The study aims to better understand the reappearance of sleep apnoea in adolescents considered cured of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) following adenotonsillectomy and orthodontic treatment.The study employs a retrospective analysis of 29 adolescents (nine girls and 20 boys) with OSA previously treated with adenotonsillectomy and orthodontia at a mean age of 7.5years. During follow-up at 11 and 14years of age, patients were clinically evaluated, filled the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and had systematic cephalometric X-rays performed by orthodontists. Polysomnographic (PSG) data were compared at the time of OSA diagnosis, following surgical and orthodontic treatment and during pubertal follow-up evaluation.Following the diagnosis of OSA and treatment with adenotonsillectomy and rapid maxillary expansion (Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) 0.4±0.4), children were re-evaluated at a mean age of 11years. During follow-up at 14years, all children had normal body mass indices (BMIs). Teenagers were subdivided into two groups based on complaints: Nine asymptomatic subjects (seven girls and two boys) and 20 subjects with decline in school performance, presence of fatigue, indicators of sleep-phase delays and, less frequently, specific symptoms of daytime sleepiness and snoring. Presence of mouth breathing, abnormal AHI and RDI and significant reduction of posterior airway space (PAS) was demonstrated during repeat polysomnography and cephalometry. Compared to cephalometry obtained at a mean of 11years of age, there was a significant reduction of PAS of 2.3±0.4mm at a mean age of 14years.Previously suggested recurrence of OSA during teenage years has again been demonstrated in this small group of subjects. Prospective investigations are needed to establish frequency of risk, especially in non-orthodontically treated children.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.sleep.2012.08.010
View details for PubMedID 23026504