Propensity-Matched Comparison of Morbidity and Costs of Open and Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomies: A Contemporary Population-Based Analysis in the United States. European urology Leow, J. J., Reese, S. W., Jiang, W., Lipsitz, S. R., Bellmunt, J., Trinh, Q. D., Chung, B. I., Kibel, A. S., Chang, S. L. 2014


Radical cystectomy (RC) is a morbid procedure associated with high costs. Limited population-based data exist on the complication profile and costs of robot-assisted RC (RARC) compared with open RC (ORC).To evaluate morbidity and cost differences between ORC and RARC.We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent RC at 279 hospitals across the United States between 2004 and 2010.Multivariable logistic and median regression was performed to evaluate 90-d mortality, postoperative complications (Clavien classification), readmission rates, length of stay (LOS), and direct costs. To reduce selection bias, we used propensity weighting with survey weighting to obtain nationally representative estimates.The final weighted cohort included 34 672 ORC and 2101 RARC patients. RARC use increased from 0.6% in 2004 to 12.8% in 2010. Major complication rates (Clavien grade =3; 17.0% vs 19.8%, p=0.2) were similar between ORC and RARC (odds ratio [OR]: 1.32; p=0.42). RARC had 46% decreased odds of minor complications (Clavien grade 1-2; OR: 0.54; p=0.03). RARC had $4326 higher adjusted 90-d median direct costs (p=0.004). Although RARC had a significantly shorter LOS (11.8 d vs 10.2 d; p=0.008), no significant differences in room and board costs existed (p=0.20). Supply costs for RARC were significantly higher ($6041 vs $3638; p<0.0001). Morbidity and cost differences were not present among the highest-volume surgeons (=7 cases per year) and hospitals (=19 cases per year). Limitations include use of an administrative database and lack of oncologic characteristics.The use of RARC has increased between 2004 and 2010. Compared with ORC, RARC was associated with decreased odds of minor but not major complications and with increased expenditures attributed primarily to higher supply costs. Centralization of ORC and RARC to high-volume providers may minimize these morbidity and cost differences.Using a US population-based cohort, we found that robotic surgery for bladder cancer decreased minor complications, had no impact on major complications and was more costly than open surgery.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.01.029

View details for PubMedID 24491306