Coarctation of the aorta (CoA). In this condition, the aorta is narrowed or constricted, obstructing blood flow to the lower part of the body and increasing blood pressure above the constriction. Usually there are no symptoms at birth, but they can develop as early as the first week after birth. If severe symptoms of high blood pressure and congestive heart failure develop, and surgery may be considered.
Aortic stenosis (AS). In this condition, the aortic valve between the left ventricle and the aorta did not form properly and is narrowed, making it difficult for the heart to pump blood to the body. A normal valve has three leaflets or cusps, but a stenotic valve may have only one cusp (unicuspid) or two cusps (bicuspid).
Although aortic stenosis may not cause symptoms, it may worsen over time, and surgery may be needed to correct the blockage - or the valve may need to be replaced with an artificial one.
Pulmonary stenosis (PS). The pulmonary, or pulmonic, valve, located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, opens to allow blood to flow from the right ventricle to the lungs. When a defective pulmonary valve does not open properly, it causes the heart to pump harder than normal to overcome the obstruction. Usually, the obstruction can be corrected by balloon valvuloplasty, although in some patients, open heart surgery may be needed.
Bicuspid aortic valve. In this condition, an infant is born with a bicuspid valve that has only two flaps. (A normal aortic valve has three flaps that open and close). If the valve becomes narrowed, it is more difficult for the blood to flow through, and often the blood leaks backward. Symptoms usually do not develop during childhood, but are often detected during the adult years.
Subaortic stenosis. This condition refers to a narrowing of the left ventricle just below the aortic valve. Normally, blood passes through it to go into the aorta. However, subaortic stenosis limits the blood flow out of the left ventricle, often resulting in an increased workload for the left ventricle. Subaortic stenosis may be congenital or caused by a form of cardiomyopathy.
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