Novel surgical approaches are focusing on the "ventricular disease" of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR), to correct altered papillary muscle (PM) tip positions (apical displacement) and ameliorate leaflet tethering. Due to the anatomic complexity of the subvalvular apparatus, however, the precise geometric perturbations of the multiheaded PM tips associated with IMR remain uncharacterized.In 6 adult sheep, we implanted 3 markers on each PM. To specifically identify distinct PM tips, 1 marker was placed on the PM origin of the dominant chord to the anterior, posterior, and commissural leaflets. Nine markers were placed on the edge of the posterior mitral leaflet, and 5 on the edge of the anterior mitral leaflet. Eight markers were sewn around the mitral annulus. Animals were studied immediately postoperatively, with biplane videofluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography, before and during acute snare occlusion of the proximal left circumflex coronary artery, to induce IMR. Papillary muscle tip and leaflet edge geometry was expressed as the orthogonal distance of each respective marker to the least-squares mitral annulus plane at end-systole. In addition, the distance from each PM tip marker to the mitral annulus "saddle horn" was calculated.Acute left circumflex occlusion significantly increased mitral regurgitation from a baseline of 0.7 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.5 (P < .05). The IMR was associated with posterior leaflet restriction near the central leaflet edge, with simultaneous prolapse of both leaflets near the posterior commissure. No apical displacement of PM tips was observed during IMR, although the posterior PM moved farther away from the midseptal annulus.During acute ischemia, no apical displacement of any PM tip was observed. Posterior PM movement away from the annular saddle horn, and toward the annulus, was associated with IMR and leaflet prolapse near the posterior commissure, and with restriction near the valve center. These data may help guide development of surgical interventions aimed at PM repositioning.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.04.037
View details for Web of Science ID 000357129900063
View details for PubMedID 25998465
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4490012