Epigenetic therapeutics such as the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, and the DNA methyltransferase I inhibitor, azacitidine, enhance gemtuzumab ozogamicin efficacy in vitro. We therefore investigated vorinostat/azacitidine/gemtuzumab ozogamicin in 52 adults aged 50 years or over with acute myeloid leukemia requiring therapy for first relapse (remission duration = 12 months) or primary refractory disease in a phase I/II trial. Vorinostat and gemtuzumab ozogamicin were escalated step-wise during the phase I portion of the trial. Vorinostat (400 mg/day orally from Days 1-9), azacitidine (75 mg/m(2)/day intravenously or subcutaneously from Days 1-7), and gemtuzumab ozogamicin (3 mg/m(2)/day intravenously on Days 4 and 8) were identified as the maximum tolerated dose. Among the 43 patients treated at this dose, 10 achieved a complete remission and 8 achieved a complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery, for an overall response rate of 41.9% (exact 95% confidence interval (CI): 27.0-57.9%). Four of these 18 patients (2 with complete remission and 2 with complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery) had persistence of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry at the time of best response. Four patients died within 28 days of treatment initiation. Median overall survival for the 18 patients achieving complete remission/complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery was significantly longer than for those 21 patients who failed therapy but lived at least 29 days after treatment initiation (224.5 days (range 70-798) vs. 95 days (range 36-900); P=0.0023). These data indicate that vorinostat/azacitidine/gemtuzumab ozogamicin has activity in this difficult-to-treat acute myeloid leukemia patient subset. (ClinicalTrials.gov: identifier 00895934).
View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2013.096545
View details for Web of Science ID 000335890500014
View details for PubMedID 24142996
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4007917