Jeffrey Yao, MD

Hand and upper extremity surgeon

Assoc Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and, by courtesy, of Surgery at the Stanford University Medical Center

Hand and Upper Limb Center

  • 450 Broadway Street
  • Redwood City, CA 94063
  • Phone: 650-723-5256
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic

  • 1000 Welch Road
  • Palo Alto, CA 94304
  • Phone: 650-723-7001
Learn More About the Clinic Getting Here Make An Appointment

Professional Education

Fellowship: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (2005) PA

CAQ, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery, Added Qualification in Hand Surgery (2009)

Board Certification: Orthopaedic Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (2007)

Residency: Albert Einstein College of Medicine (2004) NY

Internship: Long Island Jewish Medical Center (2000) NY

Medical Education: Cornell University Medical College (1999) NY

MD, Philadelphia Hand Center - Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Hand Surgery (2005)

MD, Albert Einstein Med College NSUH-LIJ, Orthopaedic Surgery (2004)

MD, Cornell University Med College, Medicine (1999)

Honors & Awards

Best Paper of the AAOS Award, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (March 2013)

Distinguished Visiting Professorship, University of California San Francisco - Fresno Campus (February 2013)

Emanuel B. Kaplan Award, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (September 2012)

AOA-JOA Exchange Traveling Fellow, American Orthopaedic Association (May 2010)

Sumner L. Koch Award, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (September 2009)

Distinguished Visiting Professorship, Albert Einstein College of Medicine NSUH-LIJ Health System, New Hyde Park, NY (June 2009)

AFSH Basic Science Research Grant, American Foundation for Surgery of the Hand (2009-2010)

Distinguished Visiting Professorship, Wilcox Memorial Medical Center, Kauai, HI (Aug 2008)

Annual Research Competition, Philadelphia Hand Society (June, 2005)

Resident Competition and Symposium, Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation (OREF) (May, 2002)

Orthopaedic Surgery Resident of the Year, Albert Einstein College of Medicine / NSUH-LIJ Health System (2001)

Surgical Intern of the Year, Albert Einstein College of Medicine / NSUH-LIJ Health System (2000)

Administrative Appointments

Fellow, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2009 - Present)

Member, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (2004 - Present)

Member, Arthroscopy Association of North America (2010 - Present)

Member, American Association for Hand Surgery (2008 - Present)

Member, International Wrist Investigators Workshop (2009 - Present)

Member, Western Orthopaedic Association (2012 - Present)

Founding Member, Manus National Hand Surgery Society (2006 - Present)

Editor-in-Chief, Yearbook of Hand and Upper Limb Surgery (2009 - Present)

Deputy Editor, Hand (2009 - Present)

Guest Editor, Hand Clinics (2012 - 2012)

Guest Editor, Current Orthopaedic Practice (2011 - Present)

Contributing Editor, Yearbook of Hand and Upper Limb Surgery (2005 - 2008)

Manuscript Reviewer, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (2007 - Present)

Manuscript Reviewer, The Journal of Hand Surgery (2011 - Present)

Manuscript Reviewer, Tissue Engineering (2009 - Present)

Manuscript Reviewer, Journal of Orthopaedic Research (2006 - Present)

Manuscript Reviewer, Hand (2007 - Present)

Manuscript Reviewer, Annals of Plastic Surgery (2008 - Present)

Manuscript Reviewer, Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine (2005 - Present)

Manuscript Reviewer, The Physician and Sports Medicine (2005 - Present)

Thumb basal joint: Utilizing new technology for the treatment of a common problem.
Yao, J., & Lashgari, D. (2014). Thumb basal joint: Utilizing new technology for the treatment of a common problem. Journal of hand therapy , 27(2), 127-132.

Biomechanical comparison of 3 methods of scapholunate ligament reconstruction.
Lee, S. K., Zlotolow, D. A., Sapienza, A., Karia, R., & Yao, J. (2014). Biomechanical comparison of 3 methods of scapholunate ligament reconstruction. journal of hand surgery, 39(4), 643-650.

The wrist insufflation test: a confirmatory test for detecting intercarpal ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex tears.
Lee Master, D., & Yao, J. (2014). The wrist insufflation test: a confirmatory test for detecting intercarpal ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. Arthroscopy , 30(4), 451-455.

