Published mutations in deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) cause mitochondrial DNA depletion and a clinical phenotype that consists of neonatal liver failure, nystagmus and hypotonia. In this series, we have identified 15 different mutations in the DGUOK gene from 9 kindreds. Among them, 12 have not previously been reported. Nonsense, splice site, or frame-shift mutations that produce truncated proteins predominate over missense mutations. All patients who harbor null mutations had early onset liver failure and significant neurological disease. These patients have all died before 2-years of age. Conversely, two patients carrying missense mutations had isolated liver disease and are alive in their 4th year of life without liver transplant. Five subjects were detected by newborn screening, with elevated tyrosine or phenylalanine. Consequently, this disease should be considered if elevated tyrosine is identified by newborn screening. Mitochondrial DNA content was below 10% of controls in liver in all but one case and modestly reduced in blood cells. With this paper a total of 39 different mutations in DGUOK have been identified. The most frequent mutation, c.763_c.766dupGATT, occurs in 8 unrelated kindreds. 70% of mutations occur in only one kindred, suggesting full sequencing of this gene is required for diagnosis. The presentation of one case with apparent viral hepatitis, without neurological disease, suggests that this disease should be considered in patients with infantile liver failure regardless of the presence of neurological features or apparent infectious etiology.
View details for DOI 10.1002/humu.9519
View details for Web of Science ID 000253033000018
View details for PubMedID 18205204