Although ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are reported most commonly in baseball players (especially in pitchers), these also have been observed in other throwing sports including water polo, javelin throw, tennis, and volleyball. This article reviews the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL with associated pathophysiology of UCL injuries of the elbow of the athlete participating in overhead throwing. Evaluation, including pertinent principles in history, physical examination, and imaging modalities, is discussed, along with the management options.
View details for DOI 10.1249/JSR.0b013e31822d4000
View details for Web of Science ID 000294685000005
View details for PubMedID 23531973