Prospective randomized comparison of single-incision and two-incision carpal tunnel release outcomes.
Castillo, T. N., & Yao, J. (2014). Prospective randomized comparison of single-incision and two-incision carpal tunnel release outcomes. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 9(1), 36-42.

Minimally Invasive Approaches to Ulnar-Sided Wrist Disorders
Pirolo, J. M., & Yao, J. (2014). Minimally Invasive Approaches to Ulnar-Sided Wrist Disorders. HAND CLINICS, 30(1), 77-?.

Incidence of failure of continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia in upper extremity surgery.
Ahsan, Z. S., Carvalho, B., & Yao, J. (2014). Incidence of failure of continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia in upper extremity surgery. journal of hand surgery, 39(2), 324-329.

Plating of metacarpal fractures with locked or nonlocked screws, a biomechanical study: how many cortices are really necessary?
Barr, C., Behn, A. W., & Yao, J. (2013). Plating of metacarpal fractures with locked or nonlocked screws, a biomechanical study: how many cortices are really necessary?. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 8(4), 454-459.

The Fragmented Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion Treated With Rib Autograft: Case Series and Review of the Literature
Yao, J., Read, B., & Hentz, V. R. (2013). The Fragmented Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion Treated With Rib Autograft: Case Series and Review of the Literature. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 38A(11), 2188-2192.

Outcomes of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Fixed With a Dynamic Compression System
Ahsan, Z. S., Song, Y., & Yao, J. (2013). Outcomes of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Fixed With a Dynamic Compression System. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 38A(8), 1520-1523.

Suture-button suspensionplasty for thumb carpometacarpal arthritis: a minimum 2-year follow-up.
Yao, J., & Song, Y. (2013). Suture-button suspensionplasty for thumb carpometacarpal arthritis: a minimum 2-year follow-up. journal of hand surgery, 38(6), 1161-1165.

Outcomes of ulnar shortening osteotomy fixed with a dynamic compression system.
Ahsan, Z. S., Song, Y., & Yao, J. (2013). Outcomes of ulnar shortening osteotomy fixed with a dynamic compression system. The Journal of hand surgery, 38(8), 1520-3.

The thumb carpometacarpal joint: anatomy, hormones, and biomechanics.
Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A.-P. C., Crisco, J. J., Hagert, E., Wolf, J. M., & Yao, J. (2013). The thumb carpometacarpal joint: anatomy, hormones, and biomechanics. Instructional course lectures, 62, 165-179.

Suture-Button Suspensionplasty for the Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis
Yao, J. (2012). Suture-Button Suspensionplasty for the Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis. HAND CLINICS, 28(4), 579-?.

The Effect of Suture Coated With Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bioactive Substrate on Tendon Repair Strength in a Rat Model
Yao, J., Woon, C. Y.-L., Behn, A., Korotkova, T., Park, D.-Y., & Smith, R. L. (2012). The Effect of Suture Coated With Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bioactive Substrate on Tendon Repair Strength in a Rat Model. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 37A(8), 1639-1645.

Complications of Wrist Arthroscopy
Ahsan, Z. S., & Yao, J. (2012). Complications of Wrist Arthroscopy. ARTHROSCOPY-THE JOURNAL OF ARTHROSCOPIC AND RELATED SURGERY, 28(6), 855-859.

All-Arthroscopic Repair of Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears Using FasT-Fix
Yao, J. (2011). All-Arthroscopic Repair of Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears Using FasT-Fix. HAND CLINICS, 27(3), 237-?.

Optimization of volar percutaneous screw fixation for scaphoid waist fractures using traction, positioning, imaging, and an angiocatheter guide.
Zlotolow, D. A., Knutsen, E., & Yao, J. (2011). Optimization of volar percutaneous screw fixation for scaphoid waist fractures using traction, positioning, imaging, and an angiocatheter guide. journal of hand surgery, 36(5), 916-921.

All-Arthroscopic Repair of Palmer 1B Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears Using the FasT-Fix Device
Yao, J., & Lee, A. T. (2011). All-Arthroscopic Repair of Palmer 1B Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears Using the FasT-Fix Device. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 36A(5), 836-842.

Color-Aided Visualization of Dorsal Wrist Ganglion Stalks Aids in Complete Arthroscopic Excision
Yao, J., & Trindade, M. Cd. (2011). Color-Aided Visualization of Dorsal Wrist Ganglion Stalks Aids in Complete Arthroscopic Excision. ARTHROSCOPY-THE JOURNAL OF ARTHROSCOPIC AND RELATED SURGERY, 27(3), 425-429.

