Robert West

Pathologist

Surgical pathologist, Immunodiagnosis pathologist

Sarcoma Program

  • 875 Blake Wilbur Drive
  • Palo Alto, CA 94304
  • Phone: 650-498-6000
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Professional Education

Residency: Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2002) CA

Fellowship: Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2003) CA

Medical Education: Washington University School of Medicine (1999) MO

Board Certification: Anatomic Pathology, American Board of Pathology (2003)

Ph.D., Washington University, Immunology (1999)

M.D., Washington University, Medicine (1999)

B.S., Brown University, Biology (1990)

Administrative Appointments

Co-Director, Immunodiagnosis Laboratory, Stanford University Medical Center, 2003

Human papillomavirus 16 detected in nasopharyngeal carcinomas in white Americans but not in endemic Southern Chinese patients.
Lin, Z., Khong, B., Kwok, S., Cao, H., West, R. B., & Kong, C. S. (2014). Human papillomavirus 16 detected in nasopharyngeal carcinomas in white Americans but not in endemic Southern Chinese patients. Head & neck, 36(5), 709-714.

Stromal responses among common carcinomas correlated with clinicopathologic features.
Chen, J. Ly., Espinosa, I., Lin, A. Y., Liao, O. Yw., van de Rijn, M., & West, R. B. (2013). Stromal responses among common carcinomas correlated with clinicopathologic features. Clinical cancer research , 19(18), 5127-5135.

Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer
Newburger, D. E., Kashef-Haghighi, D., Weng, Z., Salari, R., Sweeney, R. T., & Sidow, A. (2013). Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer. GENOME RESEARCH, 23(7), 1097-1108.

Desktop Transcriptome Sequencing From Archival Tissue to Identify Clinically Relevant Translocations
Sweeney, R. T., Zhang, B., Zhu, S. X., Varma, S., Smith, K. S., & West, R. B. (2013). Desktop Transcriptome Sequencing From Archival Tissue to Identify Clinically Relevant Translocations. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 37(6), 796-803.

Reconsidering the Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of LN-2 for Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Atypical Fibroxanthoma
Hollmig, S. T., Rieger, K. E., Henderson, M. T., West, R. B., & Sundram, U. N. (2013). Reconsidering the Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of LN-2 for Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Atypical Fibroxanthoma. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DERMATOPATHOLOGY, 35(2), 176-179.

Breakpoint analysis of transcriptional and genomic profiles uncovers novel gene fusions spanning multiple human cancer types.
Giacomini, C. P., Sun, S., Varma, S., Shain, A. H., Giacomini, M. M., & Pollack, J. R. (2013). Breakpoint analysis of transcriptional and genomic profiles uncovers novel gene fusions spanning multiple human cancer types. PLoS genetics, 9(4).

Anti-KIT monoclonal antibody inhibits imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor growth
Edris, B., Willingham, S. B., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J.-P., & van de Rijn, M. (2013). Anti-KIT monoclonal antibody inhibits imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor growth. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 110(9), 3501-3506.

Desktop Transcriptome Sequencing from Archival Tissue To Identify Clinically Relevant Translocations
SWEENEY, R. T., Zhang, B., Zhu, S. X., Varma, S., Smith, K., & West, R. B. (2013). Desktop Transcriptome Sequencing from Archival Tissue To Identify Clinically Relevant Translocations. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 93, 438A-438A.

Two New Stromal Signatures Stratify Breast Cancers with Different Prognosis
Guo, X., Zhu, S. X., Montgomery, K., van de Rijn, M., & West, R. B. (2013). Two New Stromal Signatures Stratify Breast Cancers with Different Prognosis. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 26, 434A-435A.

ROR2 Expression in Breast Cancer
Guo, X., Sweeny, P., Varma, S., Montgomery, K., West, R. B., & van de Rijn, M. (2013). ROR2 Expression in Breast Cancer. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 93, 45A-45A.

Integrative bioinformatics links HNF1B with clear cell carcinoma and tumor-associated thrombosis.
Cuff, J., Salari, K., Clarke, N., Esheba, G. E., Forster, A. D., & Pollack, J. R. (2013). Integrative bioinformatics links HNF1B with clear cell carcinoma and tumor-associated thrombosis. PloS one, 8(9).

Biphasic Papillary and Lobular Breast Carcinoma With PIK3CA and IDH1 Mutations
Ang, D., VanSandt, A. M., Beadling, C., Warrick, A., West, R. B., & Troxell, M. L. (2012). Biphasic Papillary and Lobular Breast Carcinoma With PIK3CA and IDH1 Mutations. DIAGNOSTIC MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY, 21(4), 221-224.

beta-Adrenergic receptor expression in vascular tumors
Chisholm, K. M., Chang, K. W., Truong, M. T., Kwok, S., West, R. B., & Heerema-McKenney, A. E. (2012). beta-Adrenergic receptor expression in vascular tumors. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 25(11), 1446-1451.

TdT(+) T-lymphoblastic Populations Are Increased in Castleman Disease, in Castleman Disease in Association With Follicular Dendritic Cell Tumors, and in Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma
Ohgami, R. S., Zhao, S., Ohgami, J. K., Leavitt, M. O., Zehnder, J. L., & Warnke, R. A. (2012). TdT(+) T-lymphoblastic Populations Are Increased in Castleman Disease, in Castleman Disease in Association With Follicular Dendritic Cell Tumors, and in Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 36(11), 1619-1628.

