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The American Society of Clinical Oncologists (ASCO) classifies VHL as a "group 1" disorder, which means that genetic testing (in this case for mutations in the VHL gene) is considered part of the standard management for first-degree relatives (parent, siblings, children) of affected individuals. For persons who are mutation-positive, annual screening to detect tumors before severe complications develop is recommended. Genetic testing of unaffected relatives is only useful if a germline mutation has already been identified in an affected family member.