Lucy Tompkins

Infectious disease doctor

Infectious Disease Clinic

  • 900 Blake Wilbur Drive
  • Palo Alto, CA 94304
  • Phone: 650-736-5200
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Professional Education

Fellowship: University of Washington School of Medicine (1979) WA

Board Certification: Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (1976)

Residency: University of Washington School of Medicine (1976) WA

Residency: Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (1975) NH

Internship: Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (1974) NH

Medical Education: Dartmouth Medical School (1973) NH

MD, Dartmouth Medical School, Medicine (1973)

PhD, Georgetown U School of Medicine, Microbiology (1971)

Honors & Awards

Walter E Stamm Mentor Award, Infectious Diseases Society of America (2013)

Fellow, AAAS (2001)

Fellow, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (1998)

Fellow, Infectious Dis Soc of America (1987)

Fellow, Am.Academy Microbiology (1997)

Member, Am. Assoc Physicians (1995)

Member, Western Assoc. Physicians (1990)

Administrative Appointments

Hospital Epidemiologist , Med Director, Infection Prevention and Control Department, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, 1989

Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, School of Medicine, 2001

Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2001

Medical Director, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, 1983

Helicobacter pylori Usurps Cell Polarity to Turn the Cell Surface into a Replicative Niche
Tan, S., Tompkins, L. S., & Amieva, M. R. (2009). Helicobacter pylori Usurps Cell Polarity to Turn the Cell Surface into a Replicative Niche. PLOS PATHOGENS, 5(5).

Microarray detection of human parainfluenzavirus 4 infection associated with respiratory failure in an immunocompetent adult
Chiu, C. Y., Rouskin, S., Koshy, A., Urisman, A., Fischer, K., & DeRisi, J. L. (2006). Microarray detection of human parainfluenzavirus 4 infection associated with respiratory failure in an immunocompetent adult. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 43(8), E71-E76.

Investigation of mediastinitis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci after cardiothoracic surgery
Van Kerkhove, M. D., Parsonnet, J., Weingart, M., & Tompkins, L. S. (2006). Investigation of mediastinitis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci after cardiothoracic surgery. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 27(3), 305-307.

Prolonged incubation and extensive subculturing do not increase recovery of clinically significant microorganisms from standard automated blood cultures
Baron, E. J., Scott, J. D., & Tompkins, L. S. (2005). Prolonged incubation and extensive subculturing do not increase recovery of clinically significant microorganisms from standard automated blood cultures. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 41(11), 1677-1680.

Helicobacter pylori CagA induces a transition from polarized to invasive phenotypes in MDCK cells
Bagnoli, F., Buti, L., Tompkins, L., Covacci, A., & Amieva, M. R. (2005). Helicobacter pylori CagA induces a transition from polarized to invasive phenotypes in MDCK cells. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 102(45), 16339-16344.

Growth phase-dependent response of Helicobacter pylori to iron starvation
Merrell, D. S., Thompson, L. J., Kim, C. C., Mitchell, H., Tompkins, L. S., & FALKOW, S. (2003). Growth phase-dependent response of Helicobacter pylori to iron starvation. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 71(11), 6510-6525.

pH-regulated gene expression of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori
Merrell, D. S., Goodrich, M. L., Otto, G., Tompkins, L. S., & FALKOW, S. (2003). pH-regulated gene expression of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 71(6), 3529-3539.

Disruption of the epithelial apical-junctional complex by Helicobacter pylori CagA
Amieva, M. R., Vogelmann, R., Covacci, A., Tompkins, L. S., NELSON, W. J., & FALKOW, S. (2003). Disruption of the epithelial apical-junctional complex by Helicobacter pylori CagA. SCIENCE, 300(5624), 1430-1434.

Use of an open-reading frame-specific Campylobacter jejuni DNA microarray as a new genotyping tool for studying epidemiologically related isolates
Leonard, E. E., Takata, T., Blaser, M. J., FALKOW, S., Tompkins, L. S., & Gaynor, E. C. (2003). Use of an open-reading frame-specific Campylobacter jejuni DNA microarray as a new genotyping tool for studying epidemiologically related isolates. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 187(4), 691-694.