Detection of Long Non-Coding RNA in Archival Tissue: Correlation with Polycomb Protein Expression in Primary and Metastatic Breast Carcinoma
Chisholm, K. M., Wan, Y., Li, R., Montgomery, K. D., Chang, H. Y., & West, R. B. (2012). Detection of Long Non-Coding RNA in Archival Tissue: Correlation with Polycomb Protein Expression in Primary and Metastatic Breast Carcinoma. PLOS ONE, 7(10).

Sox10 and S100 in the Diagnosis of Soft-tissue Neoplasms
Karamchandani, J. R., Nielsen, T. O., van de Rijn, M., & West, R. B. (2012). Sox10 and S100 in the Diagnosis of Soft-tissue Neoplasms. APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY, 20(5), 445-450.

Pathologic Features and Immunophenotype of Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers
Kaplan, J. S., Schnitt, S. J., Collins, L. C., Wang, Y., Garber, J. E., & Tung, N. M. (2012). Pathologic Features and Immunophenotype of Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 36(10), 1483-1488.

Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway mutations are common in breast columnar cell lesions
Troxell, M. L., Brunner, A. L., Neff, T., Warrick, A., Beadling, C., & West, R. B. (2012). Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway mutations are common in breast columnar cell lesions. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 25(7), 930-937.

ROR2 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in leiomyosarcoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour
Edris, B., Espinosa, I., Muehlenberg, T., Mikels, A., Lee, C.-H., & van de Rijn, M. (2012). ROR2 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in leiomyosarcoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 227(2), 223-233.

Antibody therapy targeting the CD47 protein is effective in a model of aggressive metastatic leiomyosarcoma
Edris, B., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J.-P., Willingham, S. B., & van de Rijn, M. (2012). Antibody therapy targeting the CD47 protein is effective in a model of aggressive metastatic leiomyosarcoma. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 109(17), 6656-6661.

Identification of Pathogens in Archival Tissues Using a High-Throughput Sequencing Approach, 35EQ
SWEENEY, R. T., Brunner, A. L., Montgomery, K. D., Zhu, S. X., Kong, C., & West, R. B. (2012). Identification of Pathogens in Archival Tissues Using a High-Throughput Sequencing Approach, 35EQ. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 92, 467A-467A.

Identification of Pathogens in Archival Tissues Using a High-Throughput Sequencing Approach, 3SEQ
SWEENEY, R. T., Brunner, A. L., Montgomery, K. D., Zhu, S. X., Kong, C., & West, R. B. (2012). Identification of Pathogens in Archival Tissues Using a High-Throughput Sequencing Approach, 3SEQ. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 25, 467A-467A.

14-3-3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma
Lee, C.-H., Ou, W.- bin, Marino-Enriquez, A., Zhu, M., Mayeda, M., & Fletcher, J. A. (2012). 14-3-3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 109(3), 929-934.

Transcriptional profiling of long non-coding RNAs and novel transcribed regions across a diverse panel of archived human cancers.
Brunner, A. L., Beck, A. H., Edris, B., Sweeney, R. T., Zhu, S. X., & West, R. B. (2012). Transcriptional profiling of long non-coding RNAs and novel transcribed regions across a diverse panel of archived human cancers. Genome biology, 13(8), R75-?.

Comparative gene expression profiling of benign and malignant lesions reveals candidate therapeutic compounds for leiomyosarcoma.
Edris, B., Fletcher, J. A., West, R. B., van de Rijn, M., & Beck, A. H. (2012). Comparative gene expression profiling of benign and malignant lesions reveals candidate therapeutic compounds for leiomyosarcoma. Sarcoma, 2012, 805614-?.

Transcriptional profiling of long non-coding RNAs and novel transcribed regions across a diverse panel of archived human cancers
Brunner, A. L., Beck, A. H., Edris, B., Sweeney, R. T., Zhu, S. X., & West, R. B. (2012). Transcriptional profiling of long non-coding RNAs and novel transcribed regions across a diverse panel of archived human cancers. GENOME BIOLOGY, 13(8).

Increased midkine expression correlates with desmoid tumour recurrence: a potential biomarker and therapeutic target
Colombo, C., Creighton, C. J., Ghadimi, M. P., Bolshakov, S., Warneke, C. L., & Lev, D. (2011). Increased midkine expression correlates with desmoid tumour recurrence: a potential biomarker and therapeutic target. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 225(4), 574-582.

Systematic Analysis of Breast Cancer Morphology Uncovers Stromal Features Associated with Survival
Beck, A. H., Sangoi, A. R., Leung, S., Marinelli, R. J., Nielsen, T. O., & Koller, D. (2011). Systematic Analysis of Breast Cancer Morphology Uncovers Stromal Features Associated with Survival. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 3(108).

CSF1 Expression in Nongynecological Leiomyosarcoma Is Associated with Increased Tumor Angiogenesis
Espinosa, I., Edris, B., Lee, C.-H., Cheng, H. W., Gilks, C. B., & van de Rijn, M. (2011). CSF1 Expression in Nongynecological Leiomyosarcoma Is Associated with Increased Tumor Angiogenesis. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 179(4), 2100-2107.

