Loss of three-dimensional canine mitral annular systolic contraction with reduced left ventricular volumes. Circulation Glasson, J. R., Komeda, M., Daughters, G. T., Bolger, A. F., Ingels, N. B., Miller, D. C. 1996; 94 (9): II152-8


We have recently described an inhomogeneous pattern of systolic contraction of the mitral annulus (MA) in normovolemic dogs: the posterior annulus shortens, and the anterior annulus lengthens. MA dynamics, however, have not been studied in volume-depleted hearts.Eight radiopaque markers were placed equidistant from each other around the MA in seven dogs. As viewed from the left atrium, the segment between markers 1 and 2 (seg12) began at the posteromedial commissure, and remaining segments were numbered sequentially clockwise around the MA (ie, posterior MA encompassed seg12, seg23, seg34, and seg45; anterior MA encompassed seg56, seg67, seg78, and seg81). Marker images were obtained in sedated dogs by simultaneous biplane videofluoroscopy 7 to 12 days after marker implantation, and three-dimensional marker coordinates at end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) were computed. Vena caval occlusion (VCO) was used to reduce left ventricular end-diastolic volume to 70 +/- 5% of baseline (BL). With VCO, mean MA area did not change from ED to ES (3.4 +/- 0.8 versus 3.6 +/- 0.7 cm2, P = NS) during the cardiac cycle. MA segmental systolic shortening values (negative values indicate lengthening) were as follows for BL and VCO, respectively (mean +/- SD): seg12, 7 +/- 9% and 0 +/- 13%; seg23, 8 +/- 10%* and 1 +/- 11%; seg34, 16 +/- 6%* and 4 +/- 9% seg45, 10 +/- 7%* and 2 +/- 13%; seg56, -4 +/- 5%* and -16 +/- 11%*; seg67, -7 +/- 7%* and -14 +/- 7%*; seg78, 3 +/- 2%* and -1 +/- 6%; and seg81, 6 +/- 5%* and -5 +/- 11% (*P < or = .05 versus zero changes, paired t test).With acute volume depletion, the five annular segments that shortened at BL no longer changed length; two anterior segments (seg56 and seg67) that lengthened at BL continued to lengthen significantly, and to a greater extent. These findings indicate that the anterior MA is a more dynamic structure than previously thought. Such dynamic motion may be important for normal mitral valvular function and possibly needs to be taken into account in the design of mitral valve reparative techniques.

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