Cag pathogenicity island-specific responses of gastric epithelial cells to Helicobacter pylori infection
Guillemin, K., Salama, N. R., Tompkins, L. S., & FALKOW, S. (2002). Cag pathogenicity island-specific responses of gastric epithelial cells to Helicobacter pylori infection. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 99(23), 15136-15141.

Helicobacter pylori enter and survive within multivesicular vacuoles of epithelial cells
Amieva, M. R., Salama, N. R., Tompkins, L. S., & FALKOW, S. (2002). Helicobacter pylori enter and survive within multivesicular vacuoles of epithelial cells. CELLULAR MICROBIOLOGY, 4(10), 677-690.

Role of clinical microbiology laboratories in the management and control of infectious diseases and the delivery of health care
Peterson, L. R., Hamilton, J. D., Baron, E. J., Tompkins, L. S., MILLER, J. M., & Thomson, R. B. (2001). Role of clinical microbiology laboratories in the management and control of infectious diseases and the delivery of health care. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 32(4), 605-610.

Identification of Legionella pneumophila genes important for infection of amoebas by signature-tagged mutagenesis
Polesky, A. H., Ross, J. Td., FALKOW, S., & Tompkins, L. S. (2001). Identification of Legionella pneumophila genes important for infection of amoebas by signature-tagged mutagenesis. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 69(2), 977-987.

Vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori plays a role during colonization in a mouse model of infection
Salama, N. R., Otto, G., Tompkins, L., & FALKOW, S. (2001). Vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori plays a role during colonization in a mouse model of infection. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 69(2), 730-736.

Fecal leukocyte stain has diagnostic value for outpatients but not inpatients
Savola, K. L., Baron, E. J., Tompkins, L. S., & Passaro, D. J. (2001). Fecal leukocyte stain has diagnostic value for outpatients but not inpatients. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 39(1), 266-269.

A whole-genome microarray reveals genetic diversity among Helicobacter pylori strains
Salama, N., Guillemin, K., McDaniel, T. K., Sherlock, G., Tompkins, L., & FALKOW, S. (2000). A whole-genome microarray reveals genetic diversity among Helicobacter pylori strains. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 97(26), 14668-14673.

Collaborative multidisciplinary workshop report: Detection, culture, serology, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Chlamydia pneumoniae
Tompkins, L. S., SCHACHTER, J., Boman, J., Dowell, S., Gaydos, C. A., & Relman, D. (2000). Collaborative multidisciplinary workshop report: Detection, culture, serology, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Chlamydia pneumoniae. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 181, S460-S461.

Altered states: Involvement of phosphorylated CagA in the induction of host cellular growth changes by Helicobacter pylori
Segal, E. D., Cha, J., Lo, J., FALKOW, S., & Tompkins, L. S. (1999). Altered states: Involvement of phosphorylated CagA in the induction of host cellular growth changes by Helicobacter pylori. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 96(25), 14559-14564.

Induction of host signal transduction pathways by Helicobacter pylori
Segal, E. D., Lange, C., Covacci, A., Tompkins, L. S., & FALKOW, S. (1997). Induction of host signal transduction pathways by Helicobacter pylori. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 94(14), 7595-7599.

Helicobacter pylori attachment to gastric cells induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins
Segal, E. D., FALKOW, S., & Tompkins, L. S. (1996). Helicobacter pylori attachment to gastric cells induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 93(3), 1259-1264.

Bartonella species infections, including cat-scratch disease, trench fever, and bacillary angiomatosis - What molecular techniques have revealed
Tompkins, L. S. (1996). Bartonella species infections, including cat-scratch disease, trench fever, and bacillary angiomatosis - What molecular techniques have revealed. WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 164(1), 39-41.

