms of drug action, and models that relate drug response to "in silico" pharmacogenetics.

Professional Education

Residency: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (1986) PA

Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (1983) CA

Fellowship: Stanford University School of Medicine (1987) CA

Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (1987)

Internship: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (1984) PA

Post-Doctoral, Stanford University, Clinical Pharmacology (1987)

Residency, University of Pennsylvania, Anesthesiology (1986)

MD, Stanford University, Medicine (1983)

AB, Princeton University, Biology (1978)

Honors & Awards

Gold Medal, Royal College of Anaesthetists (2013)

David M. Little Prize, Anesthesia History Association (2013)

Honorary Member, German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (2013)

Sir Ivan Magill Inaugural Lecture, College of Anaesthetists of Ireland (2012)

Honorary Fellow, College of Anaesthetists of Ireland (2012)

Terry Davidson Plenary Lecture, Israel Society of Anesthesiologists (2011)

Lifetime Achievement Award, International Society of Anaesthetic Pharmacology (2011)

Leon Goldberg Lecture, University of Chicago (2010)

Ralph Waters Visiting Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin (2009)

Stephen J. Prevoznik Lecture, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pennsylvania (2009)

Corresponding Member, German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (2009)

FAER Honorary Research Lecture, American Society of Anesthesiologists (2008)

Virginia Apgar Lecture, Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University (2008)

Rank Visiting Lecturer, Royal College of Anaesthetists (2008)

Ellis Gillespie Lecture, Australian and New Zealand College fo Anaesthetists (2008)

Bernard H. Eliasberg Medal, Mt. Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (2006)

Fellowship by Election, The Royal College of Anaesthetists (2003)

Anesthesia & Analgesia Case Reports
Shafer, S. L. (2013). Anesthesia & Analgesia Case Reports. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 116(3), 513-514.

Bispectral Index Dynamics During Propofol Hypnosis Is Similar in Red-Haired and Dark-Haired Subjects
Doufas, A. G., Orhan-Sungur, M., Komatsu, R., Lauber, R., Akca, O., & Sessler, D. I. (2013). Bispectral Index Dynamics During Propofol Hypnosis Is Similar in Red-Haired and Dark-Haired Subjects. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 116(2), 319-326.

Caveat Lector
Eldawlatly, A., & Shafer, S. L. (2012). Caveat Lector. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 114(6), 1160-1162.

Publication Bias, Retrospective Bias, and Reproducibility of Significant Results in Observational Studies
Shafer, S. L., & Dexter, F. (2012). Publication Bias, Retrospective Bias, and Reproducibility of Significant Results in Observational Studies. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 114(5), 931-932.

Anesthesia & Analgesia Policy on Institutional Review Board Approval and Informed Consent for Research
Shafer, S. L. (2011). Anesthesia & Analgesia Policy on Institutional Review Board Approval and Informed Consent for Research. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 112(3), 494-495.

You Will Be Caught
Shafer, S. L. (2011). You Will Be Caught. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 112(3), 491-493.

Shadow of Doubt
Shafer, S. L. (2011). Shadow of Doubt. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 112(3), 498-500.

The need for a journal policy on intrathecal, epidural, and perineural administration of non-approved drugs
Eisenach, J. C., Shafer, S. L., & Yaksh, T. (2010). The need for a journal policy on intrathecal, epidural, and perineural administration of non-approved drugs. PAIN, 149(3), 417-419.

Consent Contraindicated?
Yaksh, T. L., Eisenach, J. C., & Shafer, S. L. (2010). Consent Contraindicated?. SCIENCE, 328(5974), 45-45.

Is a new paradigm needed to explain how inhaled anesthetics produce immobility?
Eger, E. I., Raines, D. E., Shafer, S. L., Hemmings, H. C., & Sonner, J. M. (2008). Is a new paradigm needed to explain how inhaled anesthetics produce immobility?. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 107(3), 832-848.

Additivity versus synergy: A theoretical analysis of implications for anesthetic mechanisms
Shafer, S. L., Hendrickx, J. Fa., Flood, P., Sonner, J., & Eger, E. I. (2008). Additivity versus synergy: A theoretical analysis of implications for anesthetic mechanisms. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 107(2), 507-524.

In silico pharmacogenetics of warfarin metabolism
Guo, Y. Y., Weller, P., Farrell, E., Cheung, P., Fitch, B., & Peltz, G. (2006). In silico pharmacogenetics of warfarin metabolism. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, 24(5), 531-536.

In silico genetics: Identification of a functional element regulating H2-E alpha gene expression
Liao, G. C., Wang, J. M., Guo, J. S., Allard, J., Cheng, J., & Usuka, J. (2004). In silico genetics: Identification of a functional element regulating H2-E alpha gene expression. SCIENCE, 306(5696), 690-695.

Pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil regarding hypnosis, tolerance of laryngoscopy, bispectral index, and electroencephalographic approximate entropy
Bouillon, T. W., Bruhn, J., Radulescu, L., Andresen, C., Shafer, T. J., & Shafer, S. L. (2004). Pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil regarding hypnosis, tolerance of laryngoscopy, bispectral index, and electroencephalographic approximate entropy. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 100(6), 1353-1372.

Mixed-effects modeling of the intrinsic ventilatory depressant potency of propofol in the non-steady state
Bouillon, T., Bruhn, J., Radu-Radulescu, L., Andresen, C., Cohane, C., & Shafer, S. L. (2004). Mixed-effects modeling of the intrinsic ventilatory depressant potency of propofol in the non-steady state. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 100(2), 240-250.

A model of the ventilatory depressant potency of remifentanil in the non-steady state
Bouillon, T., Bruhn, J., Radu-Radulescu, L., Andresen, C., Cohane, C., & Shafer, S. L. (2003). A model of the ventilatory depressant potency of remifentanil in the non-steady state. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 99(4), 779-787.

Using the time of maximum effect site concentration to combine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
Minto, C. F., Schnider, T. W., Gregg, K. M., Henthorn, T. K., & Shafer, S. L. (2003). Using the time of maximum effect site concentration to combine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 99(2), 324-333.

