We have shown that activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) promotes cell survival and expression of cytokines such as growth-regulated oncogene-alpha, which can modulate angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Activation of NF-kappa B and cytoprotective genes in cancer may result from signal-induced phosphorylation and proteasome-dependent degradation of inhibitor-kappa B. In this study, we examined the effects of the novel proteasome inhibitor PS-341 on activation of NF-kappa B and cell survival, growth, and angiogenesis in murine and human SCC cell lines. PS-341 inhibited activation of NF-kappa B DNA binding and functional reporter activity at concentrations between 10(-8) and 10(-7) M. Cytotoxicity was observed at 10(-7) M in four murine and two human SCC lines, and followed early cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a marker of caspase-mediated apoptosis. In vivo, PS-341 inhibited growth of murine and human SCC in mice at doses of 1--2 mg/kg given three times weekly, and dose-limiting toxicity was encountered at 2 mg/kg. Tumor growth inhibition was associated with a marked decrease in vessel density. PS-341 inhibited expression of the proangiogenic cytokines growth-regulated oncogene-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor by SCC in the range at which PS-341 inhibits NF-kappa B. We conclude that PS-341 inhibits activation of NF-kappa B pathway components related to cell survival, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in SCC.
View details for Web of Science ID 000168768500044
View details for PubMedID 11350913