Identification of a Disease-Defining Gene Fusion in Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma
Tanas, M. R., Sboner, A., Oliveira, A. M., Erickson-Johnson, M. R., Hespelt, J., & Rubin, B. P. (2011). Identification of a Disease-Defining Gene Fusion in Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 3(98).

Immunohistochemical Distinction of Primary Adrenal Cortical Lesions From Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Study of 248 Cases
Sangoi, A. R., Fujiwara, M., West, R. B., Montgomery, K. D., Bonventre, J. V., & McKenney, J. K. (2011). Immunohistochemical Distinction of Primary Adrenal Cortical Lesions From Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Study of 248 Cases. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 35(5), 678-686.

Expression of Subtype-Specific Group 1 Leiomyosarcoma Markers in a Wide Variety of Sarcomas by Gene Expression Analysis and Immunohistochemistry
Mills, A. M., Beck, A. H., Montgomery, K. D., Zhu, S. X., Espinosa, I., & West, R. B. (2011). Expression of Subtype-Specific Group 1 Leiomyosarcoma Markers in a Wide Variety of Sarcomas by Gene Expression Analysis and Immunohistochemistry. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 35(4), 583-589.

Computational Image Analysis Identifies New Morphologic Features That Predict Breast Cancer Outcome
Beck, A. H., West, R. B., van De Vijver, M., & Koller, D. (2011). Computational Image Analysis Identifies New Morphologic Features That Predict Breast Cancer Outcome. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 91, 28A-28A.

The Prognostic Value of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Leiomyosarcoma A Single Institution Study
Ganjoo, K. N., Witten, D., Patel, M., Espinosa, I., La, T., & West, R. B. (2011). The Prognostic Value of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Leiomyosarcoma A Single Institution Study. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS, 34(1), 82-86.

Endogenous Versus Tumor-Specific Host Response to Breast Carcinoma: A Study of Stromal Response in Synchronous Breast Primaries and Biopsy Site Changes
Wu, J. M., Beck, A. H., Pate, L. L., Witten, D., Zhu, S. X., & West, R. B. (2011). Endogenous Versus Tumor-Specific Host Response to Breast Carcinoma: A Study of Stromal Response in Synchronous Breast Primaries and Biopsy Site Changes. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 17(3), 437-446.

Computational Image Analysis Identifies New Morphologic Features That Predict Breast Cancer Outcome.
Beck, A. H., West, R. B., van De Vijver, M., & Koller, D. (2011). Computational Image Analysis Identifies New Morphologic Features That Predict Breast Cancer Outcome. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 24, 28A-28A.

CSF1-Response Signature Is Associated with Tumor Angiogenesis in Non-Gynecological Leiomyosarcoma
Espinosa, I., Beck, A., Edris, B., Lee, C.-H., West, R., & van de Rijn, M. (2011). CSF1-Response Signature Is Associated with Tumor Angiogenesis in Non-Gynecological Leiomyosarcoma. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 24, 13A-13A.

CSF1-Response Signature Is Associated with Tumor Angiogenesis in Non-Gynecological Leiomyosarcoma
Espinosa, I., Beck, A., Edris, B., Lee, C.-H., West, R., & van de Rijn, M. (2011). CSF1-Response Signature Is Associated with Tumor Angiogenesis in Non-Gynecological Leiomyosarcoma. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 91, 13A-13A.

MYB Expression and Translocation in Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas and Other Salivary Gland Tumors With Clinicopathologic Correlation
West, R. B., Kong, C., Clarke, N., Gilks, T., Lipsick, J. S., & Le, Q.-T. (2011). MYB Expression and Translocation in Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas and Other Salivary Gland Tumors With Clinicopathologic Correlation. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 35(1), 92-99.

Variations in stromal signatures in breast and colorectal cancer metastases
Webster, J. A., Beck, A. H., Sharma, M., Espinosa, I., Weigelt, B., & West, R. (2010). Variations in stromal signatures in breast and colorectal cancer metastases. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 222(2), 158-165.

Analysis of stromal signatures in the tumor microenvironment of ductal carcinoma in situ
Sharma, M., Beck, A. H., Webster, J. A., Espinosa, I., Montgomery, K., & West, R. B. (2010). Analysis of stromal signatures in the tumor microenvironment of ductal carcinoma in situ. BREAST CANCER RESEARCH AND TREATMENT, 123(2), 397-404.

Expression Profiling in Soft Tissue Sarcomas With Emphasis on Synovial Sarcoma, Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor, and Leiomyosarcoma
West, R. B. (2010). Expression Profiling in Soft Tissue Sarcomas With Emphasis on Synovial Sarcoma, Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor, and Leiomyosarcoma. ADVANCES IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY, 17(5), 366-373.

DOG1 for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST): Comparison Between 2 Different Antibodies
Lopes, L. F., West, R. B., Bacchi, L. M., van de Rijn, M., & Bacchi, C. E. (2010). DOG1 for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST): Comparison Between 2 Different Antibodies. APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY, 18(4), 333-337.

Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis
Gupta, R. A., Shah, N., Wang, K. C., Kim, J., Horlings, H. M., & Chang, H. Y. (2010). Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis. NATURE, 464(7291), 1071-U148.