Propofol dosing regimens for ICU sedation based upon an integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model
Barr, J., Egan, T. D., Sandoval, N. F., Zomorodi, K., Cohane, C., & Shafer, S. L. (2001). Propofol dosing regimens for ICU sedation based upon an integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 95(2), 324-333.

Response surface model for anesthetic drug interactions
Minto, C. F., Schnider, T. W., Short, T. G., Gregg, K. M., Gentilini, A., & Shafer, S. L. (2000). Response surface model for anesthetic drug interactions. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 92(6), 1603-1616.

The influence of age on propofol pharmacodynamics
Schnider, T. W., Minto, C. F., Shafer, S. L., Gambus, P. L., Andresen, C., & Youngs, E. J. (1999). The influence of age on propofol pharmacodynamics. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 90(6), 1502-1516.

Population pharmacokinetics of midazolam administered by target controlled infusion for sedation following coronary artery bypass grafting
Zomorodi, K., Donner, A., Somma, J., Barr, J., Sladen, R., & Shafer, S. L. (1998). Population pharmacokinetics of midazolam administered by target controlled infusion for sedation following coronary artery bypass grafting. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 89(6), 1418-1429.

Population pharmacodynamics of midazolam administered by target controlled infusion in SICU patients after CABG surgery
Somma, J., Donner, A., Zomorodi, K., Sladen, R., Ramsay, J., & Shafer, S. L. (1998). Population pharmacodynamics of midazolam administered by target controlled infusion in SICU patients after CABG surgery. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 89(6), 1430-1443.

Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate in humans
Shafer, S. L., Eisenach, J. C., Hood, D. D., & Tong, C. Y. (1998). Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate in humans. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 89(5), 1074-1088.

The influence of method of administration and covariates on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult volunteers
Schnider, T. W., Minto, C. F., Gambus, P. L., Andresen, C., Goodale, D. B., & Youngs, E. J. (1998). The influence of method of administration and covariates on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult volunteers. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 88(5), 1170-1182.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil .2. Model application
Minto, C. F., Schnider, T. W., & Shafer, S. L. (1997). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil .2. Model application. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 86(1), 24-33.

Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil .1. Model development
Minto, C. F., Schnider, T. W., Egan, T. D., Youngs, E., Lemmens, H. Jm., & Shafer, S. L. (1997). Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil .1. Model development. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 86(1), 10-23.

Comparison of some suboptimal control policies in medical drug therapy
Hu, C. P., Lovejoy, W. S., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Comparison of some suboptimal control policies in medical drug therapy. OPERATIONS RESEARCH, 44(5), 696-709.

Remifentanil versus alfentanil - Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy adult male volunteers
Egan, T. D., Minto, C. F., Hermann, D. J., Barr, J., Muir, K. T., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Remifentanil versus alfentanil - Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy adult male volunteers. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 84(4), 821-833.

LINEARITY OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND MODEL ESTIMATION OF SUFENTANIL
Gepts, E., Shafer, S. L., Camu, F., Stanski, D. R., Woestenborghs, R., & HEYKANTS, J. Jp. (1995). LINEARITY OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND MODEL ESTIMATION OF SUFENTANIL. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(6), 1194-1204.

COMPUTER-CONTROLLED EPIDURAL INFUSION TO TARGETED CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMANS
Eisenach, J. C., Hood, D. D., Tuttle, R., Shafer, S., Smith, T., & Tong, C. Y. (1995). COMPUTER-CONTROLLED EPIDURAL INFUSION TO TARGETED CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMANS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(1), 33-47.

THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF PROPOFOL IN CHILDREN USING 3 DIFFERENT DATA-ANALYSIS APPROACHES
KATARIA, B. K., VED, S. A., NICODEMUS, H. F., Hoy, G. R., Lea, D., & Shafer, S. L. (1994). THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF PROPOFOL IN CHILDREN USING 3 DIFFERENT DATA-ANALYSIS APPROACHES. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 80(1), 104-122.

THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF THE NEW SHORT-ACTING OPIOID REMIFENTANIL (GI87084B) IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE-VOLUNTEERS
Egan, T. D., Lemmens, H. Jm., Fiset, P., Hermann, D. J., Muir, K. T., & Shafer, S. L. (1993). THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF THE NEW SHORT-ACTING OPIOID REMIFENTANIL (GI87084B) IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE-VOLUNTEERS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 79(5), 881-892.

APPLICATION OF SEMILINEAR CANONICAL CORRELATION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF OPIOID DRUG EFFECT
Gregg, K. M., VARVEL, J. R., & Shafer, S. L. (1992). APPLICATION OF SEMILINEAR CANONICAL CORRELATION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF OPIOID DRUG EFFECT. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS, 20(6), 611-635.

ALGORITHMS TO RAPIDLY ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN STABLE DRUG CONCENTRATIONS AT THE SITE OF DRUG EFFECT WITH A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMP
Shafer, S. L., & Gregg, K. M. (1992). ALGORITHMS TO RAPIDLY ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN STABLE DRUG CONCENTRATIONS AT THE SITE OF DRUG EFFECT WITH A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMP. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS, 20(2), 147-169.

MEASURING THE PREDICTIVE PERFORMANCE OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMPS
VARVEL, J. R., Donoho, D. L., & Shafer, S. L. (1992). MEASURING THE PREDICTIVE PERFORMANCE OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMPS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS, 20(1), 63-94.

PHARMACOKINETICS, PHARMACODYNAMICS, AND RATIONAL OPIOID SELECTION
Shafer, S. L., & VARVEL, J. R. (1991). PHARMACOKINETICS, PHARMACODYNAMICS, AND RATIONAL OPIOID SELECTION. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 74(1), 53-63.

PHARMACOKINETICS OF FENTANYL ADMINISTERED BY COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMP
Shafer, S. L., VARVEL, J. R., Aziz, N., & Scott, J. C. (1990). PHARMACOKINETICS OF FENTANYL ADMINISTERED BY COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMP. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 73(6), 1091-1102.

