Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Frostbite WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE McIntosh, S. E., Hamonko, M., Freer, L., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Cochran, A., Giesbrecht, G., McDevitt, M., Imray, C. H., Johnson, E., Dow, J., Hackett, P. H. 2011; 22 (2): 156-166


The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.

View details for Web of Science ID 000292013700012

View details for PubMedID 21664561