Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in the HIV-1-infected urban indigent population in San Francisco: a representative study INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STD & AIDS Holodniy, M., Charlebois, E. D., Bangsberg, D. R., Zolopa, A. R., Schulte, M., Moss, A. R. 2004; 15 (8): 543-551


We determined the prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) resistance in HIV-1 infected indigent persons in San Francisco, California. Three hundred and twenty-seven subjects (159 (49%) ARV naïve, and 168 (51%) ARV-experienced), were recruited during 1996-97 and 1999-2000. Plasma HIV-1 viral load quantification and genotypic resistance testing were performed. Twice as many subjects received nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs); resistance mutation prevalences were 30%, 14% and 16% respectively. Risk of any resistance mutations was strongly and independently associated with prior ARV exposure (OR = 1.3 per year of exposure, P < 0.0001) and with ARV exposure prior to HAART (OR = 2.5, P = 0.015). Prevalences of primary ARV resistance mutations among both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced subjects in this indigent urban population are low compared to other observational cohorts, are directly related to length and type of prior ARV exposure, and did not increase significantly between recruitment periods.

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View details for PubMedID 15307966