Phase I study of tirapazamine plus cisplatin/etoposide and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (S0004): A Southwest Oncology Group Study CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Le, Q. T., McCoy, J., Williamson, S., Ryu, J., Gaspar, L. E., EDELMAN, M. J., Dakhil, S. R., Sides, S. A., Crowley, J. J., Gandara, D. R. 2004; 10 (16): 5418-5424


To determine the feasibility and a recommended phase II dose of tirapazamine when combined with chemoradiotherapy in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC).Concurrent chemoradiotherapy consisted of two cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and once-daily radiation to 61 Gy. Tirapazamine (260 mg/m2) was given 1 h before cisplatin with planned dose escalation to 330 mg/m2 in the absence of dose-limiting toxicity, defined as > or =33% esophagitis (grade 3 or above). Consolidation therapy consisted of two cycles of tirapazamine (330 mg/m2), cisplatin, and etoposide. Complete responders received prophylactic cranial irradiation.Thirty patients were enrolled at the 260 mg/m2 tirapazamine dose. All had performance status of 0-1. By comparison with S9713, a predecessor Southwest Oncology Group study in LSCLC that used the same concurrent chemoradiotherapy without tirapazamine, the present trial showed a higher rate of grade 3-4 esophagitis (34% versus 22%), vomiting (34% versus 23%), and febrile neutropenia (7% versus 2%). The consolidation phase was relatively well tolerated, with grade 4 neutropenia in 44% and febrile neutropenia in 5% of patients. There were two treatment-related deaths: one from neutropenic fever and one from respiratory infection. The overall response rate was 80%, and the median survival was 22 months.Protocol-defined dose-limiting toxicity was observed at the initial tirapazamine dose, precluding dose escalation. Compared with S9713, the addition of tirapazamine increased the incidence of vomiting, neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia, although the overall toxicity profile remained acceptable. In view of the observed favorable survival, further study of tirapazamine in LSCLC is warranted.

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