Translating Gene Expression Into Clinical Care: Sarcomas As a Paradigm
Nielsen, T. O., & West, R. B. (2010). Translating Gene Expression Into Clinical Care: Sarcomas As a Paradigm. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 28(10), 1796-1805.

Discovery of molecular subtypes in leiomyosarcoma through integrative molecular profiling
Beck, A. H., Lee, C.-H., WITTEN, D. M., Gleason, B. C., Edris, B., & van de Rijn, M. (2010). Discovery of molecular subtypes in leiomyosarcoma through integrative molecular profiling. ONCOGENE, 29(6), 845-854.

Variations in Stromal Signatures in Breast Cancer Metastases
Webster, J. A., Beck, A. H., Sharma, M., Espinosa, I., Schreuder, M., & West, R. B. (2010). Variations in Stromal Signatures in Breast Cancer Metastases. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 23, 77A-77A.

Gene expression profiling for the investigation of soft tissue sarcoma pathogenesis and the identification of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers
Beck, A. H., West, R. B., & van de Rijn, M. (2010). Gene expression profiling for the investigation of soft tissue sarcoma pathogenesis and the identification of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. VIRCHOWS ARCHIV, 456(2), 141-151.

Meta-Mining of Gene Expression Profiles Identifies MG132 and Cantharidin as Therapeutic Agents with In Vitro Activity Against Leiomyosarcoma
Edris, B., West, R. B., Lee, C. H., Zhu, M., Fletcher, J., & Beck, A. H. (2010). Meta-Mining of Gene Expression Profiles Identifies MG132 and Cantharidin as Therapeutic Agents with In Vitro Activity Against Leiomyosarcoma. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 90, 19A-19A.

Fibroblast-Like Stromal Response Is Host-Dependent While Macrophage-Associated Stromal Response Is Tumor-Dependent: A Study of Stromal Response in Paired Breast Carcinomas from Patients with Dual Primaries
Wu, J. M., Beck, A. H., WITTEN, D., Allison, K., van de Rijn, M., & West, R. B. (2010). Fibroblast-Like Stromal Response Is Host-Dependent While Macrophage-Associated Stromal Response Is Tumor-Dependent: A Study of Stromal Response in Paired Breast Carcinomas from Patients with Dual Primaries. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 90, 79A-79A.

Histologic and Immunophenotypic Comparison of Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive Breast Cancers in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers and Sporadic ER-Positive Breast Cancers: A Case-Control Study
Kaplan, J., Schnitt, S., Collins, L., Wang, Y., Garber, J., & Tung, N. (2010). Histologic and Immunophenotypic Comparison of Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive Breast Cancers in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers and Sporadic ER-Positive Breast Cancers: A Case-Control Study. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 90, 55A-55A.

3 '-End Sequencing for Expression Quantification (3SEQ) from Archival Tumor Samples
Beck, A. H., Weng, Z., Witten, D. M., Zhu, S., Foley, J. W., & West, R. B. (2010). 3 '-End Sequencing for Expression Quantification (3SEQ) from Archival Tumor Samples. PLOS ONE, 5(1).

Genome-wide transcriptome analyses reveal p53 inactivation mediated loss of miR-34a expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours
Subramanian, S., Thayanithy, V., West, R. B., Lee, C.-H., Beck, A. H., & van de Rijn, M. (2010). Genome-wide transcriptome analyses reveal p53 inactivation mediated loss of miR-34a expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 220(1), 58-70.

HER2 Intermediate Breast Cancers
Jensen, K. C., Nielsen, T. O., Gilks, C. B., & West, R. B. (2009). HER2 Intermediate Breast Cancers. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 33(11), 1739-1739.

Microtubule-associated Protein-2 is a Sensitive Marker of Primary and Metastatic Neuroblastoma
Krishnan, C., Higgins, J. P., West, R. B., Natkunam, Y., Heerema-McKenney, A., & Arber, D. A. (2009). Microtubule-associated Protein-2 is a Sensitive Marker of Primary and Metastatic Neuroblastoma. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 33(11), 1695-1704.

EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY ENHANCES LOCAL CONTROL IN PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS
Horoschak, M., Tran, P. T., Bachireddy, P., West, R. B., Mohler, D., & Donaldson, S. S. (2009). EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY ENHANCES LOCAL CONTROL IN PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 75(1), 183-187.

Expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 in mesenchymal neoplasms
Steigen, S. E., Schaeffer, D. F., West, R. B., & Nielsen, T. O. (2009). Expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 in mesenchymal neoplasms. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 22(7), 914-921.

Coordinate Expression of Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 and Colony-Stimulating Factor-1-Related Proteins Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Gynecological and Nongynecological Leiomyosarcoma
Espinosa, I., Beck, A. H., Lee, C.-H., Zhu, S., Montgomery, K. D., & van de Rijn, M. (2009). Coordinate Expression of Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 and Colony-Stimulating Factor-1-Related Proteins Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Gynecological and Nongynecological Leiomyosarcoma. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 174(6), 2347-2356.