Viability and Proliferation of Pluripotential Cells Delivered to Tendon Repair Sites Using Bioactive Sutures-An In Vitro Study
Yao, J., Korotkova, T., & Smith, R. L. (2011). Viability and Proliferation of Pluripotential Cells Delivered to Tendon Repair Sites Using Bioactive Sutures-An In Vitro Study. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 36A(2), 252-258.

Arthroscopic repair of the scapholunate interosseous ligament.
Stuffmann, E. S., McAdams, T. R., Shah, R. P., & Yao, J. (2010). Arthroscopic repair of the scapholunate interosseous ligament. Techniques in hand & upper extremity surgery, 14(4), 204-208.

Suture Button Compared With K-Wire Fixation for Maintenance of Posttrapeziectomy Space Height in a Cadaver Model of Lateral Pinch
Yao, J., Zlotolow, D. A., Murdock, R., & Christian, M. (2010). Suture Button Compared With K-Wire Fixation for Maintenance of Posttrapeziectomy Space Height in a Cadaver Model of Lateral Pinch. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 35A(12), 2061-2065.

Suture Button Suspensionplasty After Arthroscopic Hemitrapeziectomy for Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis
Cox, C. A., Zlotolow, D. A., & Yao, J. (2010). Suture Button Suspensionplasty After Arthroscopic Hemitrapeziectomy for Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis. ARTHROSCOPY-THE JOURNAL OF ARTHROSCOPIC AND RELATED SURGERY, 26(10), 1395-1403.

All-Arthroscopic Repair of Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears
Yao, J. (2010). All-Arthroscopic Repair of Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears. OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES IN SPORTS MEDICINE, 18(3), 168-172.

Tourniquet usage in upper extremity surgery.
Cox, C., & Yao, J. (2010). Tourniquet usage in upper extremity surgery. journal of hand surgery, 35(8), 1360-1361.

Electrocautery Use in Hand Surgery: History, Physics, and Appropriate Usage
Cox, C., & Yao, J. (2010). Electrocautery Use in Hand Surgery: History, Physics, and Appropriate Usage. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 35A(3), 489-490.

Perioperative steroid dosing in patients receiving chronic oral steroids, undergoing outpatient hand surgery.
Fleager, K., & Yao, J. (2010). Perioperative steroid dosing in patients receiving chronic oral steroids, undergoing outpatient hand surgery. journal of hand surgery, 35(2), 316-318.

Referring Physicians' Knowledge of Hand Surgery
Curtin C, & Yao J. (2010). Referring Physicians' Knowledge of Hand Surgery. Hand (NY), 5(3).

Clinical Assessment of the Wrist
Yao J, Skirven T, Osterman AL, & Culp RW. (2010). Clinical Assessment of the Wrist. The Wrist: Diagnosis and Operative Treatment.

Monteggia Fracture-Dislocation Associated with Proximal and Distal Radioulnar Joint Instability A Case Report
Cheung, E. V., & Yao, J. (2009). Monteggia Fracture-Dislocation Associated with Proximal and Distal Radioulnar Joint Instability A Case Report. JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 91A(4), 950-954.

All-Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Repair: Safety and Biomechanical Comparison With a Traditional Outside-in Technique in Cadavers
Yao, J. (2009). All-Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Repair: Safety and Biomechanical Comparison With a Traditional Outside-in Technique in Cadavers. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 34A(4), 671-676.

Arthroscopic Treatment of Triangular Fibrocartilage Wrist Injuries in the Athlete
McAdams, T. R., Swan, J., & Yao, J. (2009). Arthroscopic Treatment of Triangular Fibrocartilage Wrist Injuries in the Athlete. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 37(2), 291-297.

Surgical treatment of thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis: a single institution experience from 1995-2005.
Park, M. J., Lichtman, G., Christian, J. B., Weintraub, J., Chang, J., & Yao, J. (2008). Surgical treatment of thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis: a single institution experience from 1995-2005. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 3(4), 304-310.

Bioactive Sutures for Tendon Repair: Assessment of a Method of Delivering Pluripotential Embryonic Cells
Yao, J., Korotkova, T., Riboh, J., Chong, A., Chang, J., & Smith, R. L. (2008). Bioactive Sutures for Tendon Repair: Assessment of a Method of Delivering Pluripotential Embryonic Cells. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 33A(9), 1558-1564.

