Stroke causes both brain inflammation and immunodepression. Mild-to-moderate hypothermia is known to attenuate brain inflammation, but its role in stroke-induced immunodepression (SIID) of the peripheral immune system remains unknown. This study investigated the effects in rats of moderate intra-ischemic hypothermia on SIID and brain inflammation.Stroke was induced in rats by permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion combined with transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, while body temperature was reduced to 30°C. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, in vitro T-cell proliferation assays, in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and confocal microscopy were used to study SIID and brain inflammation.Brief intra-ischemic hypothermia helped maintain certain leukocytes in the peripheral blood and spleen and enhanced T-cell proliferation in vitro and delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo, suggesting that hypothermia reduces SIID. In contrast, in the brain, brief intra-Ischemic hypothermia inhibited mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and proinflammatory mediators INF-?, TNF-a, IL-2, IL-1ß and MIP-2. Brief intra-Ischemic hypothermia also attenuated the infiltration of lymphocytes, neutrophils (MPO(+) cells) and macrophages (CD68(+) cells) into the ischemic brain, suggesting that hypothermia inhibited brain inflammation.Brief intra-ischemic hypothermia attenuated SIID and protected against acute brain inflammation.
View details for DOI 10.1111/cns.12160
View details for Web of Science ID 000328572400009
View details for PubMedID 23981596
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3867545