National Trends in the Ambulatory Treatment of Hypertension in the United States, 1997-2012 PLOS ONE Zhou, M., Daubresse, M., Stafford, R. S., Alexander, G. C. 2015; 10 (3)


Hypertension is common and costly. Over the past decade, new antihypertensive therapies have been developed, several have lost patent protection and additional evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these agents has accrued.To examine trends in the use of antihypertensive therapies in the United States between 1997 and 2012.We used nationally representative audit data from the IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index to examine the ambulatory pharmacologic treatment of hypertension.Our primary unit of analysis was a visit where hypertension was a reported diagnosis and treated with a pharmacotherapy (treatment visit). We restricted analyses to the use of six therapeutic classes of antihypertensive medications among individuals 18 years or older.Annual hypertension treatment visits increased from 56.9 million treatment visits (95% confidence intervals [CI], 53.9-59.8) in 1997 to 83.3 million visits (CI 79.2-87.3) in 2008, then declined steadily to 70.9 million visits (CI 66.7-75.0) by 2012. Angiotensin receptor blocker utilization increased substantially from 3% of treatment visits in 1997 to 18% by 2012, whereas calcium channel blocker use decreased from 27% to 18% of visits. Rates of diuretic and beta-blocker use remained stable and represented 24%-30% and 14-16% of visits, respectively. Use of direct renin inhibitor accounted for fewer than 2% of annual visits. The proportion of visits treated using fixed-dose combination therapies increased from 28% to 37% of visits.Several important changes have occurred in the landscape of antihypertensive treatment in the United States during the past decade. Despite their novel mechanism of action, the adoption rate of direct renin inhibitors remains low.

View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0119292

View details for Web of Science ID 000350685900101

View details for PubMedID 25738503

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4349596