Early treatment of degenerative arthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint
Yao, J., & Park, M. J. (2008). Early treatment of degenerative arthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint. HAND CLINICS, 24(3), 251-?.

Update on the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex
Lee AT, & Yao J. (2008). Update on the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex. Current Orthopaedic Practice, Zlotolow D (Ed), 19(5).

A novel technique of all-inside arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex repair
Yao, J., Dantuluri, P., & Osterman, A. L. (2007). A novel technique of all-inside arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex repair. ARTHROSCOPY-THE JOURNAL OF ARTHROSCOPIC AND RELATED SURGERY, 23(12).

Tumours of the hand
Hsu, C. S., Hentz, V. R., & Yao, J. (2007). Tumours of the hand. LANCET ONCOLOGY, 8(2), 157-166.

Arthroscopic Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis
Yao J, & Culp RW. (2007). Arthroscopic Treatment of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis. Master Skills in Wrist and Elbow Arthroscopy and Reconstruction. Trumble TE, Budoff JE, eds. American Society for Surgery of the Hand..

Late Reconstruction for Ulnar Nerve Palsy
Tse, R., Hentz VR, & Yao J. (2007). Late Reconstruction for Ulnar Nerve Palsy. Hand Clinics, 23(3).

Arthroscopic Techniques for Wrist Arthritis (Radial Styloidectomy and Proximal Pole Hamate Excisions
Yao J, & Osterman AL. (2005). Arthroscopic Techniques for Wrist Arthritis (Radial Styloidectomy and Proximal Pole Hamate Excisions. Hand Clinics, 21(4).

MRI detection of forearm soft tissue injuries with radial head fractures.
McGinley, J. C., Gold, G., Cheung, E., & Yao, J. (2014). MRI detection of forearm soft tissue injuries with radial head fractures. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 9(1), 87-92.

Biomechanical Comparison of Volar Locked Plate Constructs Using Smooth and Threaded Locking Pegs
Yao, J., Park, M. J., & Patel, C. S. (2014). Biomechanical Comparison of Volar Locked Plate Constructs Using Smooth and Threaded Locking Pegs. ORTHOPEDICS, 37(2), E169-E173.

Fracture Fixation
Cox C, & Yao J. Fracture Fixation. Plastic Surgery: Hand Volume, Chang, ed.

Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunions Treated with Rib Autograft
Yao J, & Read B. Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunions Treated with Rib Autograft. The Scaphoid, Slutsky ed.

Elbow Instability
Park MJ, & Yao J. Elbow Instability. Musculoskeletal Examination of the Elbow Wrist and Hand, Culp, ed..

Diagnosis and Treatment of DRUJ/TFCC Injuries
Park MJ, & Yao J. Diagnosis and Treatment of DRUJ/TFCC Injuries. Musculoskeletal Examination of the Elbow, Wrist and Hand, Culp, ed..

Synthesis and characterization of novel elastomeric poly(D,L-lactide urethane) maleate composites for bone tissue engineering
Mercado-Pagan, A. E., Kang, Y., Ker, D. F. E., Park, S., Yao, J., & Yang, Y. P. (2013). Synthesis and characterization of novel elastomeric poly(D,L-lactide urethane) maleate composites for bone tissue engineering. EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, 49(10), 3337-3349.

Suture button suspension following trapeziectomy in a cadaver model.
Song, Y., Cox, C. A., & Yao, J. (2013). Suture button suspension following trapeziectomy in a cadaver model. Hand (New York, N.Y.), 8(2), 195-200.

Preface
Yao, J. (2012). Preface. HAND CLINICS, 28(4), XIII-XIV.

Titanium Integration With Bone, Welding, and Screw Head Destruction Complicating Hardware Removal of the Distal Radius: Report of 2 Cases
Van Nortwick, S. S., Yao, J., & Ladd, A. L. (2012). Titanium Integration With Bone, Welding, and Screw Head Destruction Complicating Hardware Removal of the Distal Radius: Report of 2 Cases. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 37A(7), 1388-1392.

Trapezial Metastasis as the First Indication of Primary Non-small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Song, Y., & Yao, J. (2012). Trapezial Metastasis as the First Indication of Primary Non-small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 37A(6), 1242-1244.

