The clinical nature and formal diagnosis of premenstrual, postpartum, and perimenopausal affective disorders. Current psychiatry reports Rapkin, A. J., Mikacich, J. A., Moatakef-Imani, B., Rasgon, N. 2002; 4 (6): 419-428


Various mood and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in reproductive-aged women, and appear to be linked to hormonal and reproductive events. Premenstrual affective disorders consist of premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and premenstrual exacerbation of mood or anxiety disorders. Postpartum affective disorders can range from postpartum "blues" to postpartum depression with or without psychosis, and also include anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In perimenopausal women, the vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders is increased. All of these disorders share risk factors, and have etiologic features in common, such as exposure to the rise and fall of ovarian sex steroids. The following is a review of these syndromes and their etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

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