Attenuation of nitric oxide synthase isoform expression by mild hypothermia after focal cerebral ischemia: variations depending on timing of cooling JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Karabiyikoglu, M., Han, H. S., Yenari, M. A., Steinberg, G. K. 2003; 98 (6): 1271-1276


In this study the authors examined the influence of mild hypothermia on early expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and peroxynitrite generation after experimental stroke.In 82 male Sprague-Dawley rats, middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed for 2 hours by using the intraluminal suture model. The rats were maintained at their normal body temperature or exposed to 2 hours of intraischemic or postischemic (2-hour delay) mild hypothermia. Brains were collected 2, 6, and 24 hours after onset of ischemia for immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of neuronal (n)NOS and inducible (i)NOS expression and peroxynitrite generation.Western blots showed significantly increased nNOS and iNOS expression in the ischemic cortex at 2, 6, and 24 hours compared with sham-operated animals. The NOS expression was highest at 24 hours. Postischemic hypothermia attenuated nNOS expression at 6 and 24 hours to a greater extent than intraischemic hypothermia. Intraischemic hypothermia reduced iNOS expression at both 2 and 24 hours, whereas postischemic hypothermia decreased iNOS expression at 24 hours. Results of immunohistochemical studies showed that nNOS colocalized with the neuronal marker MAP-2 at all time points, whereas iNOS was initially localized to vessels, and then localized to activated microglia by 24 hours. Intraischemic but not postischemic hypothermia decreased the number of nitrotyrosine-positive cells in the ischemic cortex at 24 hours. Mild hypothermia significantly but differentially attenuates increases in NOS isoforms, with more robust nNOS suppression when cooling is delayed. This may have important implications for understanding the mechanism of hypothermic neuroprotection and for stroke therapy.

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View details for PubMedID 12816275