Elevated alpha-fetoprotein: differential diagnosis - hepatocellular carcinoma and other disorders. Clinics in liver disease Wong, R. J., Ahmed, A., Gish, R. G. 2015; 19 (2): 309-323


The incidence of cirrhosis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising. Curative surgical options are available; outcomes are acceptable with early diagnosis. Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) are HCC risk markers. A high or increasing serum biomarker level can be predictive of the eventual development of HCC, large tumor size, advanced stage, extrahepatic metastases, portal vein thrombosis, and postoperative HCC recurrence. Based on FDA guidelines for HCC risk assessment, clinicians can consider using either the combination of AFP-L3 with DCP, or the combination of AFP-L3 with AFP and DCP.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cld.2015.01.005

View details for PubMedID 25921665