Lunate Fractures in the Face of a Perilunate Injury: An Uncommon and Easily Missed Injury Pattern
Briseno, M. R., & Yao, J. (2012). Lunate Fractures in the Face of a Perilunate Injury: An Uncommon and Easily Missed Injury Pattern. JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME, 37A(1), 63-67.

The use of smartphones in hand surgery.
Barr, C., & Yao, J. (2012). The use of smartphones in hand surgery. journal of hand surgery, 37(1), 168-170.

Soft Tissue Tumors of the Wrist
Lee A, & Yao J. (2010). Soft Tissue Tumors of the Wrist. The Principles and Practice of Wrist Surgery, Slutsky ed.

Soft Tissue Coverage of Fingertip Amputations
Ford C, & Yao J. (2010). Soft Tissue Coverage of Fingertip Amputations. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery, Hunt, ed..

Perilunate and Lunate Dislocations and Greater Arc Injuries
Jagadish A, & Yao J. (2010). Perilunate and Lunate Dislocations and Greater Arc Injuries. The Prinicples and Practice of Wrist Surgery, Slutsky ed.

Surgical Treatment of Acute and Chronic Paronychia and Felons
Stuffmann E, & Yao J. (2010). Surgical Treatment of Acute and Chronic Paronychia and Felons. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery, Hunt, ed..

Surgical Treatment of Deep Space Infections of the Hand
Stuffmann E, & Yao J. (2010). Surgical Treatment of Deep Space Infections of the Hand. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery, Hunt, ed.

The History of Distal Radius Fractures
Imrie M, & Yao J. (2009). The History of Distal Radius Fractures. Fractures and Injuries of the Distal Radius and Carpus: The Cutting Edge., Slutsky ed(Elsevier).

Distal Radius Fracture Fixation Systems
Mudgal C, & Yao J. (2008). Distal Radius Fracture Fixation Systems. The Fractured Wrist, Ring ed.(May).

Late reconstruction for ulnar nerve palsy
Tse, R., Hentz, V. R., & Yao, J. (2007). Late reconstruction for ulnar nerve palsy. HAND CLINICS, 23(3), 373-?.

Reduction of high-grade isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis in 5 adolescents.
Lonner, B. S., Song, E. W., Scharf, C. L., & Yao, J. (2007). Reduction of high-grade isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis in 5 adolescents. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.), 36(7), 367-373.

Arthroscopic Treatment of Radial-Sided TFCC Lesions
Weintraub JL, Osterman AL, & Yao J. (2007). Arthroscopic Treatment of Radial-Sided TFCC Lesions. Wrist and Hand Arthroscopy - A Practical Approach, Slutsky DJ, ed..

Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes in Distal Radius Fractures
Ladd AL, Pliam N, & Yao J. (2007). Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes in Distal Radius Fractures. Hand Surgery Update 4.

The use of bone grafts and bone graft substitutes in distal radius fractures.
Yao J, & Ladd AL. (2006). The use of bone grafts and bone graft substitutes in distal radius fractures. Atlas of Hand Clinics, 11(2).

Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthroscopy and Hemitrapeziectomy
Yao J, & Culp RW. (2006). Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthroscopy and Hemitrapeziectomy. Online protocols, International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH).

Double Crush Syndrome
Yao J, & Osterman AL. (2006). Double Crush Syndrome. Peripheral Nerve Surgery: Practical Applications in the Upper Extremity. Slutsky DJ & Hentz VR, eds. Elsevier..

Surgical Arthroplasty Options for Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy
Yao J, Dines D, & Warren R. (2003). Surgical Arthroplasty Options for Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy. Techniques in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 4(1).

Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis: Sensitivity of Sonography, Cholescintigraphy and Combined Sonography-Cholescintigraphy
Kalimi R, Gecelter GR, Caplin D, Yao J, Simms HH, & CP. (2001). Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis: Sensitivity of Sonography, Cholescintigraphy and Combined Sonography-Cholescintigraphy. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 193(6).

Seroswitch : Adenovirus-mediated in vivo Gene Transfer : Circumvention of Anti-Adenovirus Humoral Immune Defenses Against Repeat Adenovirus Vector Administration by Changing the Adenovirus Serotype
Mastrangeli A, Harvey BG, Yao J, & Crystal RG. (1996). Seroswitch : Adenovirus-mediated in vivo Gene Transfer : Circumvention of Anti-Adenovirus Humoral Immune Defenses Against Repeat Adenovirus Vector Administration by Changing the Adenovirus Serotype. Human Gene Therapy, 7.