THE PROSPECTIVE USE OF POPULATION PHARMACOKINETICS IN A COMPUTER-DRIVEN INFUSION SYSTEM FOR ALFENTANIL
Raemer, D. B., BUSCHMAN, A., VARVEL, J. R., Philip, B. K., Johnson, M. D., & Shafer, S. L. (1990). THE PROSPECTIVE USE OF POPULATION PHARMACOKINETICS IN A COMPUTER-DRIVEN INFUSION SYSTEM FOR ALFENTANIL. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 73(1), 66-72.

ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSDERMALLY ADMINISTERED FENTANYL
VARVEL, J. R., Shafer, S. L., Hwang, S. S., COEN, P. A., & Stanski, D. R. (1989). ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSDERMALLY ADMINISTERED FENTANYL. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 70(6), 928-934.

Caveat lector.
Eldawlatly, A., & Shafer, S. L. (2012). Caveat lector. Saudi journal of anaesthesia, 6(2), 99-101.

Validation of Statistical Methods to Compare Cancellation Rates on the Day of Surgery (vol 101, pg 465, 2005)
Dexter, F., & Shafer, S. L. (2012). Validation of Statistical Methods to Compare Cancellation Rates on the Day of Surgery (vol 101, pg 465, 2005). ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 114(3), 693-693.

Happy 25th Anniversary, FAER!
Shafer, S. L. (2011). Happy 25th Anniversary, FAER!. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 113(4), 675-676.

From d-tubocurarine to sugammadex: the contributions of T. Cecil Gray to modern anaesthetic practice
Shafer, S. L. (2011). From d-tubocurarine to sugammadex: the contributions of T. Cecil Gray to modern anaesthetic practice. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 107(1), 97-102.

The Scott Reuben Saga: One Last Retraction
White, P. F., Rosow, C. E., & Shafer, S. L. (2011). The Scott Reuben Saga: One Last Retraction. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 112(3), 512-515.

Pitfalls in Chronobiology: A Suggested Analysis Using Intrathecal Bupivacaine Analgesia as an Example
Shafer, S. L., Lemmer, B., Boselli, E., Boiste, F., Bouvet, L., & Chassard, D. (2010). Pitfalls in Chronobiology: A Suggested Analysis Using Intrathecal Bupivacaine Analgesia as an Example. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111(4), 980-985.

Walk a Mile in My Shoes
Fisher, D. M., & Shafer, S. L. (2010). Walk a Mile in My Shoes. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111(2), 264-265.

Computational Genetic Mapping in Mice: The Ship Has Sailed
Zheng, M., Shafer, S., Liao, G., Liu, H.-H., & Peltz, G. (2009). Computational Genetic Mapping in Mice: The Ship Has Sailed. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 1(3).

Neuromuscular Block Differentially Affects Immobility and Cortical Activation at Near-Minimum Alveolar Concentration Anesthesia
Doufas, A. G., Komatsu, R., Orhan-Sungur, M., Sengupta, P., Wadhwa, A., & Sessler, D. I. (2009). Neuromuscular Block Differentially Affects Immobility and Cortical Activation at Near-Minimum Alveolar Concentration Anesthesia. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 109(4), 1097-1104.

Automated Responsiveness Monitor to Titrate Propofol Sedation
Doufas, A. G., Morioka, N., Mahgoub, A. N., Bjorksten, A. R., Shafer, S. L., & Sessler, D. I. (2009). Automated Responsiveness Monitor to Titrate Propofol Sedation. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 109(3), 778-786.

2009 Anesthesia & Analgesia Guide for Authors
Brull, S. J., Capdevila, X., Chan, V. Ws., Cohen, N., Csete, M. E., & Zornow, M. H. (2009). 2009 Anesthesia & Analgesia Guide for Authors. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 109(1), 217-231.

No evidence for the development of acute tolerance to analgesic, respiratory depressant and sedative opioid effects in humans
Angst, M. S., Chu, L. F., Tingle, M. S., Shafer, S. L., Clark, J. D., & Drover, D. R. (2009). No evidence for the development of acute tolerance to analgesic, respiratory depressant and sedative opioid effects in humans. PAIN, 142(1-2), 17-26.

Is synergy the rule? A review of anesthetic interactions a producing hypnosis and immobility
Hendrickx, J. Fa., Eger, E. I., Sonner, J. M., & Shafer, S. L. (2008). Is synergy the rule? A review of anesthetic interactions a producing hypnosis and immobility. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 107(2), 494-506.

Inhaled anesthetics do not combine to produce synergistic effects regarding minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats
Eger, E. J., Tang, M., Liao, M., Laster, M. J., Solt, K., & Sonner, J. M. (2008). Inhaled anesthetics do not combine to produce synergistic effects regarding minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 107(2), 479-485.

Defining depth of anesthesia.
Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (2008). Defining depth of anesthesia. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, (182), 409-423.

Estimation of optimal modeling weights for a Bayesian-based closed-loop system for propofol administration using the bispectral index as a controlled variable: A simulation study
De Smet, T., Struys, M. Mrf., Greenwald, S., Mortier, E. P., & Shafer, S. L. (2007). Estimation of optimal modeling weights for a Bayesian-based closed-loop system for propofol administration using the bispectral index as a controlled variable: A simulation study. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 105(6), 1629-1638.

In silico and in vitro pharmacogenetic analysis in mice
Guo, Y., Lu, P., Farrell, E., Zhang, X., Weller, P., & Peltz, G. (2007). In silico and in vitro pharmacogenetic analysis in mice. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 104(45), 17735-17740.

Influence of administration rate on propofol plasma - Effect site equilibration
Struys, M. Mrf., Coppens, M. J., De Neve, N., Mortier, E. P., Doufas, A. G., & Shafer, S. L. (2007). Influence of administration rate on propofol plasma - Effect site equilibration. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 107(3), 386-396.

The pharmacokinetics of the conopeptide Contulakin-G (CGX-1160) after intrathecal administration: An analysis of data from studies in beagles
Kern, S. E., Allen, J., Wagstaff, J., Shafer, S. L., & Yaksh, T. (2007). The pharmacokinetics of the conopeptide Contulakin-G (CGX-1160) after intrathecal administration: An analysis of data from studies in beagles. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 104(6), 1514-1520.