Ano1 is a selective marker of interstitial cells of Cajal in the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract
Gomez-Pinilla, P. J., Gibbons, S. J., Bardsley, M. R., Lorincz, A., Pozo, M. J., & Farrugia, G. (2009). Ano1 is a selective marker of interstitial cells of Cajal in the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY, 296(6), G1370-G1381.

Inter-observer reproducibility of HER2 immunohistochemical assessment and concordance with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): pathologist assessment compared to quantitative image analysis
Turashvili, G., Leung, S., Turbin, D., Montgomery, K., Gilks, B., & Aparicio, S. (2009). Inter-observer reproducibility of HER2 immunohistochemical assessment and concordance with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): pathologist assessment compared to quantitative image analysis. BMC CANCER, 9.

MOC-31 Exhibits Superior Reactivity Compared With Ber-EP4 in Invasive Lobular and Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast A Tissue Microarray Study
Pai, R. K., & West, R. B. (2009). MOC-31 Exhibits Superior Reactivity Compared With Ber-EP4 in Invasive Lobular and Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast A Tissue Microarray Study. APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY, 17(3), 202-206.

The Transcription Factor LMO2 Is a Robust Marker of Vascular Endothelium and Vascular Neoplasms and Selected Other Entities
Gratzinger, D., Zhao, S., West, R., Rouse, R. V., Vogel, H., & Natkunam, Y. (2009). The Transcription Factor LMO2 Is a Robust Marker of Vascular Endothelium and Vascular Neoplasms and Selected Other Entities. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, 131(2), 264-278.

The Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Response Signature in Breast Carcinoma
Beck, A. H., Espinosa, I., Edris, B., Li, R., Montgomery, K., & West, R. B. (2009). The Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Response Signature in Breast Carcinoma. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 15(3), 778-787.

Discovery of Molecular Subtypes in Leiomyosarcoma through Integrative Molecular Profiling
Beck, A. H., Lee, C. H., WITTEN, D. M., Zhou, S., Montgomery, K., & van de Rijn, M. (2009). Discovery of Molecular Subtypes in Leiomyosarcoma through Integrative Molecular Profiling. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 89, 368A-368A.

Discovery of Molecular Subtypes in Leiomyosarcoma through Integrative Molecular Profiling
Beck, A. H., Lee, C. H., WITTEN, D. M., Zhou, S., Montgomery, K., & van de Rijn, M. (2009). Discovery of Molecular Subtypes in Leiomyosarcoma through Integrative Molecular Profiling. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 22, 368A-368A.

CSF-1 and Fibromatosis Expression in Stroma of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
Sharma, M., Espinosa, I., Beck, A. H., Webster, J. A., Montgomery, K. D., & West, R. B. (2009). CSF-1 and Fibromatosis Expression in Stroma of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 89, 67A-67A.

Characterization of a novel anti-fatty acid synthase (FASN) antiserum in breast tissue
Jensen, K. C., Schaeffer, D. F., Cheang, M., Montgomery, K., West, R. B., & van de Rijn, M. (2008). Characterization of a novel anti-fatty acid synthase (FASN) antiserum in breast tissue. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 21(12), 1413-1420.

New cutpoints to identify increased HER2 copy number: analysis of a large, population-based cohort with long-term follow-up
Jensen, K. C., Turbin, D. A., Leung, S., Miller, M. A., Johnson, K., & West, R. B. (2008). New cutpoints to identify increased HER2 copy number: analysis of a large, population-based cohort with long-term follow-up. BREAST CANCER RESEARCH AND TREATMENT, 112(3), 453-459.

KIT Gene Mutations and Copy Number in Melanoma Subtypes
Beadling, C., Jacobson-Dunlop, E., Hodi, F. S., Le, C., Warrick, A., & Corless, C. L. (2008). KIT Gene Mutations and Copy Number in Melanoma Subtypes. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 14(21), 6821-6828.

Immunohistochemical and Biogenetic Features of Diffuse-Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors: The Potential Roles of Cyclin A, P53, and Deletion of 15q in Sarcomatous Transformation
Huang, H.-Y., West, R. B., Tzeng, C.-C., van de Rijn, M., Wang, J.-W., & Li, C.-F. (2008). Immunohistochemical and Biogenetic Features of Diffuse-Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors: The Potential Roles of Cyclin A, P53, and Deletion of 15q in Sarcomatous Transformation. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 14(19), 6023-6032.

Diagnostic implications of podoplanin expression in peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms
Jokinen, C. H., Dadras, S. S., Goldblum, J. R., van de Rijn, M., West, R. B., & Rubin, B. P. (2008). Diagnostic implications of podoplanin expression in peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, 129(6), 886-893.

The fibromatosis signature defines a robust stromal response in breast carcinoma
Beck, A. H., Espinosa, I., Gilks, C. B., van de Rijn, M., & West, R. B. (2008). The fibromatosis signature defines a robust stromal response in breast carcinoma. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 88(6), 591-601.

Predictive value of tumor associated histiocytes in patients with leiomyosarcoma
Ganjoo, K. N., WITTEN, D., Patel, M., Espinosa, I., La, T., & van de Rijn, M. (2008). Predictive value of tumor associated histiocytes in patients with leiomyosarcoma. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 26(15).

Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone
Lee, C.-H., Espinosa, I., Jensen, K. C., Subramanian, S., Zhu, S. X., & West, R. B. (2008). Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 21(5), 531-539.

Prognostic significance of macrophage infiltration in leiomyosarcomas
Lee, C.-H., Espinosa, I., Vrijaldenhoven, S., Subramanian, S., Montgomery, K. D., & van de Rijn, M. (2008). Prognostic significance of macrophage infiltration in leiomyosarcomas. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 14(5), 1423-1430.

A novel monoclonal antibody against DOG1 is a sensitive and specific marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors
Espinosa, I., Lee, C.-H., Kim, M. K., Rouse, B.-T., Subramanian, S., & van de Rijn, M. (2008). A novel monoclonal antibody against DOG1 is a sensitive and specific marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 32(2), 210-218.

The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database
Marinelli, R. J., Montgomery, K., Liu, C. L., Shah, N. H., Prapong, W., & Ball, C. A. (2008). The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database. NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, 36, D871-D877.

The CSF-1 response signature in breast carcinoma
Beck, A. B., Espinosa, I., van de Rijn, M., & West, R. B. (2008). The CSF-1 response signature in breast carcinoma. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 21, 22A-22A.

A novel breast carcinoma stromal response defined by the Nodular Fasciitis gene signature
Cho, N. K., Beck, A. H., Espinosa, I., Montgomery, K., Zhu, S., & West, R. B. (2008). A novel breast carcinoma stromal response defined by the Nodular Fasciitis gene signature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 72(1), S686-S686.

HER2 status in a large, population-based cohort: Analysis of distinct HER2 subgroups
Jensen, K. C., Turbin, D. A., Leung, S., Miller, M. A., Johnson, K., & West, R. B. (2008). HER2 status in a large, population-based cohort: Analysis of distinct HER2 subgroups. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 88, 39A-39A.

Experimental approaches to the study of cancer-stroma interactions: recent findings suggest a pivotal role for stroma in carcinogenesis
West, R. B., & De Rijn, M. V. (2007). Experimental approaches to the study of cancer-stroma interactions: recent findings suggest a pivotal role for stroma in carcinogenesis. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 87(10), 967-970.

Translocation and expression of CSF1 in pigmented villonodular synovitis, tenosynovial giant cell tumor, rheumatoid arthritis and other reactive synovitides
Cupp, J. S., Miller, M. A., Montgomery, K. D., Nielsen, T. O., O'Connell, J. X., & West, R. B. (2007). Translocation and expression of CSF1 in pigmented villonodular synovitis, tenosynovial giant cell tumor, rheumatoid arthritis and other reactive synovitides. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 31(6), 970-976.

Oncogenic regulators and substrates of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome are frequently overexpressed in malignant tumors
Lehman, N. L., Tibshirani, R., Hsu, J. Y., Natkunam, Y., Harris, B. T., & Jackson, P. K. (2007). Oncogenic regulators and substrates of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome are frequently overexpressed in malignant tumors. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 170(5), 1793-1805.

Comparison of a new mouse monoclonal Anti-HER2/neu antibody to a rabbit polyclonal antibody
Turbin, D. A., Jensen, K., Leung, S., McKinney, S. E., Huntsman, D. G., & West, R. B. (2007). Comparison of a new mouse monoclonal Anti-HER2/neu antibody to a rabbit polyclonal antibody. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 87, 52A-52A.

Evaluation of Her-2/neu status in carcinomas with amplified chromosome 17 centromere locus
Troxell, M. L., Bangs, C. D., Lawce, H. J., Galperin, I. B., Baiyee, D., & Cherry, A. M. (2006). Evaluation of Her-2/neu status in carcinomas with amplified chromosome 17 centromere locus. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, 126(5), 709-716.

Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation
Sneddon, J. B., Zhen, H. H., Montgomery, K., van de Rijn, M., Tward, A. D., & Brown, P. O. (2006). Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 103(40), 14842-14847.

Upregulation of histidine decarboxylase expression in superficial cortical nephrons during pregnancy in mice and women
Morgan, T. K., Montgomery, K., Mason, V., West, R. B., Wang, L., & Higgins, J. P. (2006). Upregulation of histidine decarboxylase expression in superficial cortical nephrons during pregnancy in mice and women. KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL, 70(2), 306-314.

A landscape effect in tenosynovial giant-cell tumor from activation of CSF1 expression by a translocation in a minority of tumor cells
West, R. B., Rubin, B. P., Miller, M. A., Subramanian, S., Kaygusuz, G., & van de Rijn, M. (2006). A landscape effect in tenosynovial giant-cell tumor from activation of CSF1 expression by a translocation in a minority of tumor cells. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 103(3), 690-695.

Heat-shock protein-90 (HSP-90) expression in a spectrum of benign and malignant spindle cell neoplasms: An immunohistochemical study
Larson, A. J., Downs-Kelley, E., Skacel, M., Nielsen, T. O., Ruttan, C., & Goldblum, J. R. (2006). Heat-shock protein-90 (HSP-90) expression in a spectrum of benign and malignant spindle cell neoplasms: An immunohistochemical study. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 86, 13A-14A.

