In summary, ZES is a syndrome caused by gastrinoma, usually located within the gastrinoma triangle and associated with symptoms of peptic ulcer disease, GERD, and diarrhea. The diagnosis of ZES is made by measuring fasting levels of serum gastrin, BAO, and the secretin stimulation test. Because of the high association of ZES and MEN1, HPT must be excluded by obtaining a serum calcium and parathyroid hormone level. Treatment of ZES consists of medical control of symptoms with PPIs and evaluation for potentially curative surgical intervention. Noninvasive imaging studies including SRS, CT, and MRI should be performed initially to evaluate for metastases and identify resectable disease. Invasive imaging modalities such as EUS may be performed to further evaluate primary tumors. IOUS, palpation, and duodenotomy are used for intraoperative localization of gastrinomas. In patients with MEN1, surgical resection should be pursued only if there is an identifiable tumor larger than 2 cm and after surgery for the primary hyperparathyroidism (3 1/2-gland parathyroidectomy). All patients with resectable localized sporadic gastrinoma should undergo surgical exploration, even those with biochemical evidence but negative imaging studies. Tumor is most commonly found in the duodenum, and the cure rate is high. In patients with liver metastases, surgery should be considered if all identifiable tumor can be safely removed. A multidisciplinary approach including surgical and nonsurgical therapies should be taken in patients with advanced disease.
View details for PubMedID 24298844