A phase I two-center study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine in children
Petroz, G. C., Sikich, N., James, M., van Dyk, H., Shafer, S. L., & Lerman, J. (2006). A phase I two-center study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine in children. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 105(6), 1098-1110.

Understanding our drugs and our diseases.
Guo, Y., Weller, P., Allard, J., Usuka, J., Masjedizadeh, M., & Peltz, G. (2006). Understanding our drugs and our diseases. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 3(5), 409-412.

Do distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows? A computer simulation.
Hendrickx, J. Fa., Lemmens, H. Jm., & Shafer, S. L. (2006). Do distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows? A computer simulation. BMC anesthesiology, 6, 7-?.

Pharmacogenomics and drug development
Guo, Y. Y., Shafer, S., Weller, P., Usuka, J., & Peltz, G. (2005). Pharmacogenomics and drug development. PHARMACOGENOMICS, 6(8), 857-864.

Arterial and venous pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine with and without epinephrine after thoracic paravertebral block
Karmakar, M. K., Ho, A. Mh., Law, B. K., Wong, A. Sy., Shafer, S. L., & Gin, T. (2005). Arterial and venous pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine with and without epinephrine after thoracic paravertebral block. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 103(4), 704-711.

Tutorial: Context-sensitive decrement times for inhaled anesthetics
Eger, E. I., & Shafer, S. L. (2005). Tutorial: Context-sensitive decrement times for inhaled anesthetics. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 101(3), 688-696.

Differential activation of trigeminal C or A delta nociceptors by infrared diode laser in rats: Behavioral evidence
Tzabazis, A., Klyukinov, M., Manering, N., Nemenov, M. I., Shafer, S. L., & Yeomans, D. C. (2005). Differential activation of trigeminal C or A delta nociceptors by infrared diode laser in rats: Behavioral evidence. BRAIN RESEARCH, 1037(1-2), 148-156.

Variability of target-controlted infusion is less than the variability after bolus injection
Hu, C. P., Horstman, D. J., & Shafer, S. L. (2005). Variability of target-controlted infusion is less than the variability after bolus injection. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 102(3), 639-645.

Picking safe combinations
Shafer, S. L. (2004). Picking safe combinations. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 101(6), 1260-1261.

Induction speed is not a determinant of propofol pharmacodynamics
Doufas, A. G., Bakhshandeh, M., Bjorksten, A. R., Shafer, S. L., & Sessler, D. I. (2004). Induction speed is not a determinant of propofol pharmacodynamics. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 101(5), 1112-1121.

Target controlled infusions: Targeting the effect site while limiting peak plasma concentration
Van Poucke, G. E., Bravo, L. Jb., & Shafer, S. L. (2004). Target controlled infusions: Targeting the effect site while limiting peak plasma concentration. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 51(11), 1869-1875.

Application of Bispectral Index((R)) and Narcotrend((R)) index to the measurement of the electroencephalographic effects of isoflurane with and without burst suppression
Kreuer, S., Bruhn, J., Larsen, R., Grundmann, U., Shafer, S. L., & Wilhelm, W. (2004). Application of Bispectral Index((R)) and Narcotrend((R)) index to the measurement of the electroencephalographic effects of isoflurane with and without burst suppression. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 101(4), 847-854.

Shock values
Shafer, S. L. (2004). Shock values. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 101(3), 567-568.

Spectral entropy as an electroennopbalograpbic measure of anesthetic drug effect - A comparison with bispectral index and precessed midlatency auditory evoked response
Vanluchene, A. Lg., Vereecke, H., Thas, O., Mortier, E. P., Shafer, S. L., & Struys, M. Mrf. (2004). Spectral entropy as an electroennopbalograpbic measure of anesthetic drug effect - A comparison with bispectral index and precessed midlatency auditory evoked response. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 101(1), 34-42.

Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and remifentanil during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children
Drover, D. R., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Shafer, S. L., & Hammer, G. B. (2004). Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and remifentanil during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 100(6), 1382-1386.

Use of population modeling to define rational monitoring of amiodarone hepatic effects
Pollak, P. T., & Shafer, S. L. (2004). Use of population modeling to define rational monitoring of amiodarone hepatic effects. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 75(4), 342-351.

Teaching application of clinical pharmacology skills using unusual observations from clozapine overdoses
Pollak, P. T., & Shafer, S. L. (2004). Teaching application of clinical pharmacology skills using unusual observations from clozapine overdoses. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, 44(2), 141-149.

MAC attack?
Sani, O., & Shafer, S. L. (2003). MAC attack?. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 99(6), 1249-1250.

Target-controlled infusions for intravenous anesthetics - Surfing USA not!
Egan, T. D., & Shafer, S. L. (2003). Target-controlled infusions for intravenous anesthetics - Surfing USA not!. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 99(5), 1039-1041.

Piritramide and Alfentanil display similar respiratory depressant potency
Bouillon, T., Garstka, G., Stafforst, D., Shafer, S., Schwilden, H., & Hoeft, A. (2003). Piritramide and Alfentanil display similar respiratory depressant potency. ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, 47(10), 1231-1241.

Cephalad movement of morphine and fentanyl in humans after intrathecal injection
Eisenach, J. C., Hood, D. D., Curry, R., & Shafer, S. L. (2003). Cephalad movement of morphine and fentanyl in humans after intrathecal injection. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 99(1), 166-173.

Isoflurane antagonizes the capacity of flurothyl or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane to impair fear conditioning to context and tone
Eger, E. I., Xing, Y. L., Pearce, R., Shafer, S., Laster, M. J., & Sonner, J. M. (2003). Isoflurane antagonizes the capacity of flurothyl or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane to impair fear conditioning to context and tone. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 96(4), 1010-1018.

