Impact of bleeding severity on clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndromes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Rao, S. V., O'Grady, K., Pieper, K. S., Granger, C. B., Newby, L. K., Van de Werf, F., Mahaffey, K. W., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A. 2005; 96 (9): 1200-1206


Bleeding is a complication of current therapies for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). No studies have examined the effect of bleeding events on clinical outcomes. We analyzed pooled data from 4 multicenter, randomized clinical trials of patients who had ACS (n = 26,452) to determine an association between bleeding severity as measured by the GUSTO scale and 30-day and 6-month mortality rates using Cox proportional hazards modeling that incorporated bleeding as a time-dependent covariate. The analysis was repeated to examine procedure- and non-procedure-related bleeding and after censoring at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting. Of all the patients included, 27.6% had > or =1 bleeding episode. Patients who bled were older and sicker at presentation than were those who did not bleed. Unadjusted rates of 30-day and 6-month mortality increased as bleeding severity increased. There were stepwise increases in the adjusted hazards of 30-day mortality (mild bleeding, hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 1.9; moderate bleeding, HR 2.7, 95% CI l 2.3 to 3.4; severe bleeding, HR 10.6, 95% CI 8.3 to 13.6) and 6-month mortality (mild bleeding, HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6; moderate bleeding, HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.8 to 2.4; severe bleeding, HR 7.5, 95% CI 6.1 to 9.3) as bleeding severity increased. Results were consistent after censoring for coronary artery bypass grafting and for procedure- and non-procedure-related bleeds. In conclusion, the GUSTO bleeding classification identifies patients who are at risk for short- and long-term adverse events. Therapies that minimize bleeding risk and maintain an anticoagulant effect may improve outcomes among patients who have ACS.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.06.056

View details for Web of Science ID 000233343500005

View details for PubMedID 16253582