Carbon Dioxide Contrast Enhancement for C-Arm CT Utility for Treatment Planning during Hepatic Embolization Procedures. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology Wong, A. A., Charalel, R. A., Louie, J. D., Sze, D. Y. 2013; 24 (7): 975-980


A pilot study was performed to evaluate the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a contrast medium for C-arm computed tomography (CT). C-arm CT using CO2 was performed during embolization procedures in12 patients with hepatic malignancies and severe iodine allergy or high risk for nephrotoxicity. C-arm CT using gadolinium or iodinated contrast medium was performed for comparison. Of segmental arteries identified by conventional contrast enhancement, 96% were also seen with CO2 enhancement, but subsegmental arteries were not reliably depicted. CO2 enhancement identified 60% of tumors. Small, hypovascular, and infiltrative tumors were difficult to detect. CO2 is a promising alternative intraarterial contrast agent for C-arm CT.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2013.03.029

View details for PubMedID 23796085