Correlation of approximate entropy, bispectral index, and spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95) with clinical signs of "anesthetic depth" during coadministration of propofol and remifentanil
Bruhn, J., Bouillon, T. W., Radulescu, L., Hoeft, A., Bertaccini, E., & Shafer, S. L. (2003). Correlation of approximate entropy, bispectral index, and spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95) with clinical signs of "anesthetic depth" during coadministration of propofol and remifentanil. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 98(3), 621-627.

Mathematical analysis of a pharmacodynamic model without plasma concentrations to extend its applicability
Nava-Ocampo, A. A., Shafer, S. L., Velaquez-Armenta, Y., Ruiz-Velazco, S., & Toni, B. (2003). Mathematical analysis of a pharmacodynamic model without plasma concentrations to extend its applicability. MEDICAL HYPOTHESES, 60(3), 453-457.

Non-steady state analysis of the pharmacokinetic interaction between propofol and remifentanil
Bouillon, T., Bruhn, J., Radu-Radulescu, L., Bertaccini, E., Park, S., & Shafer, S. (2002). Non-steady state analysis of the pharmacokinetic interaction between propofol and remifentanil. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 97(6), 1350-1362.

Pharmacokinetic study of FFP photochemically treated with amotosalen (S-59) and UV light compared to FFP in healthy volunteers anticoagulated with warfarin
Hambleton, J., Wages, D., Radu-Radulescu, L., Adams, M., MacKenzie, M., & Corash, L. (2002). Pharmacokinetic study of FFP photochemically treated with amotosalen (S-59) and UV light compared to FFP in healthy volunteers anticoagulated with warfarin. TRANSFUSION, 42(10), 1302-1307.

Efficient trial design for eliciting a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model-based response surface describing the interaction between two intravenous anesthetic drugs
Short, T. G., Ho, T. Y., Minto, C. F., Schnider, T. W., & Shafer, S. L. (2002). Efficient trial design for eliciting a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model-based response surface describing the interaction between two intravenous anesthetic drugs. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 96(2), 400-408.

Artifact robustness, inter- and intraindividual baseline stability, and rational EEG parameter selection
Bruhn, J., Bouillon, T. W., Hoeft, A., & Shafer, S. L. (2002). Artifact robustness, inter- and intraindividual baseline stability, and rational EEG parameter selection. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 96(1), 54-59.

Onset of propofol-induced burst suppression may be correctly detected as deepening of anaesthesia by approximate entropy but not by bispectral index
Bruhn, J., Bouillon, T. W., & Shafer, S. L. (2001). Onset of propofol-induced burst suppression may be correctly detected as deepening of anaesthesia by approximate entropy but not by bispectral index. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 87(3), 505-507.

A double-blind, randomized comparison of IV lorazepam versus midazolam for sedation of ICU patients via a pharmacologic model
Barr, J., Zomorodi, K., Bertaccini, E. J., Shafer, S. L., & Geller, E. (2001). A double-blind, randomized comparison of IV lorazepam versus midazolam for sedation of ICU patients via a pharmacologic model. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 95(2), 286-298.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of inhaled versus intravenous morphine in healthy volunteers
Dershwitz, M., Walsh, J. L., Morishige, R. J., Conners, P. M., Rubsamen, R. M., & Rosow, C. E. (2000). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of inhaled versus intravenous morphine in healthy volunteers. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 93(3), 619-628.

Characterization of benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebellum
Lameh, J. V., Wang, P., Meredith, D., Shafer, S. L., & Loew, G. H. (2000). Characterization of benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebellum. PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY, 24(6), 979-991.

Unraveling the identity of benzodiazepine binding sites in rat hipppocampus and olfactory bulb
Lameh, J., Wang, P., Elgart, D., Meredith, D., Shafer, S. L., & Loew, G. H. (2000). Unraveling the identity of benzodiazepine binding sites in rat hipppocampus and olfactory bulb. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 400(2-3), 167-176.

Population pharmacokinetics of long-term oral amiodarone therapy
Pollak, P. T., Bouillon, T., & Shafer, S. L. (2000). Population pharmacokinetics of long-term oral amiodarone therapy. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 67(6), 642-652.

Electromyographic activity falsely elevates the bispectral index
Bruhn, J., Bouillon, T. W., & Shafer, S. L. (2000). Electromyographic activity falsely elevates the bispectral index. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 92(5), 1485-1487.

Hot air or full steam ahead? An empirical pharmacokinetic model of potent inhalational agents.
Bouillon, T., & Shafer, S. L. (2000). Hot air or full steam ahead? An empirical pharmacokinetic model of potent inhalational agents. British journal of anaesthesia, 84(4), 429-431.

Location, location, location
Shafer, S. L., & Eisenach, J. C. (2000). Location, location, location. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 92(3), 641-643.

The pharmacology of anesthetic drugs in elderly patients.
Shafer, S. L. (2000). The pharmacology of anesthetic drugs in elderly patients. Anesthesiology clinics of North America, 18(1), 1-?.

Comparison of plasma compartment versus two methods for effect compartment-controlled target-controlled infusion for propofol
Struys, M. Mrf., De Smet, T., Depoorter, B., Versichelen, L. Fm., Mortier, E. P., & Rolly, G. (2000). Comparison of plasma compartment versus two methods for effect compartment-controlled target-controlled infusion for propofol. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 92(2), 399-406.

Bispectral index (BIS) and burst suppression: revealing a part of the BIS algorithm.
Bruhn, J., Bouillon, T. W., & Shafer, S. L. (2000). Bispectral index (BIS) and burst suppression: revealing a part of the BIS algorithm. Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, 16(8), 593-596.

Drug interactions. Applications in fast-track anesthesia.
Shafer, S. L. (1999). Drug interactions. Applications in fast-track anesthesia. Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica, 50(4), 153-160.

Pharmacokinetics, cortisol release, and hemodynamics after intravenous and subcutaneous injection of human corticotropin-releasing factor in humans
Angst, M. S., Dyck, J. B., Azarnoff, D. L., Goldblum, R., Ho, B., & Shafer, S. L. (1998). Pharmacokinetics, cortisol release, and hemodynamics after intravenous and subcutaneous injection of human corticotropin-releasing factor in humans. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 64(5), 499-510.

