The Whipple procedure traditionally is associated with an operative mortality of 20 to 25 percent. As a result, percutaneous and endoscopic techniques have been advocated to alleviate symptoms in patients with periampullary carcinoma. Now, dramatic reductions in operative mortality rates have been reported. Since radical pancreaticoduodenectomy is the only treatment for cure, a re-evaluation of the role of this procedure is warranted.
View details for PubMedID 2300278