Periprosthetic membranes commonly observed at sites of total joint implant loosening exhibit abundant macrophages and particulate debris. Macrophages phagocytose orthopedic debris and release the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and prostaglandin E2. In addition, other immunologic agents, such as interferon-gamma, are present in tissues harvested from the bone-implant interface of failed orthopedic implants. The present study examined the effects of interferon-gamma on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-challenged monocyte/macrophages in vitro. The effects of interferon-gamma were determined by measuring interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by primary human monocyte/macrophages following exposure to PMMA particles. Exposure of the monocyte/macrophages to PMMA particles resulted in a dose-dependent release of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at 48 h. The interleukin-6 release in response to PMMA particle challenge was stimulated by 76% and 127% in the presence of 1.0 and 10.0 ng/mL of interferon-gamma, respectively. Interferon-gamma challenge alone did not alter interleukin-6 release relative to controls. In contrast to interleukin-6, interferon-gamma challenge stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of particles, addition of 1.0 and 10.0 ng/mL of interferon-gamma resulted in 17% and 171% increases in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release, respectively, relative to cultures challenged solely with particles. Blocking antibody to IFN-gamma inhibited the effect of IFN-gamma on particle-induced interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha release. The data presented in this study demonstrate that the immunologic modulator interferon-gamma exacerbates monocyte/macrophage release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in response to PMMA particle challenge in vitro.
View details for PubMedID 10400874