Does size matter?
Bouillon, T., & Shafer, S. L. (1998). Does size matter?. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 89(3), 557-560.

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous dynorphin A(1-13) in opioid-naive and opioid-treated human volunteers
Gambus, P. L., Schnider, T. W., Minto, C. F., Youngs, E. J., Billard, V., & Shafer, S. L. (1998). Pharmacokinetics of intravenous dynorphin A(1-13) in opioid-naive and opioid-treated human volunteers. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 64(1), 27-38.

Writing successful research proposals for medical science
Schwinn, D. A., DeLong, E. R., & Shafer, S. L. (1998). Writing successful research proposals for medical science. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 88(6), 1660-1666.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in anesthetic drug development.
Shafer, S. L. (1998). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in anesthetic drug development. Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica, 49(2), 65-78.

Nomenclature for computer-assisted infusion devices
Glass, P. Sa., Glen, J. B., Kenny, G. Nc., Schuttler, J., & Shafer, S. L. (1997). Nomenclature for computer-assisted infusion devices. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 86(6), 1430-1431.

Urine and plasma catecholamine and cortisol concentrations after myocardial revascularization - Modulation by continuous sedation
PLUNKETT, J. J., Reeves, J. D., Ngo, L., Bellows, W., Shafer, S. L., & Mangano, D. T. (1997). Urine and plasma catecholamine and cortisol concentrations after myocardial revascularization - Modulation by continuous sedation. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 86(4), 785-796.

A comparison of spectral edge, delta power, and bispectral index as EEG measures of alfentanil, propofol, and midazolam drug effect
Billard, V., Gambus, P. L., Chamoun, N., Stanski, D. R., & Shafer, S. L. (1997). A comparison of spectral edge, delta power, and bispectral index as EEG measures of alfentanil, propofol, and midazolam drug effect. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 61(1), 45-58.

Pharmacokinetic model-driven infusion of fentanyl in children
Ginsberg, B., Howell, S., Glass, P. Sa., Margolis, J. O., Ross, A. K., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Pharmacokinetic model-driven infusion of fentanyl in children. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 85(6), 1268-1275.

Trefentanil shows clinical benefit over alfentanil using respiratory pharmacodynamic measures.
Minto, C. F., Schnider, T. W., Gambus, P. L., Cohane, C., Lemmens, H., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Trefentanil shows clinical benefit over alfentanil using respiratory pharmacodynamic measures. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 85(3A), A338-A338.

Pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult patients undergoing coronary revascularization
Bailey, J. M., MORA, C. T., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult patients undergoing coronary revascularization. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 84(6), 1288-1297.

Comparative absorption kinetics of intramuscular midazolam and diazepam
Hung, O. R., Dyck, J. B., VARVEL, J., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1996). Comparative absorption kinetics of intramuscular midazolam and diazepam. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE, 43(5), 450-455.

Inhalation versus intravenous anesthesia: A fictitious debate between E.I. Eger II and P.F. White
Shafer, S. L., & Gambus, P. L. (1996). Inhalation versus intravenous anesthesia: A fictitious debate between E.I. Eger II and P.F. White. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA, 8, S38-S41.

Derivation and cross-validation of pharmacokinetic parameters for computer-controlled infusion of lidocaine in pain therapy
Schnider, T. W., Gaeta, R., BROSE, W., Minto, C. F., Gregg, K. M., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Derivation and cross-validation of pharmacokinetic parameters for computer-controlled infusion of lidocaine in pain therapy. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 84(5), 1043-1050.

Inhalation versus intravenous anesthesia: a fictitious debate between E.I. Eger II and P.F. White.
Shafer, S. L., & Gambús, P. L. (1996). Inhalation versus intravenous anesthesia: a fictitious debate between E.I. Eger II and P.F. White. Journal of clinical anesthesia, 8(3), 38S-41S.

Semilinear canonical correlation applied to the measurement of the electroencephalographic effects of midazolam and flumazenil reversal
Schnider, T. W., Minto, C. F., Fiset, P., Gregg, K. M., & Shafer, S. L. (1996). Semilinear canonical correlation applied to the measurement of the electroencephalographic effects of midazolam and flumazenil reversal. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 84(3), 510-519.

EVOLVING CLINICALLY USEFUL PREDICTORS OF RECOVERY FROM INTRAVENOUS ANESTHETICS
Schnider, T. W. (1995). EVOLVING CLINICALLY USEFUL PREDICTORS OF RECOVERY FROM INTRAVENOUS ANESTHETICS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(5), 902-905.

PHARMACOKINETICS OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED ALFENTANIL ADMINISTRATION IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING CARDIAC-SURGERY
Fiset, P., Mathers, L., Engstrom, R., Fitzgerald, D., Brand, S. C., & Shafer, S. L. (1995). PHARMACOKINETICS OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED ALFENTANIL ADMINISTRATION IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING CARDIAC-SURGERY. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(5), 944-955.

PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC EFFECTS OF FLUMAZENIL IN HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS SEDATED WITH MIDAZOLAM
Fiset, P., Lemmens, H. Lm., Egan, T. E., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1995). PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC EFFECTS OF FLUMAZENIL IN HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS SEDATED WITH MIDAZOLAM. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 58(5), 567-582.

THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF 8-METHOXYPSORALEN FOLLOWING IV ADMINISTRATION IN HUMANS
Billard, V., Gambus, P. L., Barr, J., Minto, C. F., Corash, L., & Shafer, S. L. (1995). THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF 8-METHOXYPSORALEN FOLLOWING IV ADMINISTRATION IN HUMANS. BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, 40(4), 347-360.

PROLONGED ALLEVIATION OF TACTILE ALLODYNIA BY INTRAVENOUS LIDOCAINE IN NEUROPATHIC RATS
Chaplan, S. R., Bach, F. W., Shafer, S. L., & Yaksh, T. L. (1995). PROLONGED ALLEVIATION OF TACTILE ALLODYNIA BY INTRAVENOUS LIDOCAINE IN NEUROPATHIC RATS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(4), 775-785.

