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Non-myeloablative transplantation. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program Maloney, D. G., Sandmaier, B. M., Mackinnon, S., Shizuru, J. A. 2002: 392-421

Abstract

The concept of utilizing enhanced immunosuppression rather than myeloablative cytotoxic conditioning has allowed the engraftment of allogeneic stem cells from related and unrelated donors with lower early transplant-related mortality (TRM) and morbidity. This approach shifts tumor eradication to the graft-vs-host immune response directed against minor histocompatibility antigens expressed on tumor cells. This is not without risk, as the long-term effects of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), it's treatment, or resulting complications and immunodeficiency may be life threatening. However, this approach does allow the application of a potentially curative procedure to elderly or medically infirm patients who would not tolerate high-dose conditioning regimens. Section I, by Dr. Sandmaier, describes the current use of nonmyeloablative regimens and matched related or unrelated donors for the treatment of patients with CLL, CML, acute leukemia, MDS, lymphoma, and myeloma. In Section II, Dr. Maloney discusses the use of cytoreductive autologous followed by planned non-myeloablative allografts as treatment for patients with myeloma or NHL. This tandem transplant approach has a lower TRM than conventional high dose allografting. The nonmyeloablative allograft may allow the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) immune response to eradicate the minimal residual disease that causes nearly all patients with low-grade NHL or myeloma to relapse following autologous transplantation. In Section III, Dr. Mackinnon discusses the risks and benefits of T cell depletion strategies to prevent acute GVHD, while retaining GVT activity by planned donor lymphocyte infusions. Finally, in Section IV, Dr. Shizuru discusses the relationship between GVHD and GVT activity. Future studies, employing a greater understanding of these issues and the separation of GVHD from GVT activity by immunization or T cell cloning, may allow nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation to be safer and more effective.

View details for PubMedID 12446434