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Deep brain stimulation for seizures has been applied to cerebellum, caudate, locus coeruleus, subthalamic nucleus, mammillary bodies, centromedian thalamus, anterior nucleus of thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala, hippocampal commissure, corpus callosum, neocortex, and occasionally to other sites. Animal and clinical studies have primarily investigated seizure prevention and, to a lessersmaller extent, seizure interruption. No studies have yet shown stimulation able to cure epilepsy. A wide variety of stimulation parameters have been employed in multiple different combinations of frequencies, amplitudes, and durations. Literature review identifies at least 52 clinical studies of brain stimulation for epilepsy in 817 patients. Two studies were large, randomized, and controlled, one in the anterior nucleus of thalamus and another at the cortical or hippocampal seizure focus; both of these studies showed efficacy and tolerability of stimulation. Many questions remain. We do not know the mechanisms, the best stimulation parameters, the best patient population, or how to predict benefit in advance. We do not know why benefit of neurostimulation for epilepsy seems to increase over time or whether there are long-term deleterious effects. All of these questions may be answerable with a combination of laboratory research and clinical experience.
View details for DOI 10.1016/B978-0-444-53497-2.00017-6
View details for PubMedID 24112896