VALIDATION OF THE ALFENTANIL CANONICAL UNIVARIATE PARAMETERS AS A MEASURE OF OPIOID EFFECT ON THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM
Gambus, P. L., Gregg, K. M., & Shafer, S. L. (1995). VALIDATION OF THE ALFENTANIL CANONICAL UNIVARIATE PARAMETERS AS A MEASURE OF OPIOID EFFECT ON THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(4), 747-756.

THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF IV DYNORPHIN-A-(1-13) IN OPIOID NAIVE AND OPIOID TOLERANT HUMAN VOLUNTEERS
Gambus, P. L., Minto, C. F., Schnider, T. W., Youngs, E., & Shafer, S. L. (1995). THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF IV DYNORPHIN-A-(1-13) IN OPIOID NAIVE AND OPIOID TOLERANT HUMAN VOLUNTEERS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(3A), A369-A369.

BIOPHARMACEUTICS OF A NEW TRANSDERMAL FENTANYL DEVICE
Fiset, P., Cohane, C., Browne, S., Brand, S. C., & Shafer, S. L. (1995). BIOPHARMACEUTICS OF A NEW TRANSDERMAL FENTANYL DEVICE. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(3), 459-469.

PHARMACOKINETICS OF INHALED LIPOSOME-ENCAPSULATED FENTANYL
Hung, O. R., WHYNOT, S. C., VARVEL, J. R., Shafer, S. L., & MEZEI, M. (1995). PHARMACOKINETICS OF INHALED LIPOSOME-ENCAPSULATED FENTANYL. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(2), 277-284.

QUANTIFYING ANESTHETIC DRUG-INTERACTION - IMPLICATIONS FOR DRUG DOSING
Stanski, D. R., & Shafer, S. L. (1995). QUANTIFYING ANESTHETIC DRUG-INTERACTION - IMPLICATIONS FOR DRUG DOSING. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 83(1), 1-5.

Clinical drug level predictions and practice
Howell, S., Shafer, S. L., Reves, J. G., & Sladen, R. (1995). Clinical drug level predictions and practice. INTERNATIONAL ANESTHESIOLOGY CLINICS, 33(3), 91-100.

ALLOMETRY OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF THE MUSCLE-RELAXANT METOCURINE IN MAMMALS
Gronert, G. A., Fung, D. L., Jones, J. H., Shafer, S. L., Hildebrand, S. V., & Disbrow, E. A. (1995). ALLOMETRY OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF THE MUSCLE-RELAXANT METOCURINE IN MAMMALS. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 268(1), R85-R91.

COMPARISON OF SAME CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR 3-COMPARTMENT PK/PD MODELS
Hu, C. P., Lovejoy, W. S., & Shafer, S. L. (1994). COMPARISON OF SAME CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR 3-COMPARTMENT PK/PD MODELS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS, 22(6), 525-550.

PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS RELEVANT TO RECOVERY FROM OPIOIDS
Youngs, E. J., & Shafer, S. L. (1994). PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS RELEVANT TO RECOVERY FROM OPIOIDS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 81(4), 833-842.

PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING IN DRUG DEVELOPMENT - APPLICATION TO THE INVESTIGATIONAL OPIOID TREFENTANIL
Lemmens, H. Jm., Dyck, J. B., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1994). PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING IN DRUG DEVELOPMENT - APPLICATION TO THE INVESTIGATIONAL OPIOID TREFENTANIL. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, 56(3), 261-271.

PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF INTRASPINAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN SHEEP
Eisenach, J. C., Shafer, S. L., Bucklin, B. A., Jackson, C., & KALLIO, A. (1994). PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF INTRASPINAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN SHEEP. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 80(6), 1349-1359.

EVALUATION OF BISPECTRAL INDEX OF EEG FOR MONITORING OF ANESTHETIC DRUG EFFECT
Billard, V., Gambus, P. L., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1994). EVALUATION OF BISPECTRAL INDEX OF EEG FOR MONITORING OF ANESTHETIC DRUG EFFECT. BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA, 72, 67-67.

AN EFFICIENT CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DOSAGE REGIMENS
Hu, C. P., Lovejoy, W. S., & Shafer, S. L. (1994). AN EFFICIENT CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DOSAGE REGIMENS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS, 22(1), 73-94.

CARDIOPULMONARY AND BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSES TO COMPUTER-DRIVEN INFUSION OF DETOMIDINE IN STANDING HORSES
Daunt, D. A., Dunlop, C. I., Chapman, P. L., Shafer, S. L., Ruskoaho, H., & Maze, M. (1993). CARDIOPULMONARY AND BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSES TO COMPUTER-DRIVEN INFUSION OF DETOMIDINE IN STANDING HORSES. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH, 54(12), 2075-2082.

A COMPARISON OF BISPECTRAL AND FFT WAVE-FORM ANALYSES FOR MIDAZOLAM, ALFENTANIL AND PROPOFOL
Billard, V., Gambus, P. L., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1993). A COMPARISON OF BISPECTRAL AND FFT WAVE-FORM ANALYSES FOR MIDAZOLAM, ALFENTANIL AND PROPOFOL. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 79(3A), A517-A517.

COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION OF INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ADULT HUMAN VOLUNTEERS
Dyck, J. B., Maze, M., Haack, C., Azarnoff, D. L., Vuorilehto, L., & Shafer, S. L. (1993). COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION OF INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ADULT HUMAN VOLUNTEERS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 78(5), 821-828.

THE PHARMACOKINETICS AND HEMODYNAMIC-EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR DEXMEDETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ADULT HUMAN VOLUNTEERS
Dyck, J. B., Maze, M., Haack, C., Vuorilehto, L., & Shafer, S. L. (1993). THE PHARMACOKINETICS AND HEMODYNAMIC-EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR DEXMEDETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ADULT HUMAN VOLUNTEERS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 78(5), 813-820.