The role of microarray technologies in the study of soft tissue tumours
West, R. B., & van de Rijn, M. (2006). The role of microarray technologies in the study of soft tissue tumours. HISTOPATHOLOGY, 48(1), 22-31.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and gene amplification in a spectrum of spindle cell soft tissue neoplasms: A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical (IHC) study
Larson, A. J., Downs-Kelley, E., Skacel, M., Tubbs, R. R., Rubin, B. P., & Goldblum, J. R. (2006). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and gene amplification in a spectrum of spindle cell soft tissue neoplasms: A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical (IHC) study. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 19, 14A-14A.

Translocation and expression of CSF1 in pigmented villonodular synovitis, tenosynovial giant cell tumors, and reactive synovial lesions
Cupp, J. S., Rubin, B. P., Miller, M. A., Subramanian, S., Montgomery, K., & West, R. B. (2006). Translocation and expression of CSF1 in pigmented villonodular synovitis, tenosynovial giant cell tumors, and reactive synovial lesions. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 19, 10A-10A.

TMA-combiner, a simple software tool to permit analysis of replicate cores on tissue microarrays
Liu, C. L., Montgomery, K. D., Natkunam, Y., West, R. B., Nielsen, T. O., & Higgins, J. Pt. (2005). TMA-combiner, a simple software tool to permit analysis of replicate cores on tissue microarrays. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 18(12), 1641-1648.

The gene expression profile of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma
Subramanian, S., West, R. B., Marinelli, R. J., Nielsen, T. O., Rubin, B. P., & van de Rijn, M. (2005). The gene expression profile of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 206(4), 433-444.

Determination of stromal signatures in breast carcinoma
West, R. B., Nuyten, D. Sa., Subramanian, S., Nielsen, T. O., Corless, C. L., & van de Rijn, M. (2005). Determination of stromal signatures in breast carcinoma. PLOS BIOLOGY, 3(6), 1101-1110.

Expression of CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor) in normal tissues, lymphomas, carcinomas, and sarcomas is largely restricted to the monocyte/macrophage lineage
Nguyen, T. Dt., Schwartz, E. J., West, R. B., Warnke, R. A., Arber, D. A., & Natkunam, Y. (2005). Expression of CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor) in normal tissues, lymphomas, carcinomas, and sarcomas is largely restricted to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 29(5), 617-624.

Novel gene ANKS1 expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors
Kalof, A. N., West, R. B., Subramanian, S., Zhu, S., Montgomery, K., & Van vde Rijn, M. (2005). Novel gene ANKS1 expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 18, 16A-16A.

Nuclear beta-catenin in mesenchymal tumors
Ng, T. L., GOWN, A. M., Barry, T. S., Cheang, M. Cu., Chan, A. Kw., & Nielsen, T. O. (2005). Nuclear beta-catenin in mesenchymal tumors. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 18(1), 68-74.

CSF1R expression in soft tissue tumors
West, R. B., Kaygusuz, G., Subramanian, S., Corless, C. L., Rubin, B. P., & Brown, P. O. (2005). CSF1R expression in soft tissue tumors. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 18, 23A-23A.

CSF1 expression signature identifies a subset of breast carcinomas and influences outcome.
West, R. B., Horlings, H., Nuyten, D. Sa., Subramanian, S., Zhu, S. X., & van de Rijn, M. (2005). CSF1 expression signature identifies a subset of breast carcinomas and influences outcome. BREAST CANCER RESEARCH AND TREATMENT, 94, S135-S135.

Stromal expression signatures predict outcome in breast carcinoma
West, R. B., Nuyten, D. Sa., Subramanian, S., Corless, C., Rubin, B. P., & van de Rijn, M. (2005). Stromal expression signatures predict outcome in breast carcinoma. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 85, 55A-55A.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with KIT and PDGFRA mutations have distinct gene expression profiles
Subramanian, S., West, R. B., Corless, C. L., Ou, W. B., Rubin, B. P., & van de Rijn, M. (2004). Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with KIT and PDGFRA mutations have distinct gene expression profiles. ONCOGENE, 23(47), 7780-7790.

CD117 expression in mesothelioma
Arber, D. A., Weiss, L. M., & West, R. B. (2004). CD117 expression in mesothelioma. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 17(8), 1021-1021.

Apo D in soft tissue tumors - A novel marker for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans
West, R. B., Harvell, J., Linn, S. C., Lui, C. L., Prapong, W., & van de Rijn, M. (2004). Apo D in soft tissue tumors - A novel marker for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 28(8), 1063-1069.

The novel marker, DOG1, is expressed ubiquitously in gastrointestinal stromal tumors irrespective of KIT or PDGFRA mutation status
West, R. B., Corless, C. L., Chen, X., Rubin, B. P., Subramanian, S., & van de Rijn, M. (2004). The novel marker, DOG1, is expressed ubiquitously in gastrointestinal stromal tumors irrespective of KIT or PDGFRA mutation status. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 165(1), 107-113.

Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: similarities between tumors and wounds.
Chang, H. Y., Sneddon, J. B., Alizadeh, A. A., Sood, R., West, R. B., & Brown, P. O. (2004). Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: similarities between tumors and wounds. PLoS biology, 2(2), E7-?.

Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: Similarities between tumors and wounds
Chang, H. Y., Sneddon, J. B., Alizadeh, A. A., Sood, R., West, R. B., & Brown, P. O. (2004). Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: Similarities between tumors and wounds. PLOS BIOLOGY, 2(2), 206-214.

Gene expression patterns and gene copy number changes in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans
Linn, S. C., West, R. B., Pollack, J. R., Zhu, S., Hernandez-Boussard, T., & van de Rijn, M. (2003). Gene expression patterns and gene copy number changes in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 163(6), 2383-2395.

Tissue microarray validation of epidermal growth factor receptor and SALL2 in synovial sarcoma with comparison to tumors of similar histology
Nielsen, T. O., Hsu, F. D., O'Connell, J. X., Gilks, C. B., Sorensen, P. Hb., & van de Rijn, M. (2003). Tissue microarray validation of epidermal growth factor receptor and SALL2 in synovial sarcoma with comparison to tumors of similar histology. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 163(4), 1449-1456.

Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (ACGH) of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) on cDNA micorarrays using DNA isolated from fresh frozen and paraffin embedded tissue
Jensen, K., West, R. B., Zhu, S. X., Linn, S. C., Nielsen, T. O., & van de Rijn, M. (2003). Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (ACGH) of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) on cDNA micorarrays using DNA isolated from fresh frozen and paraffin embedded tissue. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 83(1), 15A-15A.

Expression profiling of fibromatosis by cDNA gene array analysis
Cheng, L., West, R. B., Zhu, S., Linn, S. C., Nielsen, T. O., & van de Rijn, M. (2003). Expression profiling of fibromatosis by cDNA gene array analysis. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 16(1), 10A-10A.

Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (ACGH) of dermatofibrosarconta protuberans (DFSP) on cDNA micorarrays using DNA isolated from fresh frozen and paraffin embedded tissue
Jensen, K., West, R. B., Zhu, S. X., Linn, S. C., Nielsen, T. O., & van de Rijn, M. (2003). Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (ACGH) of dermatofibrosarconta protuberans (DFSP) on cDNA micorarrays using DNA isolated from fresh frozen and paraffin embedded tissue. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 16(1), 15A-15A.

Novel gene FLJ10261 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors
West, R. B., Linn, S. C., Nielsen, T. O., Montgomery, K., Goldblum, J. R., & van de Rijn, M. (2003). Novel gene FLJ10261 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 16(1), 20A-20A.

Molecular characterisation of soft tissue tumours: a gene expression study
Nielsen, T. O., West, R. B., Linn, S. C., Alter, O., Knowling, M. A., & van de Rijn, M. (2002). Molecular characterisation of soft tissue tumours: a gene expression study. LANCET, 359(9314), 1301-1307.

The usefulness of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma in bone marrow biopsy specimens
West, R. B., Warnke, R. A., & Natkunam, Y. (2002). The usefulness of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma in bone marrow biopsy specimens. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, 117(4), 636-643.

The mRNA expression signature of solitary fibrous tumors
West, R. B., Linn, S. C., Foxman, E., Neilson, T., Zhu, S., & van de Rijn, M. (2002). The mRNA expression signature of solitary fibrous tumors. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 82(1), 24A-24A.

Tissue Microarray analysis of known and novel synovial sarcoma markers
Nielsen, T. O., O'Connell, J. X., Hsu, F. D., West, R. B., Linn, S. C., & van de Rijn, M. (2002). Tissue Microarray analysis of known and novel synovial sarcoma markers. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 82(1), 20A-20A.

Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans using cDNA microarrays
Linn, S. C., West, R. B., Zhu, S., Nielsen, T., Goldblum, J. R., & van de Rijn, M. (2002). Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans using cDNA microarrays. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 15(1), 18A-18A.

Tissue microarray analysis of CD44, p53, Ki-67 and bcl-2 as prognostic markers in rhabdomyosarcoma
Linn, S. C., West, R. B., Wijnaendts, L. C., Montgomery, K., Mitchell, J., & van de Rijn, M. (2002). Tissue microarray analysis of CD44, p53, Ki-67 and bcl-2 as prognostic markers in rhabdomyosarcoma. MODERN PATHOLOGY, 15(1), 312A-313A.

Distinction between low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and smooth muscle tumors by cDNA gene array analysis
West, R. B., Linn, S. C., Nielsen, T., Zhu, S., Longacre, T., & van de Rijn, M. (2002). Distinction between low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and smooth muscle tumors by cDNA gene array analysis. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, 82(1), 213A-214A.

The RAG-HMG1 complex enforces the 12/23 rule of V(D)J recombination specifically at the double-hairpin formation step
West, R. B., & Lieber, M. R. (1998). The RAG-HMG1 complex enforces the 12/23 rule of V(D)J recombination specifically at the double-hairpin formation step. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, 18(11), 6408-6415.

Productive and nonproductive complexes of Ku and DNA-dependent protein kinase at DNA termini
West, R. B., Yaneva, M., & Lieber, M. R. (1998). Productive and nonproductive complexes of Ku and DNA-dependent protein kinase at DNA termini. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, 18(10), 5908-5920.

Antigen receptor gene rearrangement
Grawunder, U., West, R. B., & Lieber, M. R. (1998). Antigen receptor gene rearrangement. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY, 10(2), 172-180.