Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) is a rare form of exuberant reactive endothelial proliferation that can mimic neoplasm. We report the largest series of patients with histologically confirmed intracranial extravascular PEH developing in the field of previous treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery.We collected the clinical, radiological, surgical, and pathological findings from 4 patients in whom intracranial extravascular PEH developed after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery. In all patients, the development of an enlarging hemorrhagic mass lesion at the site of previous radiotherapy on magnetic resonance imaging was radiographically suspicious for neoplasm and prompted biopsy or resection. All 4 patients elected to undergo biopsy or surgical resection. Histological examination of the biopsy and resection specimens in all patients demonstrated the classic features of PEH.The interval to the development of PEH ranged from 5 months to 6 years, 10 months. Clinical follow-up was available for 3 of the 4 patients. None of these 3 patients have demonstrated evidence of recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (range, 15-30 months). These patients share common radiological features, potentially allowing preoperative diagnosis and improved guidance of clinical management. These cases suggest a link between radiosurgery and the development of PEH. These findings also suggest that PEH should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients treated with radiosurgery in whom a hemorrhagic mass lesion subsequently develops at or near the site of previous treatment. We think that complete surgical excision is the best treatment for intracranial PEH.
View details for DOI 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31822e81f9
View details for Web of Science ID 000301934000010
View details for PubMedID 22426048