CONSTANT VERSUS OPTIMAL PLASMA-CONCENTRATIONS
Shafer, S. L. (1993). CONSTANT VERSUS OPTIMAL PLASMA-CONCENTRATIONS. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 76(3), 467-469.

DEXMEDETOMIDINE DECREASES CEREBRAL BLOOD-FLOW VELOCITY IN HUMANS
Zornow, M. H., Maze, M., Dyck, J. B., & Shafer, S. L. (1993). DEXMEDETOMIDINE DECREASES CEREBRAL BLOOD-FLOW VELOCITY IN HUMANS. JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM, 13(2), 350-353.

THIOPENTAL PHARMACODYNAMICS .1. DEFINING THE PSEUDO STEADY-STATE SERUM CONCENTRATION EEG EFFECT RELATIONSHIP
Buhrer, M., MAITRE, P. O., Hung, O. R., Ebling, W. F., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1992). THIOPENTAL PHARMACODYNAMICS .1. DEFINING THE PSEUDO STEADY-STATE SERUM CONCENTRATION EEG EFFECT RELATIONSHIP. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 77(2), 226-236.

THIOPENTAL PHARMACODYNAMICS .2. QUANTITATION OF CLINICAL AND ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DEPTH OF ANESTHESIA
Hung, O. R., VARVEL, J. R., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1992). THIOPENTAL PHARMACODYNAMICS .2. QUANTITATION OF CLINICAL AND ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DEPTH OF ANESTHESIA. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 77(2), 237-244.

PLASMA-CONCENTRATION CLAMPING IN THE RAT USING A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMP
Gustafsson, L. L., Ebling, W. F., Osaki, E., HARAPAT, S., Stanski, D. R., & Shafer, S. L. (1992). PLASMA-CONCENTRATION CLAMPING IN THE RAT USING A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMP. PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH, 9(6), 800-807.

IMPROVING THE CLINICAL UTILITY OF ANESTHETIC DRUG PHARMACOKINETICS
Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1992). IMPROVING THE CLINICAL UTILITY OF ANESTHETIC DRUG PHARMACOKINETICS. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 76(3), 327-330.

A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION TO THE 3-COMPARTMENT PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL SUITABLE FOR COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMPS
Bailey, J. M., & Shafer, S. L. (1991). A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION TO THE 3-COMPARTMENT PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL SUITABLE FOR COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMPS. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 38(6), 522-525.

A SIMPLE POCKET CALCULATOR APPROACH TO PREDICT ANESTHETIC DRUG CONCENTRATIONS FROM PHARMACOKINETIC DATA
MAITRE, P. O., & Shafer, S. L. (1990). A SIMPLE POCKET CALCULATOR APPROACH TO PREDICT ANESTHETIC DRUG CONCENTRATIONS FROM PHARMACOKINETIC DATA. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 73(2), 332-336.

ESTIMATING THE RATE OF THIOPENTAL BLOOD-BRAIN EQUILIBRATION USING PSEUDO STEADY-STATE SERUM CONCENTRATIONS
MAITRE, P. O., Buhrer, M., Shafer, S. L., & Stanski, D. R. (1990). ESTIMATING THE RATE OF THIOPENTAL BLOOD-BRAIN EQUILIBRATION USING PSEUDO STEADY-STATE SERUM CONCENTRATIONS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS, 18(3), 175-187.

Quantitation of thiopental anesthetic depth with clinical stimuli.
Hung, O. R., VARVEL, J., Shafer, S., & Stanski, D. R. (1990). Quantitation of thiopental anesthetic depth with clinical stimuli. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 37(4), S18-?.

2 EQUALLY VALID INTERPRETATIONS OF THE LINEAR MULTICOMPARTMENT MAMMILLARY PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL
Jacobs, J. R., Shafer, S. L., Larsen, J. L., & Hawkins, E. D. (1990). 2 EQUALLY VALID INTERPRETATIONS OF THE LINEAR MULTICOMPARTMENT MAMMILLARY PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL. JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, 79(4), 331-333.

A COMPARISON OF PARAMETRIC WITH SEMIPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE CONCENTRATION VERSUS EFFECT RELATIONSHIP OF METOCURINE IN DOGS AND PIGS
Shafer, S. L., VARVEL, J. R., & Gronert, G. A. (1989). A COMPARISON OF PARAMETRIC WITH SEMIPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE CONCENTRATION VERSUS EFFECT RELATIONSHIP OF METOCURINE IN DOGS AND PIGS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS, 17(3), 291-304.

EXERCISE PRODUCES SENSITIVITY TO METOCURINE
Gronert, G. A., White, D. A., Shafer, S. L., & Matteo, R. S. (1989). EXERCISE PRODUCES SENSITIVITY TO METOCURINE. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 70(6), 973-977.

THE LONGITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF PULMONARY VASCULAR-RESISTANCE DURING UNILATERAL HYPOXIA
Siegel, L. C., Pearl, R. G., Shafer, S. L., REAM, A. K., & Prielipp, R. C. (1989). THE LONGITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF PULMONARY VASCULAR-RESISTANCE DURING UNILATERAL HYPOXIA. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 70(3), 527-532.

Simultaneous measurements of cardiac output by thermodilution, esophageal Doppler, and electrical impedance in anesthetized patients.
Siegel, L. C., Shafer, S. L., Martinez, G. M., REAM, A. K., & Scott, J. C. (1988). Simultaneous measurements of cardiac output by thermodilution, esophageal Doppler, and electrical impedance in anesthetized patients. Journal of cardiothoracic anesthesia, 2(5), 590-595.

PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF PROPOFOL INFUSIONS DURING GENERAL-ANESTHESIA
Shafer, A., Doze, V. A., Shafer, S. L., & White, P. F. (1988). PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF PROPOFOL INFUSIONS DURING GENERAL-ANESTHESIA. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 69(3), 348-356.

TESTING COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMPS BY SIMULATION
Shafer, S. L., Siegel, L. C., Cooke, J. E., & Scott, J. C. (1988). TESTING COMPUTER-CONTROLLED INFUSION PUMPS BY SIMULATION. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 68(2), 261-266.