The Evolution and Refinement of Traditional Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease CARDIOLOGY IN REVIEW deGoma, E. M., Knowles, J. W., Angeli, F., Budoff, M. J., Rader, D. J. 2012; 20 (3): 118-129


Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as systemic hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, all described more than half a century ago, are relatively few in number. Efforts to expand the epidemiologic canon have met with limited success because of the high hurdle of causality. Fortunately, another solution to current deficiencies in risk assessment-in particular, the underestimation of risk both before and after initiation of pharmacotherapy-may exist. Parallel to the investigation of novel biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ongoing research has yielded improved metrics of known causative conditions. This evolution of traditional risk factors, heralded by measures such as ambulatory blood pressure, central hemodynamics, low density lipoprotein particle concentration, genetic testing, and "vascular age," may better address the detection gap in cardiovascular disease.

View details for DOI 10.1097/CRD.0b013e318239b924

View details for Web of Science ID 000302772500004

View details for PubMedID 22183062

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3310946