BARTONELLA-HENSELAE AND BARTONELLA-QUINTANA ADHERENCE TO AND ENTRY INTO CULTURED HUMAN EPITHELIAL-CELLS
Batterman, H. J., Peek, J. A., Loutit, J. S., FALKOW, S., & Tompkins, L. S. (1995). BARTONELLA-HENSELAE AND BARTONELLA-QUINTANA ADHERENCE TO AND ENTRY INTO CULTURED HUMAN EPITHELIAL-CELLS. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 63(11), 4553-4556.

THE NEW PATH TO PREVENTING ULCERS
Tompkins, L. S., & FALKOW, S. (1995). THE NEW PATH TO PREVENTING ULCERS. SCIENCE, 267(5204), 1621-1622.

NEW TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY - WHAT YOU ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW BUT WERE AFRAID TO ASK
Tompkins, L. S., Tenover, F., & Arvin, A. (1994). NEW TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY - WHAT YOU ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW BUT WERE AFRAID TO ASK. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 170(5), 1068-1074.

GROWTH OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN ACANTHAMOEBA-CASTELLANII ENHANCES INVASION
Cirillo, J. D., FALKOW, S., & Tompkins, L. S. (1994). GROWTH OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN ACANTHAMOEBA-CASTELLANII ENHANCES INVASION. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 62(8), 3254-3261.

EFFECTS OF AN ISOGENIC ZN-METALLOPROTEASE-DEFICIENT MUTANT OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN A GUINEA-PIG PNEUMONIA MODEL
Moffat, J. F., Edelstein, P. H., Regula, D. P., Cirillo, J. D., & Tompkins, L. S. (1994). EFFECTS OF AN ISOGENIC ZN-METALLOPROTEASE-DEFICIENT MUTANT OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN A GUINEA-PIG PNEUMONIA MODEL. MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, 12(5), 693-705.

MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF UREASE GENES FROM A NEWLY IDENTIFIED UNCULTURED SPECIES OF HELICOBACTER
Solnick, J. V., Orourke, J., Lee, A., & Tompkins, L. S. (1994). MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF UREASE GENES FROM A NEWLY IDENTIFIED UNCULTURED SPECIES OF HELICOBACTER. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 62(5), 1631-1638.

FURTHER MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CLONED LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA ZINC METALLOPROTEASE
Moffat, J. F., BLACK, W. J., & Tompkins, L. S. (1994). FURTHER MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CLONED LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA ZINC METALLOPROTEASE. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 62(2), 751-753.

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A HELICOBACTER-PYLORI HEMOLYSIN
Segal, E. D., & Tompkins, L. S. (1993). IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A HELICOBACTER-PYLORI HEMOLYSIN. INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND DISEASE-REVIEWS ISSUES AND COMMENTARY, 2(4), 178-182.

AN UNCULTURED GASTRIC SPIRAL ORGANISM IS A NEWLY IDENTIFIED HELICOBACTER IN HUMANS
Solnick, J. V., Orourke, J., Lee, A., Paster, B. J., Dewhirst, F. E., & Tompkins, L. S. (1993). AN UNCULTURED GASTRIC SPIRAL ORGANISM IS A NEWLY IDENTIFIED HELICOBACTER IN HUMANS. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 168(2), 379-385.

MOLECULAR STRAIN TYPING OF MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS TO CONFIRM CROSS-CONTAMINATION IN THE MYCOBACTERIOLOGY LABORATORY AND MODIFICATION OF PROCEDURES TO MINIMIZE OCCURRENCE OF FALSE-POSITIVE CULTURES
Small, P. M., McClenny, N. B., Singh, S. P., SCHOOLNIK, G. K., Tompkins, L. S., & Mickelsen, P. A. (1993). MOLECULAR STRAIN TYPING OF MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS TO CONFIRM CROSS-CONTAMINATION IN THE MYCOBACTERIOLOGY LABORATORY AND MODIFICATION OF PROCEDURES TO MINIMIZE OCCURRENCE OF FALSE-POSITIVE CULTURES. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 31(7), 1677-1682.

