This study aimed to develop expert consensus for the use of systemic treatments for unresectable metastatic well-differentiated (grade 1-2) carcinoid tumors using the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi process.After a comprehensive literature review, 404 patient scenarios addressing the use of systemic treatments for carcinoid tumors were constructed. A multidisciplinary panel of 10 physicians assessed the scenarios as appropriate, inappropriate, or uncertain (on a 1-9 scale) or as an area of disagreement before and after an extended discussion of the evidence.Experts were medical and surgical oncologists, interventional radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Among rated scenarios, disagreement decreased from 14% before the meeting to 4% after. Consensus statements about midgut carcinoids included the following: (1) Somatostatin analogs are appropriate as first-line therapy for all patients; (2) In patients with uncontrolled secretory symptoms, it is appropriate to increase the dose/frequency of octreotide long-acting repeatable up to 60 mg every 4 weeks or up to 40 mg every 3 weeks as second-line therapy for refractory carcinoid syndrome. Other options may also be appropriate. Consensus was similar for non-midgut carcinoids.The Delphi process provided a structured methodological approach to assist clinician experts in reaching consensus on the appropriateness of specific medical therapies for the treatment of advanced carcinoid tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MPA.0b013e31826d3a17
View details for Web of Science ID 000316201700003
View details for PubMedID 23211372