Following metabolic stress a variety of gene products are induced in cells in the brain, some of which may protect the tissue from subsequent stresses. The heat shock proteins (hsps), in particular hsp70, have been widely studied in this context, but evidence for the involvement of known hsps in protection of the CNS is inconclusive. We have therefore undertaken the search for other stress-induced proteins which may mitigate ischemic injury. Beginning with degenerate RT-PCR, we have isolated a rat-brain cDNA encoding a protein highly similar to human grp75, a mitochondrial member of the hsp70-family of stress proteins. It is also highly similar to two non-mitochondrial proteins; mortalin, a senescence-related gene product, and pbp74, a protein implicated in B-cell peptide processing. Sequence structure and phylogenetic analyses predict mitochondrial localization and induction by a calcium ionophore and glucose deprivation in PC12 cells support its identification as rat grp75. In situ analysis of normal brain reveals an unusual distribution, with very high expression in neurons of the basal forebrain, reticular and subthalamic nuclei, globus pallidus, amygdala and elsewhere. grp75-mRNA is upregulated following focal brain ischemia in a distinctive fashion. When the degree of injury is small, induction occurs in the area of injury, similar to the pattern observed for hsp70. However, when the injury is extensive, hsr is upregulated in neurons outside the ischemic area. The induction of grp75 may represent a sensitive marker of metabolically compromised tissue.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995QW01500011
View details for PubMedID 7629893