ROLE OF FLAGELLA IN ADHERENCE, INTERNALIZATION, AND TRANSLOCATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-JEJUNI IN NONPOLARIZED AND POLARIZED EPITHELIAL-CELL CULTURES
Grant, C. Cr., Konkel, M. E., Cieplak, W., & Tompkins, L. S. (1993). ROLE OF FLAGELLA IN ADHERENCE, INTERNALIZATION, AND TRANSLOCATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-JEJUNI IN NONPOLARIZED AND POLARIZED EPITHELIAL-CELL CULTURES. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 61(5), 1764-1771.

NOSOCOMIAL LEGIONELLOSIS - A REVIEW OF PULMONARY AND EXTRAPULMONARY SYNDROMES
Lowry, P. W., & Tompkins, L. S. (1993). NOSOCOMIAL LEGIONELLOSIS - A REVIEW OF PULMONARY AND EXTRAPULMONARY SYNDROMES. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL, 21(1), 21-27.

TRANSFORMATION OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI BY ELECTROPORATION
Segal, E. D., & Tompkins, L. S. (1993). TRANSFORMATION OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI BY ELECTROPORATION. BIOTECHNIQUES, 14(2), 225-226.

HELICOBACTER-PYLORI AND GASTRODUODENAL DISEASE - PATHOGENESIS AND HOST-PARASITE INTERACTION
Solnick, J. V., & Tompkins, L. S. (1992). HELICOBACTER-PYLORI AND GASTRODUODENAL DISEASE - PATHOGENESIS AND HOST-PARASITE INTERACTION. INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND DISEASE-REVIEWS ISSUES AND COMMENTARY, 1(6), 294-309.

The use of molecular methods in infectious diseases.
Tompkins, L. S. (1992). The use of molecular methods in infectious diseases. New England journal of medicine, 327(18), 1290-1297.

CHARACTERIZATION OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI UREASE MUTANTS
Segal, E. D., Shon, J., & Tompkins, L. S. (1992). CHARACTERIZATION OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI UREASE MUTANTS. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 60(5), 1883-1889.

A QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF INTRACELLULAR GROWTH OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN ACANTHAMOEBA-CASTELLANII
Moffat, J. F., & Tompkins, L. S. (1992). A QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF INTRACELLULAR GROWTH OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN ACANTHAMOEBA-CASTELLANII. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 60(1), 296-301.

RESTRICTION ENZYME AND SOUTHERN HYBRIDIZATION ANALYSES OF PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA STRAINS FROM PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC-FIBROSIS
Loutit, J. S., & Tompkins, L. S. (1991). RESTRICTION ENZYME AND SOUTHERN HYBRIDIZATION ANALYSES OF PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA STRAINS FROM PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC-FIBROSIS. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 29(12), 2897-2900.

A CLUSTER OF LEGIONELLA-STERNAL WOUND INFECTIONS DUE TO POSTOPERATIVE TOPICAL EXPOSURE TO CONTAMINATED TAP WATER
Lowry, P. W., BLANKENSHIP, R. J., GRIDLEY, W., TROUP, N. J., & Tompkins, L. S. (1991). A CLUSTER OF LEGIONELLA-STERNAL WOUND INFECTIONS DUE TO POSTOPERATIVE TOPICAL EXPOSURE TO CONTAMINATED TAP WATER. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 324(2), 109-113.

THE AGENT OF BACILLARY ANGIOMATOSIS - AN APPROACH TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF UNCULTURED PATHOGENS
Relman, D. A., Loutit, J. S., Schmidt, T. M., FALKOW, S., & Tompkins, L. S. (1990). THE AGENT OF BACILLARY ANGIOMATOSIS - AN APPROACH TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF UNCULTURED PATHOGENS. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 323(23), 1573-1580.

VISCERAL BACILLARY EPITHELIOID ANGIOMATOSIS - POSSIBLE MANIFESTATIONS OF DISSEMINATED CAT SCRATCH DISEASE IN THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST - A REPORT OF 2 CASES
Kemper, C. A., Lombard, C. M., Deresinski, S. C., & Tompkins, L. S. (1990). VISCERAL BACILLARY EPITHELIOID ANGIOMATOSIS - POSSIBLE MANIFESTATIONS OF DISSEMINATED CAT SCRATCH DISEASE IN THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST - A REPORT OF 2 CASES. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 89(2), 216-222.

LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA ZINC METALLOPROTEASE IS STRUCTURALLY AND FUNCTIONALLY HOMOLOGOUS TO PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA ELASTASE
BLACK, W. J., Quinn, F. D., & Tompkins, L. S. (1990). LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA ZINC METALLOPROTEASE IS STRUCTURALLY AND FUNCTIONALLY HOMOLOGOUS TO PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA ELASTASE. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 172(5), 2608-2613.

TRANSFORMATION OF ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE AND ANALYSIS OF R FACTORS BY ELECTROPORATION
Lalonde, G., Miller, J. F., Tompkins, L. S., & OHANLEY, P. (1989). TRANSFORMATION OF ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE AND ANALYSIS OF R FACTORS BY ELECTROPORATION. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH, 50(11), 1957-1960.

GENETIC, IMMUNOLOGICAL, AND CYTO-TOXIC COMPARISONS OF LEGIONELLA PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVITIES
Quinn, F. D., KEEN, M. G., & Tompkins, L. S. (1989). GENETIC, IMMUNOLOGICAL, AND CYTO-TOXIC COMPARISONS OF LEGIONELLA PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVITIES. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 57(9), 2719-2725.

ANALYSIS OF A CLONED SEQUENCE OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA ENCODING A 38 KD METALLOPROTEASE POSSESSING HEMOLYTIC AND CYTO-TOXIC ACTIVITIES
Quinn, F. D., & Tompkins, L. S. (1989). ANALYSIS OF A CLONED SEQUENCE OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA ENCODING A 38 KD METALLOPROTEASE POSSESSING HEMOLYTIC AND CYTO-TOXIC ACTIVITIES. MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, 3(6), 797-805.

SPECIES-SPECIFIC DETECTION OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN WATER BY DNA AMPLIFICATION AND HYBRIDIZATION
Starnbach, M. N., FALKOW, S., & Tompkins, L. S. (1989). SPECIES-SPECIFIC DETECTION OF LEGIONELLA-PNEUMOPHILA IN WATER BY DNA AMPLIFICATION AND HYBRIDIZATION. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 27(6), 1257-1261.

LEGIONELLA PROSTHETIC-VALVE ENDOCARDITIS
Tompkins, L. S., Roessler, B. J., Redd, S. C., Markowitz, L. E., & Cohen, M. L. (1988). LEGIONELLA PROSTHETIC-VALVE ENDOCARDITIS. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 318(9), 530-535.

HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTROPORATION OF BACTERIA - GENETIC-TRANSFORMATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-JEJUNI WITH PLASMID DNA
Miller, J. F., Dower, W. J., & Tompkins, L. S. (1988). HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTROPORATION OF BACTERIA - GENETIC-TRANSFORMATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER-JEJUNI WITH PLASMID DNA. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 85(3), 856-860.

GENE-TRANSFER FROM ESCHERICHIA-COLI TO CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES - DEVELOPMENT OF SHUTTLE VECTORS FOR GENETIC-ANALYSIS OF CAMPYLOBACTER-JEJUNI
LABIGNEROUSSEL, A., Harel, J., & Tompkins, L. (1987). GENE-TRANSFER FROM ESCHERICHIA-COLI TO CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES - DEVELOPMENT OF SHUTTLE VECTORS FOR GENETIC-ANALYSIS OF CAMPYLOBACTER-JEJUNI. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 169(11), 5320-5323.

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LEGIONELLA SPECIES BY RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE AND ALLOENZYME ANALYSIS
Tompkins, L. S., TROUP, N. J., Woods, T., Bibb, W., & MCKINNEY, R. M. (1987). MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LEGIONELLA SPECIES BY RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE AND ALLOENZYME ANALYSIS. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25(10), 1875-1880.