Inhibitors of IMP dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124), including mizoribine (Bredinin) and mycophenolic acid, have significant antitumor and immunosuppressive activities. Studies were aimed at determining the mechanism by which intracellular GTP depletion induced by these agents results in inhibition of DNA synthesis. Incubation of human CEM leukemia cells for 2 hr with IC50 concentrations of either mizoribine (4 microM) or mycophenolic acid (0.5 microM) reduced cellular GTP levels an average of 68% or 58%, respectively, compared with the levels in control cells. Under similar conditions, mizoribine and mycophenolic acid decreased the amount of [3H]adenosine incorporated into primer RNA by 75% and 70%, respectively, relative to the untreated controls, but had no significant effect on total RNA synthesis. Repletion of the guanine nucleotide pools by coincubation of CEM cells with guanosine plus 8-aminoguanosine prevented both the inhibition of primer RNA synthesis and the inhibition of tumor cell growth induced by these agents. Additional studies demonstrated that GTP depletion alone was capable of directly inducing inhibition of primer RNA synthesis. Primer RNA synthesis was inhibited an average of 84% in whole-cell lysates that lacked GTP but contained all remaining ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. On an M13 DNA template, RNA-primed DNA synthesis catalyzed by the purified complex of DNA primase (EC 126.96.36.199) and DNA polymerase alpha (EC 188.8.131.52) was decreased an average of 70% in the absence of GTP, compared with synthesis in the presence of 0.5 mM GTP. These results provide evidence that mizoribine and mycophenolic acid inhibit DNA replication by inducing GTP depletion, which suppresses the synthesis of RNA-primed DNA intermediates.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995QX97900009
View details for PubMedID 7746281