The recent development of optogenetics, a revolutionary research tool in neuroscience, portends an evolution of current clinical neuromodulation tools. A form of gene therapy, optogenetics makes possible highly precise spatial and temporal control of specific neuronal populations. This technique has already provided several new insights relevant to clinical neuroscience, from the physiological substrate of functional magnetic resonance imaging to the mechanism of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. The increased precision of optogenetic techniques also raises the possibility of eventual human use. Translational efforts have begun in primates, with success reported from multiple labs in rhesus macaques. These developments will remain of ongoing interest to neurologists and neurosurgeons.
View details for DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-404706-8.00010-